The Journal of trauma (J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care)

Publisher: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma; Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma; Trauma Association of Canada; Western Trauma Association, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

The Journal of Trauma® Injury, Infection, and Critical Care provides a specific focus on traumatic injury, as well as a wide range of subjects within this general field. Emphasizing clinical applications, techniques, and new developments in trauma care, each issue presents practical information of immediate use to the physician caring for critically injured patients.

Current impact factor: 2.96

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2013 Impact Factor 2.961
2012 Impact Factor 2.348
2011 Impact Factor 2.478
2010 Impact Factor 3.129
2009 Impact Factor 2.626
2008 Impact Factor 2.342
2007 Impact Factor 2.334
2006 Impact Factor 2.035
2004 Impact Factor 1.653
2003 Impact Factor 1.429
2002 Impact Factor 1.617
2001 Impact Factor 1.531
2000 Impact Factor 1.498
1996 Impact Factor 1.616
1995 Impact Factor 1.326
1994 Impact Factor 1.277
1993 Impact Factor 1.194
1992 Impact Factor 1.23

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.94
Cited half-life 8.50
Immediacy index 0.37
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 0.88
Website Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, The website
Other titles Journal of trauma (Online), The journal of trauma, Journal of trauma: injury infection, and critical care
ISSN 1529-8809
OCLC 44001014
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Weaning from mechanical ventilation; trauma; pulmonary contusion
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proximal traumatic lower-extremity amputation has become the signature injury of the war in Afghanistan. Casualties present in extremis and often require immediate operative control of arterial inflow to prevent exsanguination. This study evaluated the use of this strategy and its complications. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of case notes of UK service personnel, identified from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry, who sustained traumatic lower-extremity amputation requiring suprainguinal vascular control, following improvised explosive device injury in Afghanistan, between July 2008 and December 2010. RESULTS: Fifty-one casualties were identified with a median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 30. In 10 casualties, control was obtained via an extraperitoneal approach, and in 41, control was obtained via midline laparotomy and intraperitoneal (IP) approach. The most commonly controlled vessel in extraperitoneal control was the external iliac artery, and in IP control, the common iliac artery. Within the 41 patients who had IP control, 13 also required a therapeutic laparotomy, and 9 patients had bilateral injuries at the level of the proximal femur or higher. One patient, who had undergone IP control, experienced an injury to the common iliac vein, which was repaired. There were no other immediate complications recorded, and 39 casualties survived to discharge. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize the methods of proximal control in high wartime lower-extremity amputees. Although some casualties will have abdominal injuries that necessitate laparotomy, the majority in our study did not; however, in the critically ill casualty, rapid proximal control is required. Novel methods of temporary hemorrhage control may reduce the need for, and burden of, cavity surgery.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage following traumatic injury is a leading cause of military and civilian mortality. Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) has been identified as particularly lethal, especially in the prehospital setting. METHODS: All patients sustaining NCTH between August 2002 and July 2012 were identified from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. NCTH was defined as injury to a named torso axial vessel, pulmonary injury, solid-organ injury (Grade 4 or greater injury to the liver, kidney, or spleen) or pelvic fracture with ring disruption. Patients with ongoing hemorrhage were identified using either a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or the need for immediate surgical hemorrhage control. Data on injury pattern and location as well as cause of death were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: During 10 years, 296 patients were identified with NCTH, with a mortality of 85.5%. The majority of deaths occurred before hospital admission (n = 222, 75.0%). Of patients admitted to hospital, survivors (n = 43, 14.5%) had a higher median systolic blood pressure (108 [43] vs. 89 [46], p = 0.123) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (14 [12] vs. 3 [0], p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital deaths (n = 31, 10.5%). Hemorrhage was the more common cause of death (60.1%), followed by central nervous system disruption (30.8%), total body disruption (5.1%), and multiple-organ failure (4.0%). On multivariate analysis, major arterial and pulmonary hilar injury are most lethal with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 16.44 (5.50-49.11) and 9.61 (1.06-87.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the majority of patients sustaining NCTH die before hospital admission, with exsanguination and central nervous system disruption contributing to the bulk cause of death. Major arterial and pulmonary hilar injuries are independent predictors of mortality.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Crush syndrome (CS) is characterized by ischemia/reperfusion-induced rhabdomyolysis and the subsequent onset of systemic inflammation. CS is associated with a high mortality, even when patients are treated with conventional therapy. We hypothesized that treatment of lethal CS rat model with dexamethasone (DEX) have therapeutic effects on the laboratory findings and clinical course and outcome. Methods: To create a CS model, anesthetized rats were subjected to bilateral hind limb compression with rubber tourniquets for 5 hours and randomly divided into three groups as follows: saline-treated CS group, CS groups treated with low (0.1 mg/kg) and high doses (5.0 mg/kg) of DEX. Saline for the CS group or DEX for the DEX-treated CS groups was intravenously administered immediately before reperfusion. Under continuous monitoring and recording of arterial blood pressures, blood and tissue samples were collected for histologic and biochemical analysis at designated period before and after reperfusion. Results: Ischemic compression of rat hind limbs reduced the nitrite content in the crushed muscle, and the subsequent reperfusion induced reactive oxygen species-mediated circulatory collapse and systemic inflammation, finally resulting in a mortality rate of 76% by 48 hours after reperfusion. A single injection of high-dose DEX immediately before reperfusion activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by sequential phosphorylation through the nongenomic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. DEX also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by modulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, consequently suppressing myeloperoxidase activities and subsequent systemic inflammation, showing a complete recovery of the rats from lethal CS. Conclusion: These results indicate that high-dose DEX reduces systemic inflammation and contributes to the improved survival rate in a rat CS model.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Many of these injuries are preventable, and unintentional firearm injuries, in particular, may be responsive to prevention efforts. We investigated the relationship between unintentional firearm death and urbanicity among adults. This study was a retrospective analysis of national death certificate data. Unintentional adult firearm deaths in the United States from 1999 to 2006 were identified using the Multiple Cause of Death Data files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Decedents were assigned to a county of death and classified along an urban-rural continuum defined by population density and proximity to metropolitan areas. Total unintentional firearm death rates by county were analyzed in adjusted analyses using negative binomial regression. A total of 4,595 unintentional firearm injury deaths of adults occurred in the United States during the study period (a mean of 574.4 per year). Adjusted rates of unintentional firearm death showed increases from urban to rural counties. Americans in the most rural counties were significantly more likely to die of unintentional firearm deaths than those in the most urban counties (relative rate, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-3.21, p = 0.002). Rates of unintentional firearm death are significantly higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Prevention strategies should be tailored to account for both geographic location and manner of firearm injury. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The Journal of trauma

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Trauma centers are more frequently evaluating patients who are receiving anticoagulant or prescription antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy at the time of injury. Because there are reports of delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after blunt trauma in this patient group, we evaluated patients receiving ACAP with a head computed tomography (CT) on admission (CT1) followed by a routine repeat head CT (CT2) in 6 hours. We hypothesized that among patients with no traumatic findings on CT1 and a normal or unchanged interval neurologic examination, the incidence of clinically significant delayed ICH would be zero. We retrospectively reviewed adult blunt trauma patients admitted to our Level I trauma center from January 2006 to August 2009 who were receiving preinjury ACAP therapy. We reviewed medications, mechanism of injury, head CT results, and outcomes. Demographic data, injury severity scores, international normalized ratio, and neurologic examinations were recorded. We determined the incidence of delayed ICH on CT2 for patients with a negative CT1. Five hundred patients qualified for the protocol. Of these, 424 patients (85%) had a negative CT1. Among these patients, mean age was 75 years; 210 (50%) were male. Fall from standing was the most common mechanism of injury found in 357 patients (84%). Warfarin alone was taken in 68%, clopidogrel alone in 24%, and other agents in 2%. Six percent of patients were taking two agents. Mean international normalized ratio for patients on warfarin was 2.5. Among patients with a negative CT1, CT2 was obtained in 362 patients (85%) and was negative in 358 patients (99%). Four patients (1%) with a negative CT1 had a positive (n = 3) or equivocal (n = 1) CT2. All the changes on CT2 were minor and had either resolved or stabilized on third head CT. Of the four patients with positive or equivocal CT2, none had a change in neurologic examination; however, two had symptoms that could be attributed to head injury. Three were discharged home and one died of cardiac disease unrelated to head trauma. The incidence of delayed ICH in our study was 1%. However, none of the delayed findings were clinically significant. Among patients on ACAP therapy with a negative CT1 and a normal or unchanged neurologic examination, a routine CT2 is unnecessary. We recommend a period of observation to recognize those patients with symptoms that could be due to delayed ICH.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2008 (AIS 2008) is the most recent injury coding system. A mapping table from a previous AIS 98 to AIS 2008 is available. However, AIS 98 codes that are unmappable to AIS 2008 codes exist in this table. Furthermore, some AIS 98 codes can be mapped to multiple candidate AIS 2008 codes with different severities. We aimed to modify the original table to adjust the severities and to validate these changes. We modified the original table by adding links from unmappable AIS 98 codes to AIS 2008 codes. We applied the original table and our modified table to AIS 98 codes for major trauma patients. We also assigned candidate codes with different severities the weighted averages of their severities as an adjusted severity. The proportion of cases whose injury severity scores (ISSs) were computable were compared. We also compared the agreement of the ISS and New ISS (NISS) between manually determined AIS 2008 codes (MAN) and mapped codes by using our table (MAP) with unadjusted or adjusted severities. All and 72.3% of cases had their ISSs computed by our modified table and the original table, respectively. The agreement between MAN and MAP with respect to the ISS and NISS was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.939 for ISS and 0.943 for NISS). Using adjusted severities, the agreements of the ISS and NISS improved to 0.953 (p = 0.11) and 0.963 (p = 0.007), respectively. Our modified mapping table seems to allow more ISSs to be computed than the original table. Severity scores exhibited substantial agreement between MAN and MAP. The use of adjusted severities improved these agreements further.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Heat stroke (HS) is a fatal illness characterized by an elevated core body temperature above 40°C and complicated with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in patients with HS. A total of 16 patients with HS were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by CVVH for at least 96 hours, and CVVH was initiated with replacement fluid between 25°C and 30°C for 2 hours to 2.5 hours, and 36°C thereafter. The vital signs were monitored and blood samples were collected during CVVH to measure serum urea, creatinine, myoglobin, creatine kinase, and total bilirubin. All patients survived. The core temperature of the patients decreased from 41.3 ± 0.2°C to 38.7 ± 0.1°C after 2 hours and to 36.7 ± 0.1°C after 5 hours during CVVH (p < 0.05). Compared with values before starting CVVH, there were remarkable improvements in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation index (p < 0.05). The serum creatinine, urea, myoglobin, and creatine kinase decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while the bilirubinemia had no obvious decline (p > 0.05). The scores of APACHE II and arterial lactate had also obvious decline (p < 0.05). The hemodynamic variables were stabilized during CVVH, and no obvious side effects related to CVVH were found. CVVH is safe and feasible in the treatment of patients with HS by lowering core temperature, removal of myoglobin, support of multiorgan function, and modulating systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The impact of CVVH on patient outcome, however, still needs proof by larger randomized controlled trials.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of minimal aortic injuries (MAIs) are being identified with modern computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques. The optimal management and natural history of these injuries are unknown. We have adopted a policy of selective multidisciplinary nonoperative management of MAI. This study examines our experience with these patients from July 2004 to June 2009. Retrospective chart review of all blunt trauma patients who underwent chest CT angiography to evaluate for blunt aortic injury (BAI) was undertaken. All patients deemed to have a MAI were managed nonoperatively, and those with a severe aortic injury underwent repair. Data collected included age, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, type and location of aortic injury, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), overall LOS, ventilator days, disposition, and mortality. In addition, all BAIs were graded according to the Presley Trauma Center CT Grading System of Aortic Injury. Forty-seven patients with BAI were identified. Thirty-two were classified as severe injuries, and 15 were considered MAI (32%). Nineteen underwent operative repair, 13 underwent endovascular stent graft repair, and 15 were managed nonoperatively. The average Injury Severity Score was 31 ± 10, and the average age was 44 ± 20 with no significant difference across treatment groups. There was no difference in overall or intensive care unit LOS. The nonoperative group had a shorter duration of ventilator days (1.1 vs. 4.28, p = 0.02). There were five deaths, none in the nonoperative group. None of these patients required subsequent intervention. All nonoperative patients had follow-up imaging at median of 4 days; on CT chest angiography, five injuries had resolved, eight had stable intimal flaps or pseudoaneurysm, and two had no detectable injury on subsequent aortogram. Almost one-third of our BAI were safely managed nonoperatively. Patients with MAI should be considered for selective nonoperative management in a multidisciplinary approach with close radiographic follow-up. We recommend that patients with MAIs should be considered for selective nonoperative management.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: Topical hemostatic agents have generated intense research interest in recent years, prompted in part by the demands of wartime medicine. Numerous animal studies demonstrate variable degrees of efficacy of a variety of agents; however, little clinical data are available in severely traumatized patients. This report describes 30 consecutive uses of the modified rapid deployment hemostat (MRDH) during combat operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In a prospective observational fashion, traumatized patients presenting to a combat support hospital or a forward surgical team with difficult to control hemorrhage (due to anatomy, limited resources, or tactical environment) had the MRDH applied to severely bleeding wounds. Basic demographics, wounding mechanism, wound characteristics, circumstances, and efficacy were recorded. Presence of a clinical coagulopathy was also noted. Thirty hemostatic bandages were applied to 19 patients with a wide variety of wounds. All but one application occurred in the operating room. The demographics were mean age 27 years (range, 9-55 years), 95% male, 68% penetrating or fragmentation, and four casualties had a clinical coagulopathy. Hemostasis was achieved following application of the hemostatic agent in 16 of 19 wounds. Rebleeding occurred upon removal in three cases. In all cases, the patient failed conventional interventions at hemostasis before the hemostat was applied. This is the single largest description of the clinical efficacy of the MRDH and the first description during combat operations. The MRDH bandage was an effective hemostat for temporarily controlling hemorrhage in difficult circumstances. Caution should be exercised when removing the dressing as rebleeding may occur.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcome and highlight the operative tips of using the reverse posterior interosseous artery (PIA) flap in the treatment of severe contractures of the first web space. From 1985 to 2008, the reverse PIA flaps, which included fasciocutaneous flaps in 25 patients and composite flaps in 2 patients were used to cover skin defects over the first web space after release of severe contractures of the first web space. The severe contracture of the first web space was defined as the distance of less than 2 cm between the interphalangeal joint of the thumb and the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index. The flap dimensions varied between 6 cm and 22 cm (average, 13 cm) in length and 3 cm to 9 cm (average, 6 cm) in width. The largest flap was 22 cm × 6 cm and the smallest 6 cm × 3 cm. The length of the pedicle ranged from 2 cm to 10 cm (average, 8 cm). Skin defects of the donor site were covered by split-thickness skin grafts in 26 patients and direct closure in 1 patient. Twenty-six of 27 PIA flaps survived completely except venous congestion occurred in 1 patient, which led to necrosis of the distal 1/4 flap. Skin grafts over the donor sites survived completely without complications. The follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 2 years. Lipectomy or revision was performed in two patients because of scar contractures or bulkiness. The postoperative distance of the reconstructed web space was 6 cm on average. The reverse PIA flap is suited for defect cover in the treatment of severe contractures of the first web space. A usual pitfall using the reverse PIA flap is that the skin paddle is inadvertently outlined over the proximal 1 of 3 forearm to increase its distal reach, which usually leads to postoperative venous congestion. However, if the distal flap pole is placed at or distal to the midpoint from the lateral epicondyle to the radial side of the ulnar head, choosing the proximal 1 of 2 forearm as the donor site of the skin paddle to increase its distal reach is reliable.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of trauma