Radiographics (RadioGraphics)

Publisher: Radiological Society of North America

Journal description

The primary mission of RadioGraphics is to publish the best in peer-reviewed educational material, emphasizing that presented at the annual meeting of the RSNA, for radiologists, trainees, physicists, and other radiologic professionals.

Current impact factor: 2.60

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 2.602
2013 Impact Factor 2.729
2012 Impact Factor 2.791
2011 Impact Factor 2.854
2010 Impact Factor 2.76
2009 Impact Factor 2.747
2008 Impact Factor 3.095
2007 Impact Factor 2.542
2006 Impact Factor 2.344
2005 Impact Factor 2.205
2004 Impact Factor 2.494
2003 Impact Factor 2.063
2002 Impact Factor 2.191
2001 Impact Factor 1.895
2000 Impact Factor 1.396
1999 Impact Factor 1.615
1998 Impact Factor 1.042
1997 Impact Factor 1.073
1996 Impact Factor 1.068
1995 Impact Factor 1.073
1994 Impact Factor 1.078
1993 Impact Factor 0.721
1992 Impact Factor 0.688

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 3.81
Cited half-life 8.90
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.23
Website RadioGraphics website
Other titles Radiographics (Online), Radiographics
ISSN 1527-1323
OCLC 42644257
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Radiological Society of North America

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On PubMed Central only
    • Publisher will deposit final published version of NIH author's article in PubMed Central
    • Publisher's version/PDF must be used
    • Publisher last contacted on 19/08/2015
  • Classification
    white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenal lesions are a common imaging finding. The vast majority of adrenal lesions are adenomas, which contain intracytoplasmic (microscopic) fat. It is important to distinguish between adenomas and malignant tumors, and chemical shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to accomplish this distinction by depicting the fat in adenomas. Chemical shift imaging is based on the difference in precession frequencies of water and fat molecules, which causes them to be in different relative phases during the acquisition sequence and allows in-phase and opposed-phase images to be obtained. It is important to acquire these images by using the earliest possible echo times, with the opposed-phase echo before the in-phase echo, and by using a single breath hold to preserve diagnostic accuracy. Intracytoplasmic fat is depicted as signal drop on opposed-phase images when compared with in-phase images. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing signal drop are detailed. The appearances of adrenal adenomas and other adrenal tumors on chemical shift MR images are described, and discriminatory ability at chemical shift MR imaging compared with that at adrenal computed tomography (CT) is explained. Other adrenal-related conditions in which chemical shift MR imaging is helpful are also discussed. Chemical shift MR imaging is a robust tool for evaluating adrenal lesions that are indeterminate at nonenhanced CT. However, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages, including several potential imaging pitfalls. The characterization of adrenal lesions by using chemical shift MR imaging and adrenal CT should always occur in the appropriate clinical setting. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Locally advanced and node-positive cervical cancers are usually treated with external beam radiation therapy and intracavitary brachytherapy with concomitant chemotherapy. In patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, imaging plays a vital role in pretreatment planning, assessment of primary tumor response to treatment, follow-up, and evaluation of treatment-related complications. Radiation therapy planning is crucial to successful local and regional control of disease. Patient selection criteria for radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy are described, as is assessment of treatment response of the primary cervical tumor at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Image interpretation can be challenging because of radiation therapy-related changes in the pelvic organs. Expected changes in the bladder, bowel, and bone marrow after radiation therapy are described, and multimodality imaging findings at computed tomography, MR imaging, and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography are illustrated. Complications after radiation therapy have declined over recent years because of targeted radiation therapy. These complications can be divided into acute and chronic effects, where acute toxic effects occur within weeks of treatment. Chronic complications include cervical stenosis, small bowel stricture, fistula formation, and insufficiency fractures. Imaging is an essential tool in the care of patients with cervical cancer treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The reporting radiologist should be familiar with the expected imaging appearances of the pelvic organs after radiation therapy, as well as potential complications, to avoid pitfalls in image interpretation. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of the similarities in the histopathologic findings and the clinical-biologic behaviors of select biliary and pancreatic conditions, a new disease concept, "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts," has been proposed. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic pathologic conditions of the biliary tract have their counterparts in the pancreas. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is the biliary manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is its pancreatic counterpart. People with chronic alcoholism can develop peribiliary cysts and fibrosis as well as pancreatic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis simultaneously. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm are considered pancreatic counterparts for the biliary neoplasms of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract, and hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, respectively. The anatomic proximity of the biliary tract and the pancreas, the nearly simultaneous development of both organs from the endoderm of the foregut, and the presence of pancreatic exocrine acini within the peribiliary glands surrounding the extrahepatic bile ducts are suggested as causative factors for these similarities. Interestingly, these diseases show "nearly" identical findings at cross-sectional imaging, an observation that further supports this new disease concept. New information obtained with regard to biliary diseases can be used for evaluation of pancreatic abnormalities, and vice versa. In addition, combined genetic and molecular studies may be performed to develop novel therapeutic targets. For both biliary and pancreatic diseases, imaging plays a pivotal role in initial diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response, efficacy testing of novel drugs, and long-term surveillance. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Boyden's nomenclature, which was based on postmortem specimens and published in 1955 prior to the advent of computed tomography (CT), is commonly used to describe the normal segmental bronchial anatomy and various abnormalities. However, several additional anomalies have been recognized since that time, and there is some confusion over the names used to describe these anomalies. Several congenital branching anomalies affecting the trachea, main bronchi, and intermediate bronchus have been reported, all of which can be recognized at chest CT but are often overlooked. These anomalies, which probably occur early in fetal life, can be either supernumerary, with defects occurring at 29-30 days gestation, or displaced, with defects occurring later. Tracheobronchial positional anomalies are often associated with other congenital abnormalities but may be isolated. They often are asymptomatic but can be responsible for pulmonary symptoms such as dyspnea, recurrent pneumonia, and hemoptysis. It is essential that these anomalies are recognized prior to lung resection to avoid complications, especially when video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is performed. In addition, bronchoscopists should be aware of these anomalies before performing diagnostic or therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures. Awareness of a few key bronchial anatomic principles and use of a lobe-based classification scheme will facilitate recognition of tracheobronchial positional anomalies. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), with both carbon 11 ((11)C) choline and fluorine 18 ((18)F) choline, is an increasingly used tool in the evaluation of patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. It has allowed detection and localization of locally recurrent and metastatic lesions that were difficult or impossible to identify using more conventional modalities. Many of the patients followed for their prostate cancer are elderly and have a higher rate of nonprostate cancer lesions or malignancies. As our experience with choline PET/CT has grown, it has become apparent that many of these nonprostate cancer processes, both benign and malignant, can be detected. Invasive thymoma, renal cell carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and parathyroid adenoma are a few of the processes that have been incidentally detected with (11)C-choline PET/CT at our institution and have significantly altered subsequent clinical management of the patient. Although most of the secondary lesions are detected due to their increased (11)C-choline avidity, several have been detected due to their decreased or lack of avidity in the background of a highly avid organ. For instance, large liver masses that are relatively non-choline-avid create large activity defects in the otherwise highly active liver. Familiarity with normal (11)C-choline physiologic activity, the most common prostate metastatic patterns, and imaging characteristics of secondary lesions is essential for the detection and correct diagnosis of such lesions so that proper follow-up and management can be recommended. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-induced injury commonly affects the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems because of the mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. In pill esophagitis, injury is frequently related to direct contact with the esophageal mucosa, resulting in small superficial ulcers in the mid esophagus. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to gastrointestinal tract ulcers and small bowel mucosal diaphragms (thin weblike strictures). Injury to the pancreatic and hepatobiliary systems can manifest as pancreatitis, acute or chronic hepatitis, cholestasis, or steatosis and steatohepatitis (which may progress to cirrhosis). Various drugs may also insult the hepatic vasculature, resulting in Budd-Chiari and sinusoidal obstructive syndromes. Focal lesions such as hepatic adenomas may develop after use of oral contraceptives or anabolic steroids. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can aid in diagnosis of drug-induced injuries and often are necessary to exclude other causes. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography (US) of the breast and axilla is primarily used to evaluate a symptomatic patient or to further investigate findings identified with other imaging modalities. Breast imagers are generally familiar with US evaluation of level I, II, and III axillary lymph nodes in the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. However, the axilla contains nonlymphatic tissue as well, including muscle, fat, and vascular and neurologic structures, and anatomically the breast lies on the chest wall. Therefore, lesions of nonmammary and non-lymph node origin in the axilla or chest wall are not infrequently encountered during US evaluation of the breast or axilla. In fact, such lesions may be the reason that the patient presents to the breast imaging department for evaluation. Understanding the anatomy of the chest wall and axilla and using a systematic US approach will help radiologists expedite accurate diagnosis, suggest optimal additional imaging, and streamline appropriate clinical referral. Key imaging features of nonmammary non-lymph node masses are highlighted, and case examples are provided to illustrate these features. Appropriate patient management is critical in these cases because referral to a breast surgeon may not be the best next step. Depending on institutional referral patterns, other subspecialty surgeons will be involved. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional datasets acquired using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are ideally suited for characterization of the aortic root. These modalities offer different advantages and limitations, which must be weighed according to the clinical context. This article provides an overview of current aortic root imaging, highlighting normal anatomy, pathologic conditions, imaging techniques, measurement thresholds, relevant surgical procedures, postoperative complications and potential imaging pitfalls. Patients with a range of clinical conditions are predisposed to aortic root disease, including Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Various surgical techniques may be used to repair the aortic root, including placement of a composite valve graft, such as the Bentall and Cabrol procedures; placement of an aortic root graft with preservation of the native valve, such as the Yacoub and David techniques; and implantation of a biologic graft, such as a homograft, autograft, or xenograft. Potential imaging pitfalls in the postoperative period include mimickers of pathologic processes such as felt pledgets, graft folds, and nonabsorbable hemostatic agents. Postoperative complications that may be encountered include pseudoaneurysms, infection, and dehiscence. Radiologists should be familiar with normal aortic root anatomy, surgical procedures, and postoperative complications, to accurately interpret pre- and postoperative imaging performed for evaluation of the aortic root. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Solid and cystic pancreatic neoplasms are being recognized more frequently with increasing utilization and spatial resolution of modern imaging techniques. In addition to the more common primary pancreatic solid (ductal adenocarcinoma) and cystic neoplasms of epithelial origin, nonepithelial neoplasms of the pancreas may appear as well-defined solid or cystic neoplasms. Most of these lesions have characteristic imaging features, such as a well-defined border, which allows differentiation from ductal adenocarcinoma. Solid masses include neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma, leiomyoma, lipoma, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Schwannomas and desmoid tumors can be solid or cystic. Cystic tumors include mature cystic teratoma and lymphangioma. Lipoma, PEComa, and mature cystic teratoma can contain fat, and ganglioneuroma and mature cystic teratoma may contain calcification. Although these unusual benign neoplasms are rare, the radiologist should at least consider them in the differential diagnosis of well-defined lesions of the pancreas. The goal of this comprehensive review is to improve understanding of these rare primary pancreatic mesenchymal tumors.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) venography and computed tomographic (CT) venography are suited for displaying the convexity veins that drain the medial and lateral surfaces of the brain hemispheres. However, such is not the case for the bridging veins of the skull base. Technical factors prevent contrast material-enhanced MR or CT images obtained in standard axial, coronal, and sagittal planes from fully displaying the curved pathways of these clinically important venous structures. This limitation can be overcome by using a reconstruction technique that depicts these venous structures and their interconnections. Curved and multiplanar reformatted images that distill the important venous features often require knowledgeable manipulation of source images by an operator who is familiar with numerous venous variants and their surgical implications. The normal anatomy of the draining veins is detailed-anatomy that radiologists must master before they can show the surgeon the important venous anatomy that is often missing at standard imaging; this information will foster better communication between radiologists and their surgical colleagues. As a practical matter, the skull base veins are arbitrarily subdivided into those that are at greatest risk with the pterional approach and the subtemporal approach, respectively. These approaches can be expanded to define connections between the superficial venous system and the other valveless venous networks that drain the deep portions of the cerebral hemisphere, the scalp, face, muscles of the neck, diploë of the skull, and meninges. As radiologists gain experience, their image interpretations should mature beyond simple analysis of the primary hemodynamic changes induced by intraoperative sacrifice or injury. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that dual-energy computed tomography (CT) can provide useful information in several chest-related clinical indications. Compared with single-energy CT, dual-energy CT of the chest is feasible with the use of a radiation-dose-neutral scanning protocol. This article highlights the different types of images that can be generated by using dual-energy CT protocols such as virtual monochromatic, virtual unenhanced (ie, water), and pulmonary blood volume (ie, iodine) images. The physical basis of dual-energy CT and material decomposition are explained. The advantages of the use of virtual low-monochromatic images include reduced volume of intravenous contrast material and improved contrast resolution of images. The use of virtual high-monochromatic images can reduce beam hardening and contrast streak artifacts. The pulmonary blood volume images can help differentiate various parenchymal abnormalities, such as infarcts, atelectasis, and pneumonias, as well as airway abnormalities. The pulmonary blood volume images allow quantitative and qualitative assessment of iodine distribution. The estimation of iodine concentration (quantitative assessment) provides objective analysis of enhancement. The advantages of virtual unenhanced images include differentiation of calcifications, talc, and enhanced thoracic structures. Dual-energy CT has applications in oncologic imaging, including diagnosis of thoracic masses, treatment planning, and assessment of response to treatment. Understanding the concept of dual-energy CT and its clinical application in the chest are the goals of this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: The replaced shoulder is increasingly encountered by the radiologist, both on a dedicated and incidental basis, in this era of the growing population of aging patients wishing to preserve their mobility and function. Knowledge of the normal biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint-particularly the function of the rotator cuff and the unique relationship of the humeral head to the glenoid-is essential for understanding the need for shoulder replacement and its subsequent complications, because the intent of shoulder arthroplasty is to approximate the normal joint as closely as possible. The most common indications for shoulder arthroplasty are osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, proximal humerus fractures, irreparable rotator cuff tears, rotator cuff arthropathy, and avascular necrosis of the humeral head. Knowledge of the key imaging features of these indications helps facilitate a correlative understanding between the initial diagnosis and the choice of which type of arthroplasty is used-total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, or partial joint replacement (humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty). The preoperative requirements and usual postoperative appearance of each arthroplasty type are summarized, as well as the complications of shoulder arthroplasty, including those unique to or closely associated with each type of arthroplasty and those that can be encountered with any type of shoulder arthroplasty. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonographically (US) guided percutaneous biopsy of a neck lesion is a cost-effective, safe, and diagnostically effective procedure without radiation exposure. The benefit of real-time visualization of the needle location allows for instantaneous maneuvering of the needle trajectory for safe and accurate tissue sampling with short procedural time. Effective US-guided biopsy requires technical experience, strong clinical acumen, and skillful biopsy technique. A neuroradiologist's knowledge of head and neck anatomy and pathology allows correlation with cross-sectional imaging and enhances the understanding of US imaging evaluation. Familiarity with a spectrum of neck surgeries and reconstructions and expertise in imaging evaluation of the treated neck are invaluable in accurate identification of the target for biopsy in patients with treatment-related altered anatomy using US guidance. After thyroid nodules, the common adult neck masses are lymphadenopathy, head and neck cancer, salivary neoplasms, nerve sheath tumors, and inflammatory and infectious pseudomasses. Diagnostic expertise in the imaging characteristics of these individual pathologic conditions and their differential diagnoses also play an important role in choosing the biopsy technique and in procuring an adequate sample for diagnosis, including material for ancillary laboratory testing. Using an anatomic zone approach, this article illustrates the practical considerations in patient selection, the methodical analysis of preprocedure cross-sectional imaging and its correlation with real-time US evaluation, general principles for optimizing US instrumentation, and biopsy technique. In skillful hands, the versatility and portability of US make it the valuable modality for histologic sampling of superficial head and neck lesions. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is a common malignancy observed in infants and young children. It has a varied prognosis, ranging from spontaneous regression to aggressive metastatic tumors with fatal outcomes despite multimodality therapy. Patients are divided into risk groups on the basis of age, stage, and biologic tumor factors. Multiple clinical and imaging tests are needed for accurate patient assessment. Iodine 123 ((123)I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is the first-line functional imaging agent used in neuroblastoma imaging. MIBG uptake is seen in 90% of neuroblastomas, identifying both the primary tumor and sites of metastatic disease. The addition of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT/computed tomography to (123)I-MIBG planar images can improve identification and characterization of sites of uptake. During scan interpretation, use of MIBG semiquantitative scoring systems improves description of disease extent and distribution and may be helpful in defining prognosis. Therapeutic use of MIBG labeled with iodine 131 ((131)I) is being investigated as part of research trials, both as a single agent and in conjunction with other therapies. (131)I-MIBG therapy has been studied in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma and those with relapsed disease. Development and implementation of an institutional (131)I-MIBG therapy research program requires extensive preparation with a focus on radiation protection. (©)RSNA, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiographics