Cell Cycle is not just about cell division. We cover topics from man to virus, from DNA to RNA, from ageing to development, from cell senescence to stem cells, from adhesion to autophagy, from cancer to immunity, from neurobiology to molecular therapeutics, from theoretical biology to therapy.
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Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been reported to exert its anti-cancer activities in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of ATO-triggered anti-tumor activity has not been fully elucidated. Recently, multiple studies demonstrated that ATO could regulate miRNAs in human cancers. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether ATO regulated let-7a in breast cancer cells. We found that ATO upregulated let-7a level in breast cancer cells. We also found that up-regulation of let-7a inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and retarded cell migration and invasion. We also observed that up-regulation of let-7a enhanced cell growth inhibition and invasion suppression induced by ATO treatment. Our findings suggest that ATO suppressed cell growth, stimulated apoptosis, and retarded cell invasion partly via upregulation of let-7a in breast cancer cells. Our study provides a new anti-tumor mechanism of ATO treatment in breast cancer.
Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20 homologue) has been reported to exhibit an oncogenic role in human tumorigenesis. However, the function of Cdc20 in osteosarcoma (OS) has not been investigated. In the current study, we aim to explore the role of Cdc20 in human OS cells. Multiple approaches were used to measure cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion in OS cells after depletion of Cdc20 or overexpression of Cdc20. We found that down-regulation of Cdc20 inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and triggered cell cycle arrest in OS cells. Moreover, Cdc20 down-regulation let to inhibition of cell migration and invasion in OS cells. Consistently, overexpression of Cdc20 in OS cells promoted cell growth, inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, our Western blotting results showed that overexpression of Cdc20 reduced the expression of Bim and p21, whereas depletion of Cdc20 upregulated Bim and p21 levels in OS cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that Cdc20 exerts its oncogenic role partly due to regulation of Bim and p21 in OS cells, suggesting that targeting Cdc20 could be useful for the treatment of OS.
Replication stress is a major source of DNA damage and an important driver of cancer development. Replication intermediates that occur upon mild forms of replication stress frequently escape cell cycle checkpoints and can be transmitted through mitosis into the next cell cycle. The consequences of such inherited DNA lesions for cell fate and survival are poorly understood. By using time-lapse microscopy and quantitative image-based cytometry to simultaneously monitor inherited DNA lesions marked by the genome caretaker protein 53BP1 and cell cycle progression, we show that inheritance of 53BP1-marked lesions from the previous S-phase is associated with a prolonged G1 duration in the next cell cycle. These results suggest that cell-to-cell variation in S-phase commitment is determined, at least partially, by the amount of replication-born inherited DNA damage in individual cells. We further show that loss of the tumor suppressor protein p53 overrides replication stress-induced G1 prolongation and allows S-phase entry with excessive amounts of inherited DNA lesions. Thus, replication stress and p53 loss may synergize during cancer development by promoting cell cycle re-entry with unrepaired mutagenic DNA lesions originating from the previous cell cycle.
Shugoshin is an evolutionarily conserved protein, which is involved in tension sensing on mitotic chromosomes, kinetochore biorientation, and protection of centromeric (CEN) cohesin for faithful chromosome segregation. Interaction of the C-terminus of Sgo1 with phosphorylated histone H2A regulates its association with CEN and pericentromeric (peri-CEN) chromatin, whereas mutations in histone H3 selectively compromise the association of Sgo1 with peri-CEN but not CEN chromatin. Given that histone H3 is absent from CEN and is replaced by a histone H3 variant CENP-ACse4, we investigated if CENP-ACse4 interacts with Sgo1 and promotes its association with the CEN chromatin. In this study, we found that Sgo1 interacts with CENP-ACse4in vivo and in vitro. The N-terminus coiled-coil domain of Sgo1 without the C-terminus (sgo1-NT) is sufficient for its interaction with CENP-ACse4, association with CEN but not the peri-CEN, and this CEN association is cell cycle dependent with maximum enrichment in mitosis. In agreement with the role of CENP-ACse4 in CEN maintenance of Sgo1, depletion of CENP-ACse4 results in the loss of Sgo1 and sgo1-NT from the CEN chromatin. The N-terminus of Sgo1 is required for genome stability as a mutant lacking the N-terminus (sgo1-CT) exhibits increased chromosome missegregation when compared to a sgo1-NT mutant. In summary, our results define a novel role for the N-terminus of Sgo1 in CENP-ACse4 mediated recruitment of Sgo1 to CEN chromatin for faithful chromosome segregation.
Cyclin D1 and cyclin E1, as vital regulatory factors of G1-S phase cell cycle progression, are frequently constitutive expressed and associated with pathogenesis and tumorigenesis in most human cancers and they have been regarded as promising targets for cancer therapy. In this study, we established NVP-BEZ235, a potent dual kinase inhibitor, could induce neuroblastoma cells proliferation inhibition without apoptosis activation. Moreover, we showed NVP-BEZ235 could induce neuroblastoma cells arrested at G0/G1 phase accompanied with significant reduction of the cyclin D1 and E1 proteins in a dose dependent manner at nanomole concentration. Additionally we found that GSK3β was dephosphorylated and activated by NVP-BEZ235 and then triggered cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 degradation through ubiquitination proteasome pathway, based on the evidences that NVP-BEZ235 induced downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 were obviously recovered by proteasome inhibitor and the blockade of GSK3β contributed to remarkable rescue of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Analogous results about its anti-proliferation effects and molecular mechanism were observed on neuroblastoma xenograft mouse model in vivo. Therefore, these results indicate that NVP-BEZ235-induced cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 degradation, which happened through activating GSK3β, and GSK3β-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 should be available for anticancer therapeutics.
Accumulating evidence has suggested that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in oncogenesis and tumor progression. However, our knowledge of circRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remains limited. To investigate circRNAs involved in GC oncogenesis, we examined differentially-expressed circRNAs and mRNAs in GC tissues and paired noncancerous mucosa tissues using circRNA and mRNA microarrays. Next, we built gene co-expression networks according to the degree of correlation to predict the critical circRNAs in GC. Through bioinformatics analysis, we observed three newly identified circRNAs that are substantially upregulated in GC: hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15. Additionally, hsa_circ_0047905 and hsa_circ_0138960 positively correlated with their parental gene mRNA. Knockdown of hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15 in GC cells, resulted in downregulation of parental gene expression. Functional assays suggested that inhibition of these three circular RNAs suppresses GC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Those findings suggest that hsa_circ_0047905, hsa_circ_0138960 and has-circRNA7690-15 might act as tumor promoters in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a chronic intestinal inflammation and tissue destruction via an aberrant immune-driven inflammatory response towards an altered gut microbiota. Dietary intervention is becoming an attractive avenue for the therapy of colitis because diet is a key determinant of the mucosal immune response. Quercetin (QCN) is the most common in nature and the major representative of dietary antioxidant flavonoids, which has been demonstrated to influence the progression of colitis. However, the underlying mechanism of QCN on intestinal immunomodulation remains unclear. Here, our study demonstrated dietary QCN could ameliorate experimental colitis in part by modulating the anti-inflammatory effects and bactericidal capacity of macrophages via Heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, HO-1) dependent pathway. It suggested that QCN might restore the proper intestinal host-microbe relationship to ameliorate the colitis via rebalancing the pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal function of enteric macrophages. Hence, modulating the function of intestinal macrophages with dietary administration of QCN to restore the immunological hemostasis and rebalance the enteric commensal flora is a potential and promising strategy for IBD therapy.
Incidents that slow or stall replication fork progression, collectively known as replication stress, represent a major source of spontaneous genomic instability. Here, we determine the requirement for global protein biosynthesis on DNA replication and associated downstream signaling. We study this response side by side with dNTP deprivation; one of the most commonly used means to investigate replication arrest and replicative stress. Our in vitro interrogations reveal that inhibition of translation by cycloheximide (CHX) rapidly impairs replication fork progression without decoupling helicase and polymerase activities or inducing DNA damage. In line with this, protein deprivation stress does not activate checkpoint signaling. In contrast to the direct link between insufficient dNTP pools and genome instability, our findings suggest that replication forks remain stable during short-term protein deficiency. We find that replication forks initially endure fluctuations in protein supply in order to efficiently resume DNA synthesis upon reversal of the induced protein deprivation stress. These results reveal distinct cellular responses to replication arrest induced by deprivation of either nucleotides or proteins.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors that are involved in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. LncRNA XIST expression is upregulated in several cancers, however, its biologic role in the development of the chemotherapy of human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to observe the expression of LncRNA XIST in LAD and to evaluate its biologic role and clinical significance in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. LncRNA XIST expression was markedly increased in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with parental A549 cells as shown by qRT-PCR. LncRNA XIST overexpression in A549 cells increased their chemosensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo by protecting cells from apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation. By contrast, LncRNA XIST knockdown in A549/DDP cells decreased the chemoresistance. We revealed that XIST functioned as competing endogenous RNA to repress let-7i, which controlled its down-stream target BAG-1. We proposed that XIST was responsible for cisplatin resistance of LAD cells and XIST exerted its function through the let-7i/BAG-1 axis. Our findings suggested that lncRNA XIST may be a new marker of poor response to cisplatin and could be a potential therapeutic target for LAD chemotherapy.
Lung carcinoma tops the categories of cancer related motility, and has been treated as the main threat to human health. The functions and related mechanism of FBXW7 controlled lung cancer stem cells' signatures is barely unknown, and the miR-367 regulations of FBXW7 via Wnt signaling have not been explored. Cancer stem cells of either ALDH1+ or CD133+ phenotype were found to be referred to advanced stages in patients with NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma). To study the roles of miR-367, we found greater miR-367 level or FBXW7 level was reserved in NSCLC than that of paired adjacent normal tissues, and their upregulations were positively correlated with Wnt signaling activation. On the contrary, increased miR-367 was correlated with Let-7 repression. MiR-367 was related to stronger sphere forming ability in stem cells of NSCLC. We then explored the functions of the endogenous miR-367 in stem-like cells isolated from NSCLC cell lines. In HEK-293 cells, we identified FBXW7 as the direct downstream gene of miR-367, which consequently released the LIN-28 dependent inhibition of suppressive Let-7. Through informatics analysis, miR-367 was predicated to function through Wnt signaling, and decreased Let-7 played the pivotal role to maintain TCF-4/Wnt pathway activity. The reintroduction of FBXW7 abolished the oncogenic stimulation of miR-367 on TCF-4 activity, with Wnt signaling factors depression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated the oncogenic roles of miR-367 exerting on the self-renewal ability of cancer stem-like cells through degrading the suppressive FBXW7, eventually helping to maintain Wnt signaling activation through a LIN28B/Let-7 dependent manner.
Integuments are the first line to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. In lepidopteran insects, they undergo distinct morphology changes such as scale formation during metamorphosis. However, we know little about integument development and scale formation during this stage. Here, we use the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a model and show that stem cells in the integument of each segment, but not intersegmental membrane, divide into two scale precursor cells during the spinning stage. In young pupae, the scale precursor cell divides again. One of the daughter cells becomes a mature scale-secreting cell that undergoes several rounds of DNA duplication and the other daughter cell undergoes apoptosis later on. This scale precursor cell division is crucial to the development and differentiation of scale-secreting cells because scale production can be blocked after treatment with the cell division inhibitor paclitaxel. Subsequently, the growth of scale-secreting cells is under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone but not juvenile hormone since injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone inhibited scale formation. Further work demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone injection inhibits DNA duplication in scale-secreting cells while the expression of scale-forming gene ASH1 was down-regulated by BR-C Z2. Therefore, this research demonstrates that the scale cells of the silkworm develops through stem cell division prior to pupation and then another wave of cell division differentiates these cells into scale secreting cells soon after entrance into the pupal stage. Additionally, DNA duplication and scale production in the scale-secreting cells were found to be under the regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone.
SKAP2 (Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2), a substrate of Src family kinases, has been suggested to be involved in actin-mediated cellular processes. However, little is known about its role in mouse oocyte maturation. In this study, we thus investigated the expression, localization, and functions of SKAP2 during mouse oocyte asymmetric division. SKAP2 protein expression was detected at all developmental stages in mouse oocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed that SKAP2 was mainly distributed at the cortex of the oocytes during maturation. Treatment with cytochalasin B in oocytes confirmed that SKAP2 was co-localized with actin. Depletion of SKAP2 by injection with specific short interfering RNA caused failure of spindle migration, polar body extrusion, and cytokinesis defects. Meanwhile, the staining of actin filaments at the oocyte membrane and in the cytoplasm was significantly reduced after these treatments. SKAP2 depletion also disrupted actin cap and cortical granule-free domain formation, and arrested a large proportion of oocytes at the telophase stage. Moreover, Arp2/3 complex and WAVE2 expression was decreased after the depletion of SKAP2 activity. Our results indicate that SKAP2 regulates the Arp2/3 complex and is essential for actin-mediated asymmetric cytokinesis by interacting with WAVE2 in mouse oocytes.
Autophagy is critical for homeostasis and cell survival during stress, but can also lead to cell death, a little understood process that has been shown to contribute to developmental cell death in lower model organisms, and to human cancer cell death. We recently reported¹ Dasari SK, Bialik S, Levin-Zaidman S, Levin-Salomon V, Merrill AH, Jr., Futerman AH, Kimchi A. Signalome-wide rnai screen identifies gba1 as a positive mediator of autophagic cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24(7):1288–1302.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] on our thorough molecular and morphologic characterization of an autophagic cell death system involving resveratrol treatment of lung carcinoma cells. To gain mechanistic insight into this death program, we performed a signalome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose functions are necessary for resveratrol-induced death. The screen identified GBA1, the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, as an important mediator of autophagic cell death. Here we further show the physiological relevance of GBA1 to developmental cell death in midgut regression during Drosophila metamorphosis. We observed a delay in midgut cell death in two independent Gba1a RNAi lines, indicating the critical importance of Gba1a for midgut development. Interestingly, loss-of-function GBA1 mutations lead to Gaucher Disease and are a significant risk factor for Parkinson Disease, which have been associated with defective autophagy. Thus GBA1 is a conserved element critical for maintaining proper levels of autophagy, with high levels leading to autophagic cell death.
