Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med)

Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

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Other titles Annual proceedings - Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
ISSN 1540-0360
OCLC 49801362
Material type Conference publication
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Case-based hospital billing data from the Health Care Utilization Partnership was used to calculate annual statewide hospital charges for the acute care of traffic injuries in Nebraska. E-codes 810.0 through 819.9 identified traffic injury cases. Admissions and emergency department (ED)-only visits for traffic injuries accrued significantly higher charges than other types of care. Statewide, hospital charges for the acute care of traffic injury totaled more than U.S.dollars 63.8 million in 2004. Of this, 23.2% was charged to public payers (Medicare or Medicaid) and 5.5% was charged to self-pay (generally accepted as bad debt absorbed by the hospital system).
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Since nearly half of children fatally injured in automobile crashes were restrained, optimizing occupant protection systems for children is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality. Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study were used to compare the differential injury risk between drivers and their child passengers in the same crash, with a focus on vehicle model year. A matched cohort design and conditional logistic regression model were used in the analyses. Overall, injury risk for drivers was higher than for children, but the risk difference was largest for the oldest model year vehicles, particularly for children aged 4-8 in seat belts. While drivers experienced significant benefits in safety with increasing model years, children restrained by safety belts alone derived less safety benefit from newer vehicles.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the potential safety benefits of the experimental French LA VIA Intelligent Speed Adaptation system, according to road network and system mode, based on observed driving speeds, distributions of crash severity and crash injury risk. Results are given for car frontal and side impacts that together, represent 80% of all serious and fatal injuries in France. Of the three system modes tested (advisory, driver select, mandatory), our results suggest that driver select would most significantly reduce serious injuries and death. We estimate this 100% utilization of cars equipped with this type of speed adaptation system would decrease injury rates by 6% to 16% over existing conditions depending on the type of crash (frontal or side) and road environment considered. Some limitations associated with the analysis are also identified.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: A weighted logistic regression with careful selection of crash, vehicle, occupant and injury data and sequentially adjusting the covariants, was used to investigate the predictors of the odds of head/face and neck (HFN) injuries during rollovers. The results show that unbelted occupants have statistically significant higher HFN injury risks than belted occupants. Age, number of quarter-turns, rollover initiation type, maximum lateral deformation adjacent to the occupant, A-pillar and B-pillar deformation are significant predictors of HFN injury odds for belted occupants. Age, rollover leading side and windshield header deformation are significant predictors of HFN injury odds for unbelted occupants. The results also show that the significant predictors are different between head/face (HF) and neck injury odds, indicating the injury mechanisms of HF and neck injuries are different.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Side impact pole/tree crashes can have devastating consequences. A series of 53 CIREN cases of narrow-object side impacts were analyzed. Twenty-seven of 53 had serious chest injury and 27 had serious head injury. Unilateral chest trauma led to the examination of residual crush pattern that often demonstrated oblique door intrusion into the occupant thorax space. It was hypothesized that unilateral chest trauma was caused by antero-lateral chest loading. This hypothesis was evaluated by conducting two (PMHS and ES2) vehicle side impact tests into a rigid pole. The PMHS test produced an oblique chest deformation pattern with injuries very similar to the real world trauma: unilateral rib fractures, spleen laceration, pelvic fracture, and a basilar skull fracture. Narrow-object side impacts are severe crash environments that can induce oblique chest loading and unique head trauma. Because the human may be more vulnerable in this type of crash scenario, dummy response and measurements, as well as a re-examination of side injury criteria may be necessary to design appropriate injury-mitigating safety devices.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the rating obtained in the EuroNCAP test procedures correlates with injury protection to vehicle occupants in real crashes using data in the UK Cooperative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database from 1996 to 2005. Multivariate Poisson regression models were developed, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score by body region as the dependent variable and the EuroNCAP score for that particular body region, seat belt use, mass ratio and Equivalent Test Speed (ETS) as independent variables. Our models identified statistically significant relationships between injury severity and safety belt use, mass ratio and ETS. We could not identify any statistically significant relationships between the EuroNCAP body region scores and real injury outcome except for the protection to pelvis-femur-knee in frontal impacts where scoring "green" is significantly better than scoring "yellow" or "red".
    No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Transdermal ethanol detection is a promising method that could prevent drunk driving if integrated into an ignition interlock system. However, experimental data from previous research has shown significant time delays between alcohol ingestion and detection at the skin which makes real time estimation of blood alcohol concentration via skin measurement difficult. Using a validated model we studied the effects that body weight, metabolic rate and ethanol dose had on the time lag between the blood alcohol concentration and transdermal alcohol concentration. The dose of alcohol ingested was found to have the most significant effect on the skin alcohol lag time; a dose of 15 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak lag time of approximately 33 minutes, while a dose of 60 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak time lag of 53 minutes. The time lag was found to be insensitive to body mass and only moderately sensitive to changes in metabolic rates.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluations of crash protection safety features require measures for quantifying impact severity. Velocity change (delta-V) is the major descriptor of collision severity used in most real-world crash databases. One of the limitations of delta-V is that it does not account for the time over which the crash pulse occurs (delta-t). Late model GM vehicles equipped with event data recorders capture the cumulative delta-V in 10 ms intervals over the crash pulse. Deceleration can be readily calculated from these data and provides a complementary measure of severity that has not previously been available for real world crashes. The relationship between maximum delta-V and deceleration was examined for different vehicle platforms involved in real world frontal impacts and frontal crash tests. Maximum deceleration was observed to be closely correlated to the maximum delta-V.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine