AIDS (London, England) (AIDS)

Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Current impact factor: 5.55

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 5.554
2013 Impact Factor 6.557
2012 Impact Factor 6.407
2011 Impact Factor 6.245
2010 Impact Factor 6.348
2009 Impact Factor 4.909
2008 Impact Factor 5.46
2007 Impact Factor 5.842
2006 Impact Factor 5.632
2005 Impact Factor 5.835
2004 Impact Factor 5.893
2003 Impact Factor 5.521
2002 Impact Factor 5.983
2001 Impact Factor 6.881
2000 Impact Factor 8.018
1999 Impact Factor 6.931
1998 Impact Factor 6.109
1997 Impact Factor 5.05

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.79
Cited half-life 6.90
Immediacy index 1.47
Eigenfactor 0.05
Article influence 2.17
Other titles AIDS (London, England: Online)
ISSN 1473-5571
OCLC 225537630
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the World Health Organization (WHO)/U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) consultation was to discuss innovative strategies, offer guidance and develop a comprehensive policy framework for implementing quality-assured HIV-related point-of-care testing (POCT). Methods: The consultation was attended by representatives from international agencies (WHO, UNICEF, UNITAID, Clinton Health Access Initiative [CHAI]), USAID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]/PEPFAR Cooperative Agreement Partners, and experts from more than 25 countries including policy makers, clinicians, laboratory experts and program implementers. Main outcomes: There was strong consensus among all participants that ensuring access to quality of POCT represents one of the key challenges for the success of HIV prevention, treatment and care programs. The following four strategies were recommended: 1) implement a newly proposed concept of a sustainable quality assurance cycle that includes (a) careful planning; (b) definition of goals and targets; (c) timely implementation; (d) continuous monitoring; (e) improvements and adjustments, where necessary; and (f) a detailed evaluation; 2) the importance of supporting a cadre of workers (e.g. volunteer quality corps [Q-Corps]) with the role to ensure that the quality assurance cycle is followed and sustained; 3) implementation of the new strategy should be seen as a step-wise process, supported by development of appropriate policies and tools; and 4) joint partnership under the leadership of the Ministries of Health to ensure sustainability of implementing novel approaches. Conclusions: The outcomes of this consultation have been well received by program implementers in the field. The recommendations also laid the groundwork for developing key policy and quality documents for the implementation of HIV-related POCT.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The impact of hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of pediatric HIV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism and their effects on bone turnover and BMD among HIV-infected adolescents in Southeast Asia. Design: A multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluating bone health and vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand and Indonesia. Methods: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-18 years on antiretroviral therapy with virologic suppression were enrolled. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone turnover markers (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX] and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide [PINP]) were assessed; 25-OHD < 20 ng/mL and iPTH >65 pg/mL were defined as hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD Z-score < -2 was defined as low BMD. Results: Of 394 adolescents, 57% were female. The median age (IQR) was 15.0 (13.3-16.9) years. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism, and both conditions were 21% (95%CI: 17-25%), 17% (95%CI: 13-20%) and 5% (95%CI: 3-7%), respectively. Adolescents with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism had the highest median bone resorption (CTX: 1,610 vs. 1,270 ng/L; P = 0.04) and bone formation (PINP: 572 vs. 330 mcg/L; P = 0.02) markers, and the greatest proportion of low BMD (42% vs. 15%; P = 0.01) compared to the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D complicated with secondary hyperparathyroidism was associated with increased bone turnover and bone loss. Early treatment of hypovitaminosis D before hyperparathyroidism occurs may be important to prevent bone mass deterioration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In this work we evaluated the association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and methamphetamine (METH) use with mitochondrial injury in the brain and its implication on neurocognitive impairment. Design: Mitochondria carry their genome (mtDNA) and play a critical role in cellular processes in the central nervous system. METH is commonly used in HIV-infected populations. HIV infection and METH use can cause damage to mtDNA and lead to neurocognitive morbidity. We evaluated HIV infection and METH use with mitochondrial injury in the brain. Methods: We obtained white and gray matter from Brodmann's areas (BA) BA7, BA8, BA9, and BA46 of a) HIV-infected individuals with history of past METH use (HIV+METH+, n = 16), b) HIV-infected individuals with no history of past METH use (HIV+METH-, n = 11), and c) HIV-negative controls (HIV-METH-, n = 30). We used the "common deletion," a 4,977 bp mutation, as a measurement of mitochondrial injury, and quantified levels of mtDNA and "common deletion" by droplet digital PCR, and evaluated in relation to neurocognitive functioning (Global Deficit Score [GDS]). Results: Levels of mtDNA and mitochondrial injury were highest in white matter of BA46. A higher relative proportion of mtDNA carrying the "common deletion" was associated with lower GDS (p < 0.01) in HIV+METH+ but higher GDS (p < 0.01) in HIV+METH-. Conclusions: Increased mitochondrial injury was associated with worse neurocognitive function in HIV+METH- individuals. Among HIV+METH+ individuals, an opposite effect was seen.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The implication of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is well established, especially in oropharyngeal SCC. HIV patients have a higher risk of persistent HPV infection. We investigated the role of HPV in HNSCC carcinogenesis in HIV population. Design: Retrospective monocentric study. Methods: We studied HIV patients who presented with HNSCC between 1994 and 2014. For each patient, tumor characteristics, HIV disease and survival information were collected. Tumor HPV testing was performed using p16 immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridation and PCR. We assessed the percentage of HPV in this population of HIV patients with HNSCC and compared HIV disease characteristics based on HPV status. Results: Forty seven patients were included: 11 women/36 men, the median age was 50 years. Tumor HPV testing was performed in 40 patients. Tumors were located in oropharynx (32%), oral cavity (32%), larynx (21%) and hypopharynx (11%). At the time of diagnosis, median CD4 level was 385/mm, 31% of the patients were stage CDC C. The percentage of HPV linked to HNSCC for all locations in HIV patients was 30% (n = 12). HPV16 accounted for 50% of all HPV genotypes. HPV positive status was associated with a CD4 nadir of less than 200 (p = 0.026), but not with CD4 level at time of diagnosis (p = 0.414). HPV negative tumors tend to be associated with poorer 5-year overall survival (HR = 2.9, p = 0.0711). Conclusion: HPV plays a critical role in HNSCC development in HIV population. HIV immunodeficiency may increase HPV persistence and progression of HNSCC.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We investigated whether HIV-1 inhibition by SRC-family kinase inhibitors is through the non-receptor tyrosine kinase phosphoprotein pp60 (c-SRC) and its binding partner, protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (PTK2B). Design: CD4 T-lymphocytes were infected with R5 (JR-FL) or X4 (HXB2) HIV-1. SRC-family kinase inhibitors or targeted siRNA knockdown of c-SRC and PTK2B were used and various stages of the early HIV-1 lifecycle were examined. Methods: Four SRC-family kinase inhibitors or targeted siRNA knockdown were used to reduce c-SRC or PTK2B protein expression. Activated CD4 T-lymphocytes were infected with recombinant, nef-deficient, or replication-competent infectious viruses. Knockdown experiments examined multiple stages of early infection by monitoring: luciferase activity, expression of host surface receptors, reverse transcriptase activity, p24 levels and qPCR of reverse transcripts, integrated HIV-1 and 2-LTR circles. Results: All SRC-family kinase inhibitors inhibited R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection. Neither c-SRC nor PTK2B siRNA knockdown had an effect on cell surface receptors (CD4, CXCR4, CCR5) nor on reverse transcriptase activity. However, using JR-FL both decreased luciferase activity while increasing late reverse transcripts (16-fold) and 2-LTR circles (8-fold) while also decreasing viral integration (4-fold). With HXB2, c-SRC but not PTK2B siRNA knockdown produced similar results. Conclusions: Our results suggest c-SRC tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of HIV-1 infection, participating in multiple stages of infection post-viral entry: Reduced proviral integration with increased 2-LTR circles is reminiscent of integrase inhibitors used in combination antiretroviral therapies. Decreasing c-SRC expression and/or activity provides a new target for antiviral intervention and the potential for repurposing existing FDA-approved kinase inhibitors.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: HIV latent infection can be established in vitro by treating resting CD4+ T-cells with chemokines (CK) that bind to chemokine receptors (CKR), CCR7, CXCR3 and CCR6, highly expressed on T-cells. Objective: To determine if CKR identify CD4+ T-cells enriched for HIV in HIV-infected individuals receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: A cross-sectional study of CKR expression and HIV persistence in blood from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART for >3 years (n = 48). A subset of 20 individuals underwent leukapheresis and sorting of specific CD4+ T-cell subsets. Methods: We used flow cytometry to quantify CCR5, CCR6, CXCR3 and CXCR5 expression on CD4+ T-cells. HIV persistence was quantified using real time PCR to detect total, integrated HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles and cell-associated HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood or sorted T-cell subsets. Associations between CKR and HIV persistence in CD4+ T-cells in blood were determined using regression models and adjusted for current and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts. Results: The frequency of cells harbouring integrated HIV DNA was inversely associated with current CD4+ T-cell count and positively associated with CCR5+ CD4+ T-cells, CXCR3+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6- expression on total memory CD4+ T-cells (p < 0.001, 0.048, 0.015 and 0.016 respectively). CXCR3+CCR6+ CM CD4+ T-cells contained the highest amount of integrated HIV DNA compared to all T-cell subsets examined (p = 0.001). Conclusion: CXCR3 and CCR6 co-expression defines a subset of CD4+ T-cells that are preferentially enriched for HIV DNA in HIV-infected individuals on ART.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To understand how a pilot intervention combining SMS reminders with real-time adherence monitoring improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) for adults initiating treatment in rural Uganda. Design: Qualitative study, conducted with a pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty-two pilot intervention study participants took part in qualitative interviews on: (a) preferences for content, frequency and timing of SMS adherence reminders; (b) understandings and experiences of SMS reminders; and (c) understandings and experiences of real-time adherence monitoring. Analysis of interview data was inductive and derived categories describing how participants experienced the intervention, and what it meant to them. Results: SMS reminders prompted taking individual doses of antiretroviral therapy, and helped to develop a "habit" of adherence. Real-time adherence monitoring was experienced as "being seen"; participants interpreted "being seen" as an opportunity to demonstrate seriousness of commitment to treatment and "taking responsibility" for adherence. Both SMS reminders and real-time monitoring were interpreted as signs "caring" by the health care system. Feeling "cared about" offset depressed mood and invigorated adherence. Conclusions: While serving as reminders, SMS messages and real-time adherence monitoring also had larger emotional and moral meanings for participants that they felt improved their adherence. Understanding the larger "meanings in the messages," as well as their more literal content and function, will be central in delineating how SMS reminders and other adherence interventions using cellular technology work or do not work in varying contexts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy is highly dependent on adherence. Yet, it is unclear which adherence measures perform best for PrEP. Methods: We compared three types of self-reported (SR) adherence questions (rating of ability to adhere, frequency of doses taken, percent of doses taken) and three forms of objective adherence measurement (unannounced pill counts [UPC], electronic monitoring [EM], plasma tenofovir levels) using data from an ancillary adherence study within a clinical trial of PrEP among East African serodiscordant couples (Partners PrEP Study). Monthly measures were assessed for the first six months of follow-up. Results: 1,147 participants contributed 6,048 person-months of data to this analysis. Median adherence was high: SR rating (90%), SR frequency (93%), and SR percent (97%); UPC (99%); and EM (97%). Prevalence of steady state daily dosing (SSDD; >40 ng/mL) was 74% in a random subset of tenofovir samples obtained from 365 participants. Discrimination of SSDD versus less than SSDD levels was poor for SR rating (area under the receiver operating curve [AROC] 0.54), SR frequency (AROC 0.52), SR percent (AROC 0.56) and UPC (AROC 0.58), but moderate for EM (AROC 0.70). Correlation was moderate among self-reported measures, adherence (0.61-0.66), but low for these self-reported measures compared with UPC (0.32-0.36) and with EM (0.22-0.28). Conclusions: EM was the only adherence measure with meaningful ability to discriminate between SSDD and less than SSDD plasma tenofovir levels. Correlation between subjective and objective measures was poor. Future research should explore novel approaches to adherence measurement as PrEP moves into demonstration projects and programmatic implementation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) directly or indirectly related altered ovarian function, using serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in HIV-infected women as compared to seronegative women. Design: We conducted a matched cohort study from January 2008 to December 2013 in a tertiary university center. Two hundred and one HIV-infected women requesting assisted reproductive technology and 603 age and cause of infertility matched HIV seronegative women were enrolled in this study. Methods: All data were collected prospectively using a semistructured questionnaire. Serum AMH levels in HIV-infected women and matched controls were compared. To find out the contributing factors to increased serum AMH levels in HIV-infected women, a backward multiple linear regression was performed. Results: Serum AMH levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected group as compared to seronegative controls (3.0 ± 2.8 vs. 3.7 ± 3.5 ng/ml; respectively, p = 0.001). Looking for factors associated with altered AMH among HIV-infected women, an association has been shown between tubal disease and a further decrease in serum