Harvard AIDS review (Harv AIDS Rev)

Publisher: Harvard AIDS Institute

Journal Impact: 0.00*

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

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Other titles Harvard AIDS review
ISSN 1526-0232
OCLC 34041993
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Publications in this journal

  • Article · Apr 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, young people have the highest rate of new HIV infections, with AIDS ranked as the sixth leading cause of death for individuals between the ages of 15 and 24. In the US, it has been noted that 1 in 4 new infections occur in youths between the ages of 13 and 21. Some of the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in young people include unsafe sex behaviors and injection drug use as well as the influence of peers. In view of this, prevention efforts should address each risk group, including teenagers from different cultures, backgrounds, and levels of sexual experience, in a way that is relevant to them. The most effective prevention messages are those that help provide skills to be used interpersonally regarding refusal, delay, and negotiation. In addition to school and community programs, health care providers and parents could also help to educate the teens about risks and ways to avoid them. These health care providers also have a role to play in assisting youths in overcoming denial and providing support in the process of disclosing and notifying partners about the infection. Finally, as peer pressure puts adolescents at risk, peer education would be an important intervention as well.
    Article · Apr 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 2000 · Harvard AIDS review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In South Africa, a pregnant woman infected with HIV took zidovudine to protect her fetus, but the child later developed HIV because the woman was not told about breast milk transmission. Women in developing countries have been hit hard by the AIDS epidemic because social inequalities that make it impossible for them to negotiate for safer sex or even to choose their sexual partners. In most developing countries, the only treatment women have access to is the zidovudine that is available only during their participation in clinical trials on prenatal transmission. Activists have expressed concern over programs that attempt to save the lives of babies with no regard for their mothers or other women. Women with HIV need access to health care, to information, and to counselors who can help them make choices. Women must be able to assess whether to risk breast feeding or attempt costly bottle feeding, which may lead to higher levels of infant mortality from bacteria in contaminated water. Women must also be educated so that they can protect their sexual health. In some settings, the topics of sex and sexuality still must be introduced into public discourse. Strong prevention programs are reducing HIV-infection rates among young women in parts of Tanzania, among pregnant women and prostitutes in Dakar, among prostitutes in Thailand and Nepal, and among street children in Brazil. Effective programs must consider AIDS a social issue and address education, equality, and information access.
    Article · Feb 1999 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1999 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1999 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1998 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1998 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1998 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1997 · Harvard AIDS review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major HIV epidemic is underway in India, home to 900 million people and the world's second largest population. The director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research expects India by the year 2000 to be the country with the largest number of HIV infections, with some experts predicting 5 million people to be infected with HIV in India by the year 2000. Others predict 30-55 million to be infected. Although HIV is increasingly spreading to typically low-risk group populations, it is the female sex workers and their clients, long distance truck drivers, men who have sex with men, blood transfusion donors and recipients, and IV drug users throughout the country who are both the reservoirs of HIV and vectors of transmission to the general population. For example, 52% of sex workers in Bombay in 1994 were found to be infected with HIV. Studies indicate that India's long-distance truck drivers average 200 sexual encounters per year; at any given time, 70% of them have STDs. Preliminary surveys estimate that almost 33% are infected with HIV. HIV seroprevalence among truckers in Madras requesting HIV testing because they have STDs increased from almost 60% in 1993 to 91% in 1995. Moreover, the illegal status of homosexuality in India has created an underground culture in which HIV and STDs are rampant; one 1995 study in the Sangli district of Maharashtra found 50% of men who have sex with men to be infected with HIV. Half of India's blood for transfusion is drawn from commercial donors. A Bombay study, however, found 86% of such donors screened in 1992 to be HIV-seropositive and not all blood banks comply with mandatory screening laws. As widespread HIV infection evolves into a multitude of AIDS cases, India's health care system and economy will be heavily taxed, and the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases greatly increased. More than half the population carries the TB bacillus. The government by 1992 had drafted a national prevention and control plan and formed the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), but much remains to be accomplished in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Nongovernmental organizations are working to strengthen government efforts.
    Article · Feb 1995 · Harvard AIDS review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Participation in ancient traditions is facilitating the current spread of HIV through India. For most of the year, Koovagam is a typical Indian village. Each April on the night of the full moon, however, the Chittirai-Pournami festival is held in Koovagam, a celebration in homage to Aravan during which up to 2000 pilgrims from across the country engage in thousands of acts of unprotected sexual intercourse. Aravan is a man depicted in a Hindu tale who asked to experience sexual bliss before being sacrificed to the gods. To fulfill this last wish, the god Krishna is said to have assumed the form of a beautiful woman and had sexual intercourse with Aravan. Many of the festival participants are hijras, eunuchs and transsexuals who sell sex for a living. Hijras may be accompanied by men who serve as their sex partners and bodyguards. Surveys suggest that one-third of the 10,000 hijras in New Delhi may be infected with HIV. Other participants are known as dangas, men who are either married or single and appear to lead strictly heterosexual lives throughout the year except during the Chittirai-Pournami festival when they dress as women and sell sex to other men attending the festival. The panthis comprise another group of participants and tend to be either single or married men who attend the festival to have sex with the hijras and dangas for fees up to ten rupees, approximately US$0.50, per sexual encounter. Prostitution within the devadasi sect and the sale of young, virgin girls in the state of Andhra Pradesh to the highest male bidders are other examples of how ancient traditions are facilitating the current spread of HIV in India.
    Article · Feb 1995 · Harvard AIDS review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many goods are transported from Bangalore and Bombay along the highway which cuts across the farmlands of Belgaum district, Karnataka state. As they pass through Belgaum, truck drivers have sex with prostitutes. Local devadasis, women who belong to a Hindu sect, rely upon sex work, concubinage, and begging to survive. In 1993, MYRADA, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), determined that more than 9% of these women seeking HIV testing in the district were seropositive for the virus. Acting upon this finding, MYRADA launched an HIV prevention program among the devadasis. The program soon expanded to include the general population amid concerns that targeting devadasis would further marginalize them and not enhance their risk reduction behavior. Less than half of the sex workers and less than 25% of all women interviewed had heard of AIDS. MYRADA therefore focused upon training specific groups, such as volunteer health workers, traditional midwives, barbers, and government employees with extensive public contact, to act as HIV educators. The NGO also uses village meetings, folk and popular music, billboards, traveling programs of movies and music videos, street theater, and newspaper advertisements to communicate HIV prevention messages. Moreover, in the interest of getting prevention messages to the large number of illiterate people, print materials were redesigned to carry fewer words and more pictures. MYRADA is close to ensuring that no one in the area needs to walk more than 10 minutes to buy a condom.
    Article · Feb 1995 · Harvard AIDS review
  • Article · Feb 1995 · Harvard AIDS review