Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews (Diabetes Metabol Res Rev)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews is a print and electronic journal that publishes original research articles and reviews in diabetes and related areas of metabolism. The journal is dedicated to publishing papers with the shortest achievable lead times. The Editor-in-Chief and Co-Editors will consider original articles on the aetiology and pathogenesis of diabetes as well as treatment and management issues related to patient care. Areas of controversy are especially welcome. The reviews section serves the community of clinicians and researchers by providing an ongoing update of clinical and basic scientific advances in the most important areas of diabetes and metabolism.

Current impact factor: 3.55

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.553
2013 Impact Factor 3.593
2012 Impact Factor 2.968
2011 Impact Factor 3.373
2010 Impact Factor 3.094
2009 Impact Factor 2.762
2008 Impact Factor 3.149

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 3.42
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.80
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.08
Website Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews website
Other titles Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews (Online), Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, Diabetes metabolism research and reviews
ISSN 1520-7560
OCLC 39529047
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

  • Pre-print
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    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
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    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that results in foot complications for many people world-wide. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated the global prevalence of diabetes in adults to be 9%. To ascertain the risk that an individual patient might develop a diabetic foot ulcer that could lead to an amputation, clinicians are strongly encouraged to perform a risk assessment. Monteiro-Soares and Dinis-Ribeiro have presented a new DIAbetic FOot Risk Assessment with the acronym DIAFORA. It is different from other risk assessments in that it predicts the risk of developing both diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and amputation specifically. The risk variables were derived by regression analysis based on a data set of 293 patients from a high risk setting, a Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic, who had diabetes and a DFU. Clear descriptions of the risk variables are provided as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the risk categories. As an added benefit, likelihood ratios are provided that will help clinicians determine the risk of amputation for individual patients. Having a risk assessment form is important for clinician use and examples exist. A question is raised about the effectiveness of risk assessment and how effectiveness might be determined.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not reach glycemic targets, despite treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and basal insulin therapy. Several options exist for treatment intensification beyond basal insulin, and the treatment paradigm is complex. In this review, the options for treatment intensification will be explored, focusing on drug classes that act via the incretin system and paying particular attention to the short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide. Current treatment guidelines will be summarized and discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may have a beneficial role in pancreatic β-cell function. In the present study, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with LC-MS/MS was used to quantitatively assess the impact of the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-(OH)2 D3 , on global protein expression in INS-1E cell secretome. Twenty one proteins were found up-regulated (≥1.5 fold changes) and three down-regulated (≤0.67) after treatment of INS-1E cells with 1,25-(OH)2 D3. Up-regulation of proteins implicated in β-cell growth and proliferation, such as IGF2, IGFBP7 and gelsolin, suggest that 1,25-(OH)2 D3 has a positive effect on β-cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, modulations of several proteins implicated in prohormone processing and insulin exocytosis (IGF2, IGFBP7, Scg5, ProSAAS, Fabp5, Ptprn2 and gelsolin) appears to support the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2 D3 play positive modulatory role in insulin processing and secretion. Together, we reveal a number of novel vitamin D-regulated proteins which may contribute to a better understanding of the reported beneficial effects of vitamin D on pancreatic β-cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Severe hypoglycemic episodes during the daytime of Ramadan fasting is the most feared complication. Low Glucose Suspend(LGS) feature can be used to reduce it. In a prospective study we investigated the effect of the LGS algorithm on the frequency of hypoglycemia in adolescents with T1DM who wished to fast Ramadan. Subjects and methods: Sixty patients (19 males and 41 females, 15.6 ± 2.7 years, duration of diabetes 5.8 ± 2.9 years, pump therapy for 1.73 ± 0.99 years, used the Paradigm(®) Veo(™) system (Medtronic) and were divided into two groups: First (n = 25): those who used the sensor with LGS feature on . Second(n = 35): those who used the sensor but turned LGS off. Results: A total of 2,716 LGS alerts occurred, and 48.6% began in the afternoon between 4pm - 7pm . The mean duration of LGS events was 26.5 min, 38% lasted for <5 min, and 5.3% lasted for 120 min. Among these episodes, the mean sensor glucose was 62.3 ± 5.96 mg/dl at LGS activation , rose to 129.8 ± 11.6 mg/dl by the end of the LGS episode (when insulin delivery was automatically resumed), and was 155.6 ± 11.1 mg/dl at 240 min. LGS usage significantly reduced AUC <70 ,AUC < 60 mg/dL(p = 0.000) and >240 mg/dl (p = 0.006). Non of the LGS on group broke their fast vs. 15 in the second group (p = 0.00). No episodes of severe hyperglycemia or DKA were noticed in both groups. Conclusion: Usage of LGS significantly reduced exposure to hypoglycemia without compromising safety. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a form of autoimmune diabetes with heterogeneous features. This study aimed to investigate the persistent status of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) in patients with LADA and its association with clinical characteristics. Methods: This 3-year follow-up study enrolled 107 LADA and 40 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from Oct 2005 to Dec 2013. GADA titer, epitopes, and clinical characteristics (including fasting C-peptide and HbA1c) in LADA patients were assayed annually. HLA-DQ genotypes were also analyzed. The relationship between the persistence of GADA and clinical characteristics were investigated in LADA patients. Results: After 3-year follow-up, 36.5% (39/107) LADA patients remained GADA-positive (persistently positive group); 19.6% (21/107) patients fluctuated positively and negatively (fluctuating group); while 43.9% (47/107) patients became GADA-negative, among which 61.7% (29/47) seroconversions occurred within 6 months follow-up (transiently positive group). The GADA persistently positive group possessed higher titer of GADA than transiently positive group and fluctuant group (all P =0.000),higher reactivities to middle and C-terminal regions of GAD65 than those in transiently positive group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, respectively), and lower baseline fasting C-peptide level than T2DM patients and transiently positive group [415(31-1862) vs. 620(220-1658) pmol/L, P = 0.014; 415(31 ~ 1862) vs. 705(64 ~ 1541) pmol/L, P = 0.017, respectively]. The GADA transiently positive group retained a higher HbA1C level when compared to T2DM patients (P = 0.023). In addition, the three LADA groups shared similar frequencies of HLA-DQ susceptible haplotypes that were higher as compared with T2DM. The GADA persistently positive group had a higher annual declining rate in fasting C-peptide than T2DM patients [-14%(-174% ~ 33%) vs. -1%(-27% ~ 28%), P = 0.007]. Conclusion: LADA patients with GADA transient positivity account for a large proportion, whose clinical characteristics and HLA-DQ haplotypes are different from that of T2DM. The patients with high titer GADA and reactivities to GADA65 middle and C-terminal regions showed a persistent GADA positivity, in which a worse baseline and accelerated decline of beta cell function need early intervention in the practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Abnormal activity and distribution of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) are associated with chronic inflammatory status. In this study, we investigate the activity and distribution of plasma PAF-AH and their association with metabolic components in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in their neonates. Methods: Based on the International Association of Diabetes Pregnancy Study Group criteria, we performed a case-controlled study of 101 women with GDM, 98 women with uncomplicated pregnancies, 142 neonates of mothers with GDM, and 121 neonates of mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies. Plasma PAF-AH, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated PAF-AH (H-PAF-AH) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoprotein-associated PAF-AH (apoB-PAF-AH) activities were measured using the trichloroacetic acid precipitation procedure with PAF C-16 as a substrate. Results: The plasma PAF-AH and apoB-PAF-AH activities, TG levels, atherogenic index (AI) and TG/HDL-C ratio were increased, and the H-PAF-AH proportions were decreased in the mothers with GDM compared with the control mothers (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that the apoB and TG levels were significant predictors of plasma PAF-AH or apoB-PAF-AH activities, while the LDL-C levels, weight gain during pregnancy, and age were associated with H-PAF-AH activities. The neonates of mothers with GDM had higher plasma insulin and glucose concentrations (P < 0.05) and tended to exhibit increased serum apoB levels (P = 0.062) compared with the neonates of mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies. Conclusion: The mothers with GDM presented with a state of chronic inflammation, and these mothers and their neonates also exhibited unfavourable metabolic profiles in terms of glucose and lipids.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality events in patients with type 2 diabetes and to calculate their population attributable fraction (PAF) among a representative Iranian population. Methods: A total of 1198 patients with type 2 diabetes (504 men and 694 women), aged ≥ 30 years, without prevalent CVD, with a median follow-up of 10 years were included in current study. To examine the association between risk factors and their outcomes, multivariate sex adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results: During the study, 281 and 172 participants experienced CVD and all-cause mortality events, respectively. Regarding CVD events, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 7.22 - < 10 mmol/L [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.96], FPG level ≥ 10 mmol/L (HR 2.04, 1.53-2.72), hypertension (HR 1.65, 1.28-2.13), hypercholesterolemia (HR 1.96, 1.40-2.75) and high waist to hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.30, 0.99-1.70; P=0.051) were significant predictors and corresponding PAFs were 9.76, 17.84, 23.26, 41.63 and 14.76%, respectively. Considering all-cause mortality events, hypertension (HR 1.70, 1.23-2.36), FPG level ≥ 10 mmol/L (HR 2.31, 1.55-3.20) and smoking (HR 1.45, 1.03-2.04) were significant predictors and corresponding PAFs were 25.81, 20.88 and 11.18%, respectively. Meanwhile, being overweight or obese was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality events. Conclusions: Among modifiable risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and central adiposity for CVD, smoking for mortality events and hypertension and poor glycemic control for both outcomes, need to be paid most attention by healthcare professionals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To assess the association between parity and mortality in adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their matched controls. Methods: Individual data (308,617 person-years) on mortality and the reproductive histories of a Finnish cohort of 2,307 women and 2,819 men with T1D, each with two matched controls, were obtained from the National Population Register. All persons with diabetes had been diagnosed with T1D in 1965-1979 at the age of 17 or under. Results: All-cause mortality in people without offspring was significantly higher than that in people with children among both people with diabetes and non-diabetic control persons in both sexes (all p-values <0.01). In men with offspring, the decrease of mortality rate compared with men without offspring was less marked among those with diabetes (9% reduction in mortality hazard ratio (HR) with one offspring, 47 % with two) than among those without diabetes (33% HR (p=0.025) and 61 % HR (p=0.023) reduction, respectively). In women with offspring, the association between parity and mortality was independent of diabetes status. Having at least two offspring was associated with a decreased hazard of diabetes-related death regardless of sex; among women with diabetes, even having one offspring was associated with a decreased hazard of dying from diabetes (HR=0.46; 95 % CI 0.31, 0.69). Conclusions: The association between parity and mortality follows different patterns in men and women with T1D. To what extent this reflects effects of health on family planning decisions in people with T1D cannot be defined without further studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Although insulin monotherapy prevents death from ketoacidosis, it does not prevent either the hyperglycemic surges or the hypoglycemic plunges of glucose levels that plague the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. However significant improvements have occurred with the combination of continuous insulin delivery matched by continuous glucose monitoring, but the technology is not available for all patients, requires extensive education, is expensive and moreover, while much better than standard care, it almost never reduces hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) to below 6%. This may indicate that an improved diabetes therapy involving antagonism of glucagon action will for the first time control glucose levels to normal and eradicate the long-term complications of diabetes. Although one can never predict that results in animals will be reproduced in humans, the available evidence suggests that type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients may expect far superior control of the metabolic abnormalities without the need for significant monitoring of glucose, a very important but expensive part of any insulin regimen.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: To derive a new model to classify subjects with diabetes and active diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) by their risk of lower extremity amputation (LEA). A prospective cohort study was conducted that included all subjects with DFU attending our Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic from 2010 to 2013. Variables were collected at baseline. Subjects were followed until healing, LEA, death or for at least 3 months. Logistic regression was used to derive the new model and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was assessed to propose the model with the greatest discrimination. A total of 293 participants were included and followed for a median of 91 days. In 23.2% amputation was required, 5.1% died and 3.1% were lost. Our final model included the variables most commonly used in clinical practice for diabetic foot risk assessment (presence of neuropathy, foot deformity, peripheral arterial disease and previous foot complications) in addition to multiple DFU, infection, gangrene and DFU affecting bone. This model had an AUC of 0.91 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.87-0.95] and as classification of 0.89 (CI 95% 0.84-0.93) for LEA prediction. The high risk group presented a positive likelihood ratio of 5 (CI 95% 3–8) and predictive value of 58 (46–71). Only 1 minor LEA occurred in the low risk group. We propose a new classification: DIAFORA (DIAbetic Foot Risk Assessment). This classification was equally or more accurate for LEA prediction in DFU patients when compared to the existing ones.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To investigate the association of serum uric acid (UA) level with renal function change in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: T2DM patients who had been followed-up for at least 3 years were included. Participants were categorized into stable, progression, or regression groups according to their change in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage. During the follow-up period, all numeric values of metabolic factors, including the UA level and the medication possession rate were calculated in order to investigate their associations with CKD development. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with change in CKD. Results: 2367 T2DM patients were enrolled in this study and followed-up for a mean of 4.6 years. The numbers of patients in the stable, progression and regression groups were 1133 (47.9%), 487 (20.6%), and 747 (31.5%), respectively. The progression group had the highest serum UA level (6.9 ± 1.8 mg/dL) and the regression group had the lowest UA level (5.4 ± 1.5 mg/dL). In addition, we found that the serum UA level was an independent factor associated with CKD progression when the value exceeded 6.3 mg/dL. A lower UA level could be beneficial for CKD improvement in T2DM patients with stage 3 ~ 5 CKD. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the serum UA level is associated with CKD regression and progression and suggested that a high normal serum UA level should be closely monitored in patients with T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with BMI, body composition, and bone metabolism in the PCOS and control women. Methods: 52 PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with ELISA. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: PCOS women showed different body composition compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS didn't show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and BMD in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and BMD in both groups. Conclusions: The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Retinol binding protein (RBP) and its membrane receptor, STRA6, are vital for the management of vitamin A in the body. Recently, elevated serum RBP levels have been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, conflicting opinions exist as to how these increased levels can cause insulin resistance. Methods: In order to better understand the influences of RBP, a proteomic study was devised to determine the direct effect of RBP on a mouse muscle cell line, since the muscle is the principal site of insulin induced glucose uptake. C2C12 cells were treated with RBP for 16 hours and the proteome analysed for alterations in protein abundance and phosphorylation by 2-DE. Results: A number of changes were observed in response to RBP treatment, of which the most interesting were decreased levels of the phosphatase, protein phosphatase 1 β. This phosphatase is responsible for regulating glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), the rate-limiting enzymes involved in glycogen storage and utilisation. RBP treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation and inhibition of GS, with detrimental effects on insulin stimulated glycogen production in these cells. Conclusion: The results indicate that RBP may have a negative effect on energy storage in the cell and could contribute to the development of insulin resistance in muscle tissue. Understanding how RBP influences insulin resistance may reveal novel strategies to target this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Physical functioning may be an important pre-clinical marker of chronic disease, used as a tool to identify patients at risk for future cardiometabolic abnormalities. This study evaluated if self-reported physical functioning was associated with the development of cardiometabolic abnormalities or their clustering (metabolic syndrome) over time. Methods: Participants (n=2,254) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who reported physical functioning on the Short Form health survey and had a metabolic syndrome assessment (elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, and waist circumference; reduced HDL cholesterol) in 2000 were included. Discrete survival analysis was used to assess the 10 year risk of developing metabolic syndrome or a syndrome component through 2010. Results: At baseline, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.0%. Women with substantial limitations (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.29) in physical functioning were significantly more likely to develop the metabolic syndrome compared to women reporting no limitations. Self-reported physical functioning was significantly associated with incident hypertension and increased waist circumference. Conclusions: Simple screening tools for cardiometabolic risk in clinical settings are needed. Self-reported physical functioning assessments are simple tools that may allow health care providers to more accurately predict the course of chronic conditions.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin production by the pancreas follows a basic pattern where basal levels of insulin are secreted during fasting periods, with prandial increases in insulin associated with food ingestion. The aim of insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is to match the endogenous pattern of insulin secretion as closely as possible without causing hypoglycemia. There are several optimal pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of long-acting basal insulins that can help to achieve this aim, namely: activity that is flat and as free of peaks as possible, a duration of action of ≥24-h, and as little day-to-day variation as possible. The long-acting basal insulins are a fundamental therapy for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and those that are currently available have many benefits; however, the development of even longer-acting insulins and improved insulin delivery techniques may lead to better glycemic control for patients in the future. Established long-acting basal insulins available in the US and Europe include insulin glargine 100 units/mL and insulin detemir, both of which exhibit similar glycemic control to that of the intermediate-acting NPH insulin, but with a reduction in hypoglycemia. Newer insulin products available include new insulin glargine 300 units/mL (US and Europe) and the ultra-long-acting insulin degludec (Europe) with basal insulin peglispro currently in development. These new insulins demonstrate different pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles and longer durations of action (>24-h) compared with insulin glargine 100 units/mL, which may lead to potential benefits. The introduction of biosimilar insulins may also broaden access to insulins by reducing treatment costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty: The progressive aging of population is causing a simultaneous increase of frailty worldwide. The identification of the optimal therapeutic approach is often difficult in frail subjects due to the complexity of "frailty syndrome". Nevertheless, given the relevance of diabetes in the development and progression of frailty, a safe and effective cure of diabetes is extremely important to guarantee a good medical outcome. There are few data about diabetes treatment in this delicate category of patients and the choice of the appropriate therapy mostly remains a challenge. Geography: Type 2 diabetes affects more than 382 million people of different countries, races and ethnicities. To face the lack of solid Evidence Based Medicine for the treatment of diabetes in different ethnic groups, it is extremely important to increase knowledge about the different pathophysiology of diabetes according to ethnicity. In this way a tailored approach to treatment of various ethnic groups living in the same or different regions can eventually be developed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between diabetes and cancer. Inflammation is a key event that underlies the pathological processes of the two diseases. Metformin displays anti-cancer effects, but the mechanism is not completely clear. This study investigated whether metformin regulated the microenvironment of macrophage polarization to affect the characteristics of HepG2 cells and the possible role of the Notch signaling pathway. Methods: RAW264.7 macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with HepG2 cells and treated with metformin. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression in RAW264.7 cells using qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA and protein expressions of Notch signaling in both cell types were also detected using qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. The proliferation, apoptosis and migration of HepG2 cells were detected using Cell Titer 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS), Annexin V-FITC/PI and the cell scratch assay, respectively. Results: Metformin induced single cultured RAW264.7 macrophages with an M2 phenotype but attenuated the M2 macrophage differentiation and inhibited MCP-1 secretion in a co-culture system. The co-cultured group of metformin pretreatment activated Notch signaling in macrophages, but repressed it inHepG2 cells. Co-culture also promoted the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. However, along with the enhanced apoptosis, the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells were remarkably inhibited in another co-culture system with metformin pretreatment. Conclusions: Metformin can skew RAW264.7 macrophages toward different phenotypes according to changes in the microenvironment, which may affect the inflammatory conditions mediated by macrophages, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells. Notch signaling pathway is a potentially important mechanism in the regulation of metformin on macrophage polarization and the subsequent change of hepatoma cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews