Eye & contact lens (Eye Contact Lens)

Publisher: Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

Dedicated to the medical and surgical management of refractive disorders, Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice is published for ophthalmologists, optometrists, and other eye care specialists. Each quarterly issue provides original peer-reviewed articles and online dialogue on leading developments and practical clinical applications of contact lenses, refractive surgery, cornea, ocular surface disease, glaucoma, and related anterior segment subjects.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.466
2013 Impact Factor 1.679
2012 Impact Factor 1.461
2011 Impact Factor 1.252
2010 Impact Factor 1.022

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.50
Cited half-life 6.00
Immediacy index 0.16
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.38
Website Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice website
Other titles Eye & contact lens (Online), Eye & contact lens, Eye and contact lens, Journal of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists
ISSN 1542-233X
OCLC 50854203
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification
    yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the relation between ocular surface irregularity and visual disturbance in early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Methods: Fifteen patients with culture-proven AK underwent routine ophthalmic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, slitlamp biomicroscope examination, and corneal fluorescein dye staining test, in both the eyes. We also evaluated the corneal sensitivity with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, tear functions by Schirmer's test, and ocular surface irregularity by corneal topography and compared the results with the contralateral healthy eyes in this study. Results: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA (0.71±0.77) was significantly lower in the eyes with AK (P=0.002). Epithelial disorders were present in all eyes, and radial keratoneuritis in 14 eyes (93.3%). The mean corneal sensitivity (39.3±24.1 mm) was significantly lower in eyes with AK compared with the healthy eyes (P=0.005). The mean Schirmer's test value (22.5±12.0 mm) in eyes with AK was significantly higher compared with the healthy eyes (P=0.01). The ocular surface irregularity indices (the surface regularity index, 2.47±0.42; the surface asymmetry index, 3.24±1.31) were significantly higher in eyes with AK compared with contralateral healthy eyes (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The ocular surface disease in AK is associated with decrease in corneal sensitivity and increase in Schirmer's test value and ocular surface irregularity indices. The visual disturbance in AK may owe not only to corneal haze but also to ocular surface irregularity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare graft outcomes following pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft fixation using patient's in situ autologous blood or standard fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft adhesion. Methods: Outcomes of 23 consecutive eyes which underwent pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft with autologous in situ blood coagulum (group I) were compared with historical case controls (20 eyes) that had undergone fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft (group II). Primary outcome measure was graft stability. Secondary outcome measure was severity of graft inflammation at day 1, day 7, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: The two groups were similar regarding age, gender, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, tear function tests, and pterygium size. Mean surgical time was similar for the two groups (14.2±2.74 min, group I; 12.25±1.88 min, group II; P=0.1); with the mean difference in operative time being 1.95 min (95% CI, 0.48-3.42 min). Postoperatively, there was a statistically significant reduction in astigmatism and improvement in UCVA, BCVA, and spherical equivalent in all eyes. No difference was found in mean epithelial defect healing time, UCVA, BCVA, astigmatism, tear film break-up time, and Schirmer I and II at 6 months between the two groups. Initial graft stability was better for group II at 1 month (P=0.001) but was similar for both groups at 6 months. Median score of graft inflammation was significantly more for group II during the first week (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Conclusion: Autologous blood may be used as an effective alternative with lesser postoperative inflammation in comparison to glue-assisted autograft fixation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of vision has been emphasized in ophthalmologic clinical practice in recent years. The optical or visual performance of the human eye is not static and fluctuates over time. Considering the major origins of temporal fluctuations in optical or visual performance, quantitative assessment of the dynamic changes in the optical quality of the entire eye is important. This review provides an overview of the clinical application of the objective methods for assessing dynamic changes in optical quality, particularly those associated with accommodation, the precorneal tear film, the prelens tear film, and contact lens movement and fitting.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the use of volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assist evaluation of a patient referred for autologous limbal stem-cell transplant. Methods: This is a case report of a 50-year-old patient presenting with unilateral limbal stem-cell deficiency who was referred for autologous limbal stem-cell transplant. The presence of Salzmann nodules in the donor eye raised questions about the efficacy of transplantation, prompting examination of both eyes using volumetric OCT imaging to determine whether there were palisades of Vogt (POV) present. Image volumes were acquired in all clock hours and were compared against those of an age-matched normal subject. Results: Palisades were found in both eyes, although in both eyes there were fewer palisade ridges, and those that were present were not as distinct as those of the normal subject. The OCT volumes also showed that stromal scarring was present only in the anterior stroma of the intended transplant eye. These findings suggested that the patient may be able to sustain a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty without an autologous transplant, which would spare any insult to the opposing eye and require less surgery to restore vision in the affected eye. Nine months postsurgical follow-up revealed significant improvement in visual acuity and no scar tissue development. Conclusion: The OCT evaluation of the POV provides detailed information to the clinician that may assist in diagnosis and evaluation of patients before transplantation. Further development of this technique is necessary to make it clinically available.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new artificial tear containing 0.2% hyaluronic acid, as compared with 0.9% saline solution, in mild dry eye patients after 1-month use in a crossover study design with washout periods. Methods: Overall, 16 mild dry eye patients were included. After a week of washout, every patient used the experimental product (Visaid 0.2%) and the control product (0.9% saline solution), each for a month (3-8 drops daily). Both products were preservative free. The percentage change for the following variables were calculated and analyzed: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ophthalmoscopy evaluation, biomicroscopy findings, fluorescein corneal staining and lissamine green conjunctival staining, tear breakup time, contrast sensitivity, Schirmer's test, and subject satisfaction. Results: Patients reported an improvement (a significant decrease of -19.5%±27.5%) in OSDI scores after using Visaid 0.2% and a worsening (a significant increase of 19.2%±32.4%) after using 0.9% saline solution; the difference was significant (P=0.0087, Student's t test). Significant changes (P≤0.04, Wilcoxon's test) were found comparing Visaid 0.2% with saline solution for bulbar hyperemia (-39.1%±50.8% vs. 7.8%±12.0%, respectively), corneal staining (-26.0%±53.0% vs. 36.5%±73.3%), conjunctival staining (-54.7%±53.4% vs. -7.8%±47.2%), and subjective satisfaction (26.8%±28.5% vs. -13.3%±22.5%). There were no significant differences in the safety parameters for either solution. Conclusion: This clinical trial demonstrates the safety of Visaid 0.2% and its clear benefit over 0.9% saline solution.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe practitioner experiences regarding ocular complications in patients wearing decorative contact lenses, and to investigate the compliance of unauthorized distributors of decorative contact lenses to current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations. Also, to provide data to support a more targeted public health approach to reducing the incidence of illegal contact lens sales and associated ocular complications. Methods: An institutional review board-approved online survey was distributed through mass email to a list of 98 optometrists in the Boston, MA area. Concurrently, an empirical evaluation of independent, online decorative contact lens sellers who were not associated with FDA-approved contact lens manufacturers was performed to determine their adherence to FDA and FTC guidelines. The first 18 noncoincidental websites that resulted from a Google search for "costume contact lens sellers" and "cosmetic contact lens sellers" were examined as to the brands and parameters of lenses being sold, whether or not a valid prescription was required or verified, and if consumer education was provided. Results: Twenty-two optometrists completed the online survey. Seventy-seven percent of respondents reported having patients with complications from decorative contact lenses that were purchased both legally and illegally. The most common age group for complications was 18 to 25 years (61%). One third of complications were seen in first-time lens wearers, half of whom never received proper care instructions or were unaware that care instructions existed. One quarter of the lenses were purchased illegally with unlicensed stores being the most common place of purchase. Of the 18 online sites examined, 72% of sellers failed to adhere to FTC and FDA regulations. Conclusions: A significant number of individuals who obtain contact lenses illegally from unauthorized sources are young adults. Most unauthorized sellers reviewed did not adhere to the proper protocol for selling contact lenses or instruct their customers on proper lens wear and care. A significant percentage of optometrists responding to the survey reported complications associated with contact lenses purchased through unauthorized sources, suggesting that the risk of contact lens-related complications increases when the lenses are purchased from one of these sources.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to determine the frequency of Demodex infestation of eyelashes in patients with and without blepharitis and to determine the effects of Demodex infestation on blepharitis and the ocular symptoms. Methods: The study included patients with chronic mixed (anterior + posterior) blepharitis who presented to our clinic. Patients with refractive error and no ocular disease were enrolled as the control group. From each participant, a total of 4 eyelashes were removed and were then examined under a light microscope for Demodex infestation. Symptoms, fluorescein tear breakup time, and ocular surface staining pattern were recorded. Results: The prevalence of Demodex infection in the blepharitis group was 67.2%, versus 54.9% in the control group (P=0.18). The incidence of itching in the blepharitis group was significantly higher in the Demodex (+) patients than in the Demodex (-) patients (P<0.001). Fluorescein tear breakup time in the Demodex (+) patients was significantly shorter than in the Demodex (-) patients (P<0.001). There was not a significant difference in the fluorescein staining pattern between the 2 groups (P=0.57). The incidence of advanced stage blepharitis was significantly higher among the Demodex (+) patients (P=0.007). The incidence of cylindrical eyelash dandruff in the blepharitis group was significantly higher in the Demodex (+) patients (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in meibomian gland dysfunction between the 2 groups (P=0.039). Conclusion: Demodex infestation must be investigated in patients with advanced stage blepharitis, itching, and shorter than normal fluorescein tear breakup time.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare morphologic differences between freehand diamond or femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions. Methods: Freehand diamond blade, corneal arcuate incisions (180° apart, 60° arc lengths) and 150 kHz femtosecond laser (80% scheimpflug pachymetry depth corneal thickness) arcuate incisions were performed in rabbits. Intrastromal arcuate incisions (100 μm above Descemet's membrane, 100 μm below epithelium) were performed in rabbit corneas (energy 1.2 μJ, spot line separation 3 × 3 μm, 90° side cut angle). Eyes were examined by slit lamp and light microscopy up to 47 days post-procedure. Freehand diamond blade penetrating incisions, and femtosecond laser penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions (energy 1.8 μJ, spot line separation 2 × 2 μm) were performed in cadaver eyes. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after surgery and the corneas were fixed for light scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The rabbit model showed anterior stromal inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia in penetrating blade and laser penetrating wounds. The laser intrastromal and penetrating incisions showed localized constriction of the stromal layers of the cornea near the wound. In cadaver eyes, penetrating wound morphology was similar between blade and laser whereas intrastromal wounds did not affect the cornea above or below incisions. Conclusion: Penetrating femtosecond laser arcuate incisions have more predictable and controlled outcomes shown by less post-operative scarring than incisions performed with a diamond blade. Intrastromal incisions do not affect uncut corneal layers as demonstrated by histopathology. The femtosecond laser has significant advantages in its ability to make intrastromal incisions which are not achievable by traditional freehand or mechanical diamond blades.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The diameters of soft contact lenses are conventionally measured at room temperature (RT), however, all soft lenses shrink when raised to eye temperature (ET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate RT to ET shrinkage in a representative sample of contemporary spherical soft contact lenses. Methods: Twenty-four reusable and daily disposable lens types (10 hydrogel and 14 silicone hydrogel) in three powers were measured for total diameter at RT (20°C±1°C) and ET (34°C±1°C). Lens diameter measurements were undertaken after equilibration in ISO saline in a temperature controlled lens analyzer (Optimec Ltd, Malvern, UK). Theoretical changes in base curve radii were also calculated. Results: All lens types reduced in diameter when raised to ET. The largest mean changes with silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses were with Avaria (Δ0.33 mm) and SofLens Daily Disposable (Δ0.69 mm), respectively. The smallest mean changes for silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses were with 1-DAY ACUVUE TruEye (Δ0.04 mm) and SofLens 38 (Δ0.11 mm), respectively. There was, however, a wide range in change between the different lenses tested. Conclusions: This study has identified the levels of shrinkage in current soft contact lenses. In many cases, these shrinkage levels can be expected to have significant effects on clinical performance.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has been shown to provide effective myopia control with far fewer side effects than 1.0% atropine. Finally, two agents, low-concentration atropine and outdoor time have been shown to reduce the likelihood of myopia onset. Over the past few years, much has been learned about how to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children, but we still have a lot to learn.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with ocular rosacea. Methods: In a single center, 25 eyes of 25 patients with ocular rosacea (group 1), 25 eyes of 25 patients with rosacea without ocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. Results: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). Schirmer I test and TBUT in group 1 were significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). There were no significant differences in OSDI, Schirmer I test, TBUT, Oxford scores, or tear osmolarity between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.629, P=0.175, P=0.713, P=865, and P=0.388, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that ocular rosacea is associated with tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Corneal infections, particularly fungal keratitis due to rare fungal species, pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because of difficulty in identification and varying susceptibility profiles. In this study, we report the first case of fungal keratitis because of Exophiala phaeomuriformis. Methods: We report the clinical findings and microbial identification techniques of a case of fungal keratitis due to E. phaeomuriformis. An 84-year-old woman presented with redness, pain, and itching in the left eye for 2 weeks. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed one broken suture from previous penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), black infiltrates at the 4-o'clock position, without an overlying epithelial defect and hypopyon. Microbial identification was based cultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar and DNA sequencing and correlations to laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM; Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg Engineering) and multiphoton microscopy (Ultima Microscope; Prairie Technologies) images. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed one broken suture from previous PKP, black infiltrates at the 4-o'clock position, without an overlying epithelial defect and hypopyon. Based on a clinical suspicion of fungal keratitis, antifungals and fortified antibiotics were started. However, the patient did not respond to therapy and required urgent PKP. After surgery, the patient was maintained on topical and systemic voriconazole and also topical 2% cyclosporine for 5 months because of possibility of scleral involvement noticed during surgery. At the end of the treatment period, her vision improved from hand motion to 20/40, with no recurrence observed in a follow-up period of 1 year. Results of diagnostic tests were supported by fungal elements in stroma on IVCM. Culture from the infiltrate grew black yeast. DNA sequencing led to the diagnosis of E. phaeomuriformis keratitis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed sensitivity to voriconazole. Conclusion: This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of E. phaeomuriformis fungal keratitis. Diagnostic testing included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, which revealed pigmented infiltrates, culture plates grew black yeast, microscopy showed branched fungal hyphae with budding conidia, and physiological features showed tolerance to high temperatures, nitrate assimilation, and ribosomal DNA sequencing. Collectively, these tests demonstrate unique features seen for this microorganism. High suspicion should be kept with pigmented infiltrates and with dark yeast on culture plates. Prompt and aggressive medical management with voriconazole or therapeutic PKP in nonresponsive cases is essential to prevent irreversible loss of vision.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This article aims to review recent advances in the understanding of epidemiology and risk factors for the development of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and highlight the diagnostic features of myopic CNV and signs seen on the noninvasive optical coherence tomography technology, which may be particularly useful for the purpose of screening. Choroidal neovascularization is a sight-threatening complication of pathologic myopia. Because myopic CNV frequently affects individuals during their working life, its socioeconomic impact is significant, especially in Asian countries where the prevalence of pathologic myopia is high. Epidemiology: Pathological myopia is the most common cause of CNV in patients less than 50 years old, and it is estimated that 5.2% to 11.3% of individuals with pathologic myopia develop myopic CNV. Risk factors: The risk of developing myopic CNV increases with the severity of myopia and macular changes, such as diffuse atrophy, lacquer cracks, and patchy atrophy, which progress to myopic CNV in a significant proportion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may contribute to the development of myopic CNV. Natural course and prognosis: Untreated myopic CNV carries a poor visual prognosis, with an estimated 89% of the patients having marked visual impairment within 5 years of onset. Treatment: Anti-VEGF therapy is efficacious in treating myopic CNV. Although this significantly improves the short-term prognosis of myopic CNV, the long-term visual loss due to the sequela of myopic CNV including macular atrophy and scarring remains.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. Methods: We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. Results: A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. Conclusions: PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual function and SRGHS, and achieved a similar high level of improvement in visual function as those treated at the main center. Patient-reported measures of functional status are useful in evaluating treatment options for patients with cGVHD. PROSE treatment has significant positive impact on the visual function of patients with ocular cGVHD regardless of whether the patient is treated at the main center or at a network site.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye & contact lens
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Eye & contact lens