Veterinary Surgery (Vet Surg)

Publisher: American College of Veterinary Surgeons; European College of Veterinary Surgeons, Wiley

Journal description

Veterinary Surgery is a bimonthly journal focusing on continuing education within the broad field of veterinary surgery. Coverage includes surgical techniques, management of the surgical patient, diagnostic aids, infections, advances in metabolism, veterinary research and the history of the specialty.

Current impact factor: 1.04

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.041
2013 Impact Factor 0.989
2012 Impact Factor 1.242
2011 Impact Factor 1.265
2010 Impact Factor 1.437
2009 Impact Factor 1.572
2008 Impact Factor 1.664
2007 Impact Factor 1.432
2006 Impact Factor 1.121
2005 Impact Factor 1.211
2004 Impact Factor 0.993
2003 Impact Factor 1.196
2002 Impact Factor 1.045
2001 Impact Factor 0.779
2000 Impact Factor 0.957
1999 Impact Factor 1.273
1998 Impact Factor 1.09
1997 Impact Factor 1.149
1996 Impact Factor 1.241
1995 Impact Factor 0.697
1994 Impact Factor 0.54
1993 Impact Factor 0.496
1992 Impact Factor 0.522

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.53
Cited half-life 8.70
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.41
Website Veterinary Surgery website
Other titles Veterinary surgery (Online), Veterinary surgery, VS
ISSN 1532-950X
OCLC 45552058
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To introduce a new surgical procedure based on interventional, laser-assisted removal of obstructing turbinate tissue to improve endonasal airway patency in brachycephalic dogs and to confirm the short and long term results using computed tomography (CT) and rhinoscopy. Prospective clinical study. Brachycephalic dogs (n = 158; 70 Pugs, 77 French Bulldogs, 11 English Bulldogs) referred for treatment of severe respiratory distress because of brachycephalic syndrome. Computed tomography and anterior and posterior rhinoscopy were performed to evaluate endonasal obstruction. Laser-assisted turbinectomy (LATE) using a diode laser was performed as part of a multilevel surgery. Nasal conchae that were causing airway obstruction were removed. The obstructing parts of the conchae were safely and efficiently removed by LATE, shaping a patent nasal airway in all dogs. The newly developed surgical procedure involved 3 steps: turbinectomy of the (1) concha nasalis ventralis; (2) rostral aberrantly growing turbinates (RAT); and (3) caudal aberrantly growing turbinates (CAT). Complications of the procedure included transient intraoperative hemorrhage in 51 of 158 dogs (32.3%); however, a temporary tamponade was necessary in only 2/158 dogs (1.3%). After 6 months, regrowth of turbinates required resection of possibly re-obstructing tissue in 25/158 dogs (15.8%; 1 Pug and 24 French Bulldogs). LATE is an effective method for creating a patent nasal airway in brachycephalic dogs with intranasal obstruction.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate airway obstruction due to abnormal intranasal anatomy in 3 brachycephalic dog breeds using computed tomography and rhinoscopy. Prospective clinical study. A total of 132 brachycephalic dogs (66 Pugs, 55 French Bulldogs, and 11 English Bulldogs) with severe respiratory distress due to brachycephalic syndrome. Computed tomography and anterior and posterior rhinoscopy were performed to evaluate endonasal obstruction. All dogs had abnormal conchal growth that obstructed the intranasal airways. Rostral aberrant turbinates (RAT) were common in Pugs (90.9%) but less frequent in French (56.4%) and English (36.4%) Bulldogs. Caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT) obstructing the nasopharyngeal meatus were commonly found in all breeds (66.7%). Deviation of the nasal septum was an almost consistent finding in Pugs (98.5%) but was less common in bulldogs. Obstructing turbinates had multiple points of mucosal contact responsible for obstruction of the intranasal airway. Interconchal and intraconchal mucosal contacts were evident in 91.7% of dogs. Selective breeding for short head conformation reduces the size of the nasal cavities to such an extent that intranasal structures grow aberrantly and malformed, leading to obstructed air conducting spaces. Intranasal airway obstruction of brachycephalic dogs may contribute to their exercise and heat intolerance because of impaired pulmonary ventilation and compromised thermoregulatory functions of the canine nose. Failure to address intranasal obstruction might be an explanation for lack of therapeutic success after conventional surgery for brachycephalic syndrome. Future consideration should be given to the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this newly described aspect of airway obstruction.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify recovery of colored microspheres from normal cadaver tarsocrural joints using arthroscopic or needle lavage with 1–5 L of fluid. Ex vivo experimental study. Adult Quarter Horse cadavers (n = 8). After euthanasia, 1.5 × 106 colored microspheres were injected into each tarsocrural joint. Each joint was randomly assigned to receive lavage (5 L 0.9% NaCl) with an arthroscope (dorsomedial arthroscope and dorsolateral egress cannula) or three 14 g needles (dorsomedial ingress, dorsolateral, and plantarolateral egress). Egress fluid from each liter was collected separately over time and the number of microspheres present in each recovered liter determined by spectrophotometry. A significant interaction was present between treatment group and liter of fluid (P < .01). The number of microspheres recovered in the first liter of lavage fluid was significantly higher in the needle lavage group than in the arthroscopic lavage group (P < .01). For both groups, the number of microspheres recovered in the first liter of lavage fluid represented a majority of the total microspheres collected and was significantly different from each subsequent liter collected (P < .01). The number of microspheres recovered did not differ between liters 2, 3, 4, and 5 within or between treatment groups. In this model, tarsocrural lavage with three 14 g needles was more effective at removing colored microspheres from the joint than arthroscopic lavage, suggesting that the number or placement of portals present may be more important than portal size and flow rate. No difference in microsphere recovery was seen with lavage volumes >1 L.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and arthroscopic findings in the elbow of dogs admitted for elbow lameness after previous arthroscopic treatment of medial coronoid disease (MCD). Study design: Retrospective case series. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 25) admitted for elbow lameness after arthroscopic treatment. Methods: Clinical records (2005-2009), including radiographs, CT images, and arthroscopic findings, from the first and second presentation of dogs diagnosed with medial coronoid disease were searched and reviewed. Results: Twenty-nine joints were included in this study. The mean age at first treatment was 2.2 years. Second presentation was at a mean of 2.7 years later and progressive osteoarthritis and cartilage damage was noticed in all joints. Arthroscopic findings included a calcified body in 11/29 joints (38%), multiple small calcified bodies in 1/29 joint (3%), loose scar tissue in 12/29 joints (42%), and immobile scar tissue in 2/29 joints (7%). Three of 29 joints (10%) did not have any calcified body or loose scar tissue found but had erosion of the medial compartment as the only pathology diagnosed in the coronoid region. Characteristics of flexor enthesopathy were identified in 9/29 joints (31%). Conclusion: Arthroscopic treatment of MCD, even with limited cartilage lesions, may not resolve lameness in some dogs. Calcified bodies or loose scar tissue near the medial coronoid process are a frequent followup finding in these joints.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine if an interlocking bolt would limit subsidence of the biological fixation universal hip (BFX(®) ) femoral stem under cyclic loading and enhance construct stiffness, yield, and failure properties. Study design: Ex vivo biomechanical study. Animals: Cadaveric canine femora (10 pairs). Methods: Paired femora implanted with a traditional stem or an interlocking stem (constructs) were cyclically loaded at walk, trot, and gallop loads while implant and bone motions were captured using kinematic markers and high-speed video. Constructs were then loaded to failure to evaluate failure mechanical properties. Results: Implant subsidence was greater (P = .037) for the traditional implant (4.19 mm) than the interlocking implant (0.78 mm) only after gallop cyclic loading, and cumulatively after walk, trot, and gallop cyclic loads (5.20 mm vs. 1.28 mm, P = .038). Yield and failure loads were greater (P = .029 and .002, respectively) for the interlocking stem construct (1155 N and 2337 N) than the traditional stem construct (816 N and 1405 N). Version angle change after cyclic loading was greater (P = .020) for the traditional implant (3.89 degrees) than for the interlocking implant (0.16 degrees), whereas stem varus displacement at failure was greater (P = .008) for the interlocking implant (1.5 degrees) than the traditional implant (0.17 degrees). Conclusion: Addition of a stabilizing bolt enhanced construct stability and limited subsidence of a BFX(®) femoral stem. Use of the interlocking implant may decrease postoperative subsidence. However, in vivo effects of the interlocking bolt on osseointegration, bone remodeling, and stress shielding are unknown.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To report surgical complications, occurrence of post-obliteration colic, long term outcome, and return to previous function for horses treated with prosthetic mesh obliteration of the nephrosplenic space. Study design: Retrospective study. Animals: Horses (n = 26) having nephrosplenic space obliteration using prosthetic mesh. Methods: Horses undergoing mesh obliteration between January 2006 and May 2013 were included. A Proxplast™ mesh was secured to the nephrosplenic space with titanium helical coils in standing horses using laparoscopic technique. Perioperative data were obtained from the medical record and by telephone followup. Tests of proportion were used to compare the study population to the hospital colic population. Occurrence of colic within 1 year of obliteration was compared between horses where the diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy and those diagnosed by abdominal palpation per rectum using a Fisher's exact test. Results: All 26 horses undergoing mesh obliteration during the study period survived to discharge. Long term followup was available for 25 horses, with 23 returning to their previous level of function, and 21 alive at the time of followup. Cause of death was not associated with the surgical procedure in any case. Geldings and Warmbloods were overrepresented compared to the hospital colic population. Ten horses (38%) demonstrated colic after mesh obliteration. All 10 horses were examined by a veterinarian and none were diagnosed with recurrence of nephrosplenic entrapment. Conclusion: Mesh obliteration of the nephrosplenic space is an effective alternative to suture closure for preventing nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon in horses. No complications related to mesh obliteration were reported in our study population.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effects of a crosslinked, modified hyaluronic acid (xCMHA-S) gel on equine tendon healing using an in vivo surgical model. Study design: In vivo experimental study. Animals: Adult horses (n = 5). Methods: Full thickness bilateral forelimb window tenectomies were surgically created in both forelimb superficial digital flexor tendons and xCMHA-S gel was implanted intraoperatively into the right forelimb lesion of each horse whereas the left forelimb served as the untreated control. Healing was monitored by serial ultrasound examinations every 14 days over the course of the 84 day study. In addition, gross pathology, scanning electron microscopy for fiber diameter, and histological scoring were completed on tendon samples harvested after euthanasia at 84 days. Results: Ultrasound assessment demonstrated a significant decrease in mean lesion size of treated (0%) compared to control (30%) tendons at 84 days. Mean (±SD) cumulative histologic tendon scores for control tendons (17.7 ± 2.7) were significantly higher than treated tendons (13.6 ± 1.9), indicating less advanced healing in the control group. Tendon cell density was increased and neovascularization, intensity of inflammation, and uniformity of fiber diameter were increased in control compared to treated tendons. There were no differences in fibroblast shape, levels of intralesional hemorrhage, linearity of collagen fibers, or collagen fiber diameter or distribution between treated and control tendons. Conclusion: Tendons treated with xCMHA-S gel at the time of model induction had superior histologic healing scores and sonographically smaller lesions compared to controls, suggesting that xCMHA-S gel may aid the natural healing process.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of arthroscopic lavage on systemic serum amyloid A (SAA) and SAA, total protein, nucleated cell count, and percentage of neutrophils in synovial fluid in healthy horses. Study design: Prospective experimental study. Animals: Healthy adult horses (n = 6). Methods: Middle carpal joints were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: arthrocentesis (controls) or arthroscopic lavage, with 30 day washout period between treatments. Synovial fluid and blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Measurements included systemic and synovial fluid SAA, as well as total protein, nucleated cell count, and percentages of neutrophils in synovial fluid. Data were analyzed by median quantile regression and Wilcoxon signed-rank test and significance level set at P < .05. Results: Systemic and synovial fluid SAA did not increase from baseline (except systemic SAA at 24 hours for both treatments) and were not significantly different between treatments. Total protein values were significantly increased after arthroscopic lavage (except at 96 hours) but not in controls at all time points. With both treatments, nucleated cell counts significantly increased from baseline values at all time points. Percentages of neutrophils were significantly increased after arthroscopic lavage at all time points, but only at 24 hours in controls. Conclusion: Total protein, nucleated cell count, and percentage of neutrophils in synovial fluid were significantly increased after arthroscopic lavage; however, synovial fluid SAA was not affected by this procedure. Further research is warranted to validate synovial fluid SAA as a monitoring tool during treatment of septic arthritis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine survival and incidence of complications in dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis (ILP) and concurrent neurologic signs. Study design: Observational study. Animals: Dogs (n = 90) with ILP. Methods: Medical records (January 2007-June 2013) of dogs with ILP were reviewed. Neurologic comorbidities, including pelvic limb neurologic abnormalities and esophageal abnormalities were identified. Using medical record information and client interviews, the relationship between these comorbidities and postoperative survival (primary outcome measure) and postoperative complications (secondary outcome measure) was identified. Results: Dogs that had surgical correction of ILP had a 2.6-fold reduction in the hazard of death throughout the study period (HR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.34-4.84, P = .006). Owner assessed patient quality of life (10-point scale) increased by an average of 4.1 ± 1.4 units immediately postoperatively, and 4.9 ± 0.9 units until death or followup compared with preoperative values. Thirty-five of 72 dogs available for followup had evidence of diffuse neurologic comorbidities. Overall complication rate for dogs with neurologic comorbidities was 74%, compared with 32% for dogs without neurologic comorbidities. Presence of any neurologic comorbidity was associated with a significantly greater odds of any complication (OR = 4.04; 95% CI: 1.25-13.90, P = .019) as well as recurring complications (OR = 8.00; 95% CI: 1.49-54.38; P = .015). Conclusion: Surgical correction of ILP was positively associated with survival, and dogs with neurologic comorbidities were at greater risk for developing postoperative complications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the frequency, source, and risk factors of intraoperative (IO) surgeon and patient bacterial contamination during clean orthopedic surgeries, and to investigate the relationship between IO contamination and surgical site infection (SSI) in dogs. Study design: Prospective clinical study. Sample population: Client-owned dogs undergoing stifle surgery (n = 100). Methods: IO cultures were taken in each case from surgical foot wrap, peri-incisional skin, surgical gloves, and the surgical team's hands. The environment (operating room [OR] lights, computers, scrub sink faucet, anesthesia gurney, and radiology table) was sampled every 5 months. Bacteria were identified and the contamination of each case was categorized. All gloves from the surgical team were collected and tested for perforations using a water infusion test. Cases were followed for at least 8 weeks to determine the presence or absence of SSI. Perioperative variables were evaluated for association with IO contamination and SSI. Results: Bacterial isolates were yielded from 81% of procedures from 1 or more sources; 58% had positive hand cultures, 46% had positive glove cultures, 23% had positive patient skin cultures, and 12% had positive foot wrap cultures. Staphylococcus spp. was the most commonly recovered bacteria. There was no apparent association between IO contamination and SSI. The highest level of environmental contamination was associated with the scrub sink faucet, followed by the radiology table, anesthesia gurney, and OR computers. The IO glove perforation rate was 18%. Conclusion: Clean orthopedic procedures commonly had clinically insignificant bacterial contamination. In our study, bacteria responsible for SSI did not appear to colonize the patient in the OR.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ultrasonography for localizing hepatic masses in dogs and to identify patient factors associated with diagnostic accuracy. Study design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 137). Methods: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with a solitary hepatic mass on abdominal ultrasound and confirmed by laparotomy or laparoscopy were reviewed. Location of the mass predicted by ultrasound was compared to mass location identified at surgery. Ultrasound exams were performed by or under the supervision of a board certified radiologist. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were calculated. Patient factors associated with accurate localization were identified using logistic regression. Results: Ultrasound correctly localized liver masses in 71/137 dogs (51.8%). The sensitivity of ultrasound localization was 55% for left and right division masses and 29% for central division masses. The specificity was 98% for left division masses, 87% for central division masses, and 89% for right division masses. Correct localization was 3.2 times more likely when the mass arose from the right or left division compared to the central division (odds ratio [OR] 3.2; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1, 9.0; P = .030). Correct localization was significantly less likely when diffuse or multifocal hepatic disease was present (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.15, 0.70; P = .004). Conclusion: Ultrasound was specific but not sensitive for localizing hepatic masses, and localization accuracy was influenced by mass location and the presence of concurrent liver pathology. These findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary surgeons using ultrasound examination to guide patient treatment and surgical planning.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe an alternative technique and resulting outcomes for arthroscopic removal of osteochondral (OC) fragments from the proximal intertarsal joint (PIJ) using a direct approach without resection of the membrane between the tarsocrural joint (TCJ) and the PIJ. Study design: Retrospective case series. Animals: Client owned horses (n = 11) with Category 1 OC fragments in the PIJ. Methods: Arthroscopic examination of the dorsal pouch of the TCJ was performed with horses positioned in dorsal recumbency using routine portals. A hook probe placed through one of the standard portals was used to lift the edge of the communication between TCJ and PIJ to help pass the arthroscope into the PIJ from the opposite standard portal. A third direct portal into the PIJ was created under arthroscopic visualization, and loose OC fragments (Category 1) were removed using the direct portal. Medical records, race records, and owner surveys were reviewed for case details and outcome. Results: The described technique allowed removal of all fragments in all 11 cases. No complications associated with the procedure were observed. Of the 9 horses with long term follow-up available, 7 were used as intended (4/4 riding horses, 3/5 racehorses). Two horses did not enter an athletic career because of reasons unrelated to fragment removal. Conclusion: A direct approach for arthroscopic removal of OC fragments of the PIJ using a third portal into this joint, without resection of the membrane between the TCJ and PIJ is a good alternative for removal of fragments at this site.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare the gross and histological effects of intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) using amikacin sulfate on second intention healing of distal limb wounds in adult horses with healing in untreated wounds. Study DesignIn vivo experimental study. AnimalsAdult horses (n=7). Methods Two full thickness wounds (2.5x2.5cm) were created aseptically on the dorsal aspect of each metacarpus and maintained under sterile bandages. One forelimb was randomly selected from each horse for IVRLP on days 2, 3, and 4 post-wounding. Sequential biopsies were taken from 1 wound on each limb to evaluate the histological effects of IVRLP. Photographs were obtained of nonbiopsied wounds from days 2 to 62 for gross assessment and wound measurement. Wound size and contraction, healing rate during and immediately after IVRLP treatment, total healing rate, and histological scores for edema, hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibrovascular proliferation were compared. ResultsNo differences were observed between groups for wound size, wound contraction, healing rates during or after IVRLP treatment periods, or total healing rate. Wound size over time was larger in the IVRLP group compared with the control group; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Mononuclear cell infiltration was greater in the IVRLP group compared with controls. No differences were observed for other histological variables. All wounds healed without the formation of exuberant granulation tissue. Conclusion Treatment for 3 consecutive days with IVRLP using amikacin sulfate did not negatively affect surgical wounds healing by second intention in the distal limb of horses.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the nasopharyngeal airway dimensions of two brachycephalic breeds and to localize the area of smallest airway dimensions. Study DesignProspective, descriptive, computed tomographic imaging study. AnimalsThirty pugs and 30 French bulldogs with brachycephalic upper airway syndrome. Methods The thickness and length of the soft palate, cross-sectional area of the airway passage dorsal to the soft and hard palates, and cross-sectional area of the frontal sinus were measured and normalized to each dog's skull index and body weight before statistical comparison between breeds. Nasopharyngeal turbinates and surrounding airway space, and a possible relationship between the canine tooth angulation and the severity of airway obstruction were assessed. ResultsPugs had significantly smaller cross-sectional areas of the airway dorsal to the soft and hard palates than French bulldogs. In both breeds, the smallest nasopharyngeal cross-sectional areas were located dorsal to the caudal end of the soft palate. The soft palate of pugs was significantly shorter than that of French bulldogs and also significantly thinner when normalized to each dog's skull index. Pugs more commonly exhibited nasopharyngeal turbinates. Pugs had significantly smaller air-filled cavities at the location of the frontal sinus. No correlation between the nasopharyngeal dimensions and canine tooth angulation was observed. Conclusion Computed tomographic assessment of the upper airway morphology showed the smallest nasopharyngeal cross-sectional areas were located dorsal to the caudal end of the soft palate in both breeds. Pugs had a smaller nasopharyngeal cross-sectional area despite smaller soft palate dimensions than French bulldogs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe a technique of canaliculosinostomy into the caudal maxillary sinus to alleviate epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to report the long-term outcome in 5 horses. Study DesignCase series. AnimalsFive client-owned horses. Methods Case records of all horses presented for chronic epiphora to a single equine hospital that underwent surgical treatment were reviewed. All included horses had a Jones test or dacryocystography to confirm nasolacrimal duct obstruction. All horses were anesthetized and canaliculosinostomy was created from the medial canthus of the eye into the caudal maxillary sinus using a Steinmann pin and Jacob's chuck. A Foley catheter was placed normograde through the stoma. The inflated bulb held the Foley in place in the sinus, while the proximal end was pulled through the upper eyelid and sutured to the skin on the head. The Foley catheter was maintained in place for 3 weeks and then removed under sedation. ResultsFive horses were included. There were no intraoperative difficulties or complications. One horse dislodged the Foley catheter 3 days postoperatively. No other postoperative complications occurred. Followup was available for all horses. One horse was euthanatized for unrelated reasons 10 weeks postoperative at which time epiphora was resolved. The remaining 4 horses had resolution of epiphora at followup (24-46 months postoperative). Conclusion This report describes a simple technique for canaliculosinostomy into the caudal maxillary sinus and long-term outcome in 4 of 5 horses, all of which had resolution of epiphora. This technique can be used to resolve epiphora of various etiologies.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Veterinary Surgery