It has become more and more evident that the BCL-2 family proteins mediate a wide range of non-apoptotic functions. The pro-apoptotic BAX protein has been reported in interphasic nuclei. Whether the nuclear form of BAX could be involved in non-apoptotic function is still unknown.
Our study showed for the first time that BAX was associated with chromatin in vitro. Next, we used gain and loss of function approaches to decipher the potential role of nuclear BAX in non-apoptotic cells. In vitro, nuclear BAX promoted cell proliferation in lung epithelial cells and primary human lung fibroblasts by modulating CDKN1A expression. Interestingly, BAX occupancy of CDKN1A promoter was specifically enriched close to the transcription-starting site. Nuclear BAX also modulated the basal myofibroblastic differentiation and migration of primary human lung fibroblasts. Finally, BAX nuclear localization was associated in vivo with the remodelling of lung parenchyma during development, tumorigenesis as well as fibrosis compared to control adult human lungs.
Hence, our study established for the first time, a strong link between the nuclear localization of the pro-apoptotic BAX protein and key basic cellular functions in the non-apoptotic setting.
Cytoplasmic dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move towards the minus-end of the microtubules to perform functions in a variety of mitotic processes such as cargo transport, organelle positioning, chromosome movement and centrosome assembly. However, its specific roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation after inhibition of dynein by Ciliobrevin D treatment. We found that oocyte meiotic progression was arrested when inhibited of dynein by showing the poor expansion of cumulus cells and decreased rate of polar body extrusion. Meanwhile, the spindle assembly and chromosome alignment were disrupted, accompanied by the reduced level of acetylated α-tubulin, indicative of weakened microtubule stability. Defective actin polymerization on the plasma membrane was also observed in dynein-inhibited oocytes. In addition, inhibition of dynein caused the abnormal distribution of cortical granules and precocious exocytosis of ovastacin, a cortical granule component, which predicts that ZP2, the sperm binding site in the zona pellucida, might be prematurely cleaved in the unfertilized dynein-inhibited oocytes, potentially leading to the fertilization failure. Collectively, our findings reveal that dynein plays a part in porcine oocyte meiotic progression by regulating the cytoskeleton dynamics including microtubule stability, spindle assembly, chromosome alignment and actin polymerization. We also find that dynein mediates the normal cortical granule distribution and exocytosis timing of ovastacin in unfertilized eggs which are the essential for the successful fertilization.
Models for the control of global cell-cycle transcription have advanced from a CDK-APC/C oscillator, a transcription factor (TF) network, to coupled CDK-APC/C and TF networks. Nonetheless, current models were challenged by a recent study that concluded that the cell-cycle transcriptional program is primarily controlled by a CDK-APC/C oscillator in budding yeast. Here we report an analysis of the transcriptome dynamics in cyclin mutant cells that were not queried in the previous study. We find that B-cyclin oscillation is not essential for control of phase-specific transcription. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that the function of network TFs can be retained in the face of significant reductions in transcript levels. Finally, we show that cells arrested at mitotic exit with non-oscillating levels of B-cyclins continue to cycle transcriptionally. Taken together, these findings support a critical role of a TF network and a requirement for CDK activities that need not be periodic.
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that a series of differentially expressed lncRNAs is important in tumorigenesis. However, the function of many of the lncRNAs in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to identify lncRNAs that are dysregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as compared with normal tissues. Among the dysregulated lncRNAs, we identified TFPI2AS1, an antisense transcript of the tumor suppressor TFPI2 (tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2). TFPI2AS1 was shown to be markedly upregulated in NSCLC patient tumors as compared to paired non-tumor samples. TFPI2AS1 knockdown increased NSCLC cell proliferation and migration, which was associated with enhanced G1/S transition and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (CDK2), while TFPI2AS1 overexpression had the opposite effect. Knockdown and overexpression experiments also suggested that TFPI2AS1 regulates NSCLC cell migration and AKT activation. Moreover, TFPI2AS1 is a positive regulator of TFPI2. Our findings bring new insights for understanding the role of TFPI2AS1 in mediating the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells by regulating TFPI2 expression.
Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) has been shown to be associated with the inflammatory response, but the mechanism of its inflammatory effects remains unclear. Because vascular endothelial cells (VECs) play a key role in the development of inflammation, the present study was performed to investigate inflammatory mechanisms induced by ApoCIII in VECs. In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using RNA-sequencing. The results identified 390 up-regulated genes and 257 down-regulated genes. We performed GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis for DEGs. Analysis of sequencing data showed that 21 genes were related to the MAPK pathway. Finally, we investigated whether ApoCIII regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via MAPK signaling pathway. The results showed that ApoCIII increased the expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in VECs. ApoCIII activated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. An inhibitor of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK decreased the protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Our findings demonstrate that ApoCIII induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in VECs via activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation.
DICER1 plays a central role in the biogenesis of microRNAs and it is important for normal development. Altered microRNA expression and DICER1 dysregulation have been described in several types of tumors, including thyroid carcinomas. Recently, our group identified a new somatic mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) within DICER1 gene of an unknown function. Herein, we show that DICER1 is overexpressed, at mRNA level, in a significant-relative number of papillary (70%) and anaplastic (42%) thyroid carcinoma samples, whereas is drastically downregulated in all the analyzed human thyroid carcinoma cell lines (TPC-1, BCPAP, FRO and 8505c) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue samples. Conversely, DICER1 is downregulated, at protein level, in PTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Our data also reveals that DICER1 overexpression positively regulates thyroid cell proliferation, whereas its silencing impairs thyroid cell differentiation. The expression of DICER1 gene mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) negatively affects the microRNA machinery and cell proliferation as well as upregulates DICER1 protein levels of thyroid cells but has no impact on thyroid differentiation. In conclusion, DICER1 protein is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinomas and affects thyroid proliferation and differentiation, while DICER1 gene mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) compromises the DICER1 wild-type-mediated microRNA processing and cell proliferation.
Peroxisomes are essential and dynamic organelles that allow cells to rapidly adapt and cope with changing environments and/or physiological conditions by modulation of both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover. Peroxisome biogenesis involves the assembly of peroxisome membranes and the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. The latter depends on the receptor, PEX5, which recognizes peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol directly or indirectly, and transports them to the peroxisomal lumen. In this review, we discuss the role of PEX5 ubiquitination in both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover, specifically in PEX5 receptor recycling, stability and abundance, as well as its role in pexophagy (autophagic degradation of peroxisomes).
Most studies on new cancer drugs are based on population-derived data, where the absence of response of a small population may pass unnoticed. Thus, individual longitudinal tracking of cells is important for the future development of efficient cancer treatments. We have used digital holographic microscopy to track individual JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells and L929 mouse fibroblast cultivated in normoxia or hypoxia. In addition, JIMT-1 cells were treated with salinomycin, a cancer stem cell targeting compound. Three-day time-lapse movies were captured and individual cells were analysed with respect to cell division (cell cycle length) and cell movement. Comparing population-doubling time derived from population-based growth curves and individual cell cycle time data from time-lapse movies show that the former hide a sub-population of dividing cells. Salinomycin treatment increased the motility of cells, however, this motility did not result in an increased distant migration i.e. the cells increased their local movement. MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed similar motility behaviour as salinomycin-treated JIMT-1 cells. We suggest that combining features, such as motility and migration, can be used to distinguish cancer cells with mesenchymal (JIMT-1) and epithelial (MCF-7) features. The data clearly emphasize the importance of longitudinal cell tracking to understand the biology of individual cells under different conditions.
Checkpoint 1 (Chk1), as an important member of DNA replication checkpoint and DNA damage response, has an important role during the G2/M stage of mitosis. In this study, we used porcine oocyte as a model to investigate the function of Chk1 during porcine oocyte maturation. Chk1 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages, mainly localized in the cytoplasm at GV stage and moved to the spindle after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Chk1 depletion not only induced oocytes to be arrested at MI stage with abnormal chromosomes arrangement, but also inhibited the degradation of Cyclin B1 and decreased the expression of Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2-Like 1 (Mad2L1), one of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins, and cadherin 1 (Cdh1), one of coactivation for anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Moreover, Chk1 overexpression delayed GVBD. These results demonstrated that Chk1 facilitated the timely degradation of Cyclin B1 at anaphase I (AI) and maintained the expression of Mad2L1 and Cdh1, which ensured that all chromosomes were accurately located in a line, and then oocytes passed metaphase I (MI) and AI and exited from the first meiotic division successfully. In addition, we proved that Chk1 had not function on GVBD of porcine oocytes, which suggested that maturation of porcine oocytes did not need the DNA damage checkpoint, which was different from the mouse oocyte maturation.
The heterochronic pathway in C. elegans controls the relative timing of cell fate decisions during post-embryonic development. It includes a network of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as let-7, and protein-coding genes, such as the stemness factors, LIN-28 and LIN-41. Here we identified the acn-1 gene, a homologue of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), as a new suppressor of the stem cell developmental defects of let-7 mutants. Since acn-1 null mutants die during early larval development, we used RNAi to characterize the role of acn-1 in C. elegans seam cell development, and determined its interaction with heterochronic factors, including let-7 and its downstream interactors – lin-41, hbl-1, and apl-1. We demonstrate that although RNAi knockdown of acn-1 is insufficient to cause heterochronic defects on its own, loss of acn-1 suppresses the retarded phenotypes of let-7 mutants and enhances the precocious phenotypes of hbl-1, though not lin-41, mutants. Conversely, the pattern of acn-1 expression, which oscillates during larval development, is disrupted by lin-41 mutants but not by hbl-1 mutants. Finally, we show that acn-1(RNAi) enhances the let-7-suppressing phenotypes caused by loss of apl-1, a homologue of the Alzheimer's disease-causing amyloid precursor protein (APP), while significantly disrupting the expression of apl-1 during the L4 larval stage. In conclusion, acn-1 interacts with heterochronic genes and appears to function downstream of let-7 and its target genes, including lin-41 and apl-1.
The transitions between phases of the cell cycle have evolved to be robust and switch-like, which ensures temporal separation of DNA replication, sister chromatid separation, and cell division. Mathematical models describing the biochemical interaction networks of cell cycle regulators attribute these properties to underlying bistable switches, which inherently generate robust, switch-like, and irreversible transitions between states. We have recently presented new mathematical models for two control systems that regulate crucial transitions in the cell cycle: mitotic entry and exit,¹ Mochida S, Rata S, Hino H, Nagai T, Novák B. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry. Curr Biol. 2016;26:3361–3367[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] and the mitotic checkpoint.² Mirkovic M, Hutter LH, Novák B, Oliveira RA. Premature sister chromatid separation is poorly detected by the spindle assembly checkpoint as a result of system-level feedback. Cell Rep. 2015;13:469–478[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] Each of the two control systems is characterized by two interlinked bistable switches. In the case of mitotic checkpoint control these switches are mutually activating, whereas in the case of the mitotic entry/exit network the switches are mutually inhibiting. In this Perspective we describe the qualitative features of these regulatory motifs and show that having two interlinked bistable mechanisms further enhances robustness and irreversibility. We speculate that these network motifs also underlie other cell cycle transitions and cellular transitions between distinct biochemical states.
Ionizing radiation causes not only targeted effects in cells that have been directly irradiated but also non-targeted effects in several cell generations after initial exposure. Recent studies suggest that radiation can enrich for a population of stem cells, derived from differentiated cells, through cellular reprogramming. Here, we elucidate the effect of irradiation on reprogramming, subjected to two different responses, using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model. iPSCs were generated from non-irradiated cells, directly-irradiated cells, or cells subsequently generated after initial radiation exposure. We found that direct irradiation negatively affected iPSC induction in a dose-dependent manner. However, in the post-irradiated group, after five subsequent generations, cells became increasingly sensitive to the induction of reprogramming compared to that in non-irradiated cells as observed by an increased number of Tra1-81-stained colonies as well as enhanced alkaline phosphatase and Oct4 promoter activity. Comparative analysis, based on reducing the number of defined factors utilized for reprogramming, also revealed enhanced efficiency of iPSC generation in post-irradiated cells. Furthermore, the phenotypic acquisition of characteristics of pluripotent stem cells was observed in all resulting iPSC lines, as shown by morphology, the expression of pluripotent markers, DNA methylation patterns of pluripotency genes, a normal diploid karyotype, and teratoma formation. Overall, these results suggested that reprogramming capability might be differentially modulated by altered radiation-induced responses. Our findings provide that susceptibility to reprogramming in somatic cells might be improved by the delayed effects of non-targeted response, and contribute to a better understanding of the biological effects of radiation exposure.
microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in mediation of the cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). Previous studies revealed that miR-300 was involved in the cellular response to IR or chemotherapy drug. However, whether miR-300 could regulate the DNA damage responses induced by extrinsic genotoxic stress in human lung cancer and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, the expression of miR-300 was examined in lung cancer cells treated with IR, and the effects of miR-300 on DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence induced by IR were investigated. It was found that IR induced upregulation of endogenous miR-300, and ectopic expression of miR-300 by transfected with miR-300 mimics not only greatly enhanced the cellular DNA damage repair ability but also substantially abrogated the G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by IR. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that p53 and apaf1 were potential targets of miR-300, and the luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-300 significantly suppressed the luciferase activity through binding to the 3'-UTR of p53 or apaf1 mRNA. In addition, overexpression of miR-300 significantly reduced p53/apaf1 and/or IR-induced p53/apaf1 protein expression levels. Flow cytomertry analysis and colony formation assay showed that miR-300 desensitized lung cancer cells to IR by suppressing p53-dependent G2 cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence. These data demonstrate that miR-300 regulates the cellular sensitivity to IR through targeting p53 and apaf1 in lung cancer cells.
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNA) play a critical role in chemotherapy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of chemotherapy-triggered EMT has not been fully understood. In the current study, we determined the role of miR-26b in regulation of EMT in stable temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant (TR) glioma cells, which have displayed mesenchymal features. Our results illustrated that miR-26b was significantly downregulated in TR cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-26b by its mimics reversed the phenotype of EMT in TR cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-26b governed TR-mediate EMT partly due to governing its target Wee1. Notably, overexpression of miR-26b sensitized TR cells to TMZ. These findings suggest that upregulation of miR-26b or targeting Wee1 could serve as novel approaches to reverse chemotherapy resistance in glioma.
Senescence contributes to the local and systemic aging of tissues and has been associated with age-related diseases. Recently, roles for this process during pregnancy have come to light, the dysregulation of which has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Here, we summarize recent advances that support a role for senescence in birth timing and propose new aspects of study in this emerging field.
Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is frequently suppressed in tumors of various origins and its suppression correlates with tumor progression. Pdcd4 inhibits cap-dependent translation from mRNAs with highly structured 5'-regions through interaction with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase and a target transcript. Decrease in Pdcd4 protein is believed to provide a relief of otherwise suppressed eIF4A-dependent translation of proteins facilitating tumor progression. However, it remains unknown if lowered Pdcd4 levels in cells suffices to cause a relief in translation inhibition through appearance of the Pdcd4-free translation-competent eIF4A protein, or more complex and selective mechanisms are involved. Here we showed that eIF4A1, the eIF4A isoform involved in translation, significantly over-represents Pdcd4 both in cancerous and normal cells. This observation excludes the possibility that cytoplasmic Pdcd4 can efficiently exert its translation suppression function owing to excess of eIF4A, with Pdcd4-free eIF4A being in excess over Pdcd4-bound translation-incompetent eIF4A, thus leaving translation from Pdcd4 mRNA targets unaffected. This contradiction is resumed in the proposed model, which supposes initial complexing between Pdcd4 and its target mRNAs in the nucleus, with subsequent transport of translation-incompetent, Pdcd4-bound target mRNAs into the cytoplasm. Noteworthy, loss of nuclear Pdcd4 in cancer cells was reported to correlate with tumor progression, which supports the proposed model of Pdcd4 functioning.
Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrotic cell death mediated by the kinase RIPK3 and its substrate MLKL. MLKL, which displays plasma membrane (PM) pore-forming activity upon phosphorylation, functions as the executioner during necroptosis. Thus, it was previously assumed that MLKL phosphorylation is the endpoint of the necroptotic signaling pathway. Here, we summarize several events that characterize the dying necroptotic cells after MLKL phosphorylation, including Ca²⁺ influx, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, PM repair by ESCRT-III activation, and the final compromise of PM integrity. These processes add several unexpected regulatory events downstream of MLKL signaling. We have also observed that CoCl2, which may mimic hypoxia, can induce necroptosis, which suggests that in vivo triggers of necroptosis might include a transient lack of O2.
p53R2 is a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase subunit involved in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis and DNA repair. Although p53R2 has been linked to human cancer, its role in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of p53R2 in early-stage cervical cancer. p53R2 expression is significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in cervical cancer cells and tissues, compared with that in matched normal cervical cells and tissues, respectively. p53R2 overexpression is associated with increased risk of pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM, p = 0.001) and cancer relapse (p = 0.009). Patients with high p53R2 expression have a shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). p53R2 is an independent factor for predicting OS and DFS of cervical cancer patients. We further show that p53R2 is important for oncogenic growth, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells. Mechanistically, p53R2 promotes Akt signaling and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that p53R2 protein is overexpressed in early-stage cervical cancer and unravels some unconventional oncogenic functions of p53R2. p53R2 may be a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.
The centromere plays an essential role in accurate chromosome segregation, and defects in its function lead to aneuploidy and thus cancer. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A is proposed to be the epigenetic mark of the centromere, as active centromeres require CENP-A-containing nucleosomes to direct the recruitment of multiple kinetochore proteins. CENP-A K124 ubiquitylation, mediated by CUL4A-RBX1-COPS8 E3 ligase activity, is required for CENP-A deposition at the centromere. However, the mechanism that controls the E3 ligase activity of the CUL4A-RBX1-COPS8 complex remains obscure. We have discovered that the SGT1-HSP90 complex is required for recognition of CENP-A by COPS8. Thus, the SGT1-HSP90 complex contributes to the E3 ligase activity of the CUL4A complex that is necessary for CENP-A ubiquitylation and CENP-A deposition at the centromere.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity. In an animal model of proneural GBM, elimination of mitotic OLIG2⁺ progenitors blocks tumor growth, suggesting that these progenitors are a seeding source for glioma propagation. OLIG2 deletion reduces tumor growth and causes an oligodendrocytic to astrocytic phenotype shift, with PDGFRα down-regulation and reciprocal EGFR signaling up-regulation, underlying alternative pathways in tumor recurrence. In patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSC), knockdown of OLIG2 leads to down-regulation of PDGFRα, while OLIG2 silencing results in a shift from proneural-to-classical gene expression pattern or a proneural-to-mesenchymal transition in distinct GSC cell lines, where OLIG2 appears to regulate EGFR expression in a context-dependent manner. In addition, post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation by a series of protein kinases regulates OLIG2 activity in glioma cell growth and invasive behaviors. In this perspective, we will review the role of OLIG2 in tumor initiation, proliferation and phenotypic plasticity in animal models of gliomas and human GSC cell lines, and discuss the underlying mechanisms in the control of tumor growth and potential therapeutic strategies to target OLIG2 in malignant gliomas.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which causes tuberculosis, is a host-adapted intracellular pathogen that can live within macrophages owning to its ability to arrest phagolysosome biogenesis. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) may contribute to the phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages through mediating the crosstalk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Its role in Shigella infection has been determined but little is known about the role of GEF-H1 in mycobacterial infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that GEF-H1 functioned as a key regulator of the macrophage-mediated anti-mycobacterial response. We found that both mRNA and protein expression levels of GEF-H1 were significantly upregulated in macrophage during mycobacterial infection. Moreover, silencing of GEF-H1 with specific siRNAs reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and TANK binding kinase 1 as well as the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and interferon-β (IFN-β), without affecting nitric oxide production or autophagy. Importantly, GEF-H1 depletion attenuated macrophages-mediated mycobacterial phagocytosis and elimination. Taken together, our data supported that GEF-H1 was a novel regulator of inflammatory cytokine production and mycobacterial elimination, and may serve as a novel potential target for clinical treatment of tuberculosis.
Skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) plays an oncogenic role in a variety of human cancers. However, the function of Skp2 in osteosarcoma (OS) is elusive. Therefore, in the current study, we explore whether Skp2 exerts its oncogenic function in OS. The cell growth, apoptosis, invasion and cell cycle were measured in OS cells after Skp2 overexpression. We found that overexpression of Skp2 enhanced cell growth, and inhibited cell apoptosis in OS cells. Moreover, we observed that upregulation of Skp2 accelerated cell cycle progression in OS cells. Furthermore, the ability of migration and invasion was enhanced in Skp2 overexpressing OS cells. Mechanically, our Western blotting data suggested that Skp2 decreased the expression of E-cadherin, Foxo1, p21, and p57, but increased MMP-9 in OS cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Skp2 exhibited an oncogenic function in OS cells, suggesting that inhibition of Skp2 may be a novel approach for the treatment of OS.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) is characterized as a crucial molecule in cancer cell growth that plays an essential role in the development of gliomas, but the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) overexpression increased UBE2C expression, whereas FoxM1 suppression inhibited UBE2C expression in glioma cells. In addition, high FoxM1/UBE2C expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. We subsequently demonstrated that UBE2C was a direct transcriptional target of FoxM1, and site-directed mutations markedly down-regulated UBE2C promoter activity. Moreover, UBE2C siRNA (si-UBE2C) significantly induced glioma cell autophagy and increased both mCherry-LC3 punctate fluorescence and LC3B-II/LC3-I expression. Notably, the si-UBE2C-induced decrease in cell viability was markedly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1. The silencing of UBE2C resulted in a distinct inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, which functions in the negative modulation of autophagy. Collectively, our findings provide clinical and molecular evidence that FoxM1 promotes glioma progression by enhancing UBE2C transcription and that the inhibition of UBE2C partially induces autophagic glioma cell death. Thus, targeting the FoxM1-UBE2C axis has therapeutic potential in the treatment of gliomas.
Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (Type I diabetes) or beta cell failure in response to insulin resistance (Type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster beta cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal beta cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal. Using transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D2 specifically in beta cells, we show that cyclin D2 overexpression increases beta cell self-renewal post-weaning and results in increased beta cell mass. Beta cells that overexpress cyclin D2 are responsive to glucose stimulation, suggesting they are functionally mature. Beta cells that overexpress cyclin D2 demonstrate an enhanced regenerative capacity after injury induced by streptozotocin toxicity. To understand if cyclin D2 overexpression is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal, we generated a novel mouse model where cyclin D2 is only expressed in beta cells of cyclin D2−/− mice. Transgenic overexpression of cyclin D2 in cyclin D2⁻/⁻ beta cells was sufficient to restore beta cell mass, maintain normoglycaemia, and improve regenerative capacity when compared to cyclin D2−/− littermates. Taken together, our results indicate that cyclin D2 is sufficient to regulate beta cell self-renewal and that manipulation of its expression could be used to enhance beta cell regeneration.
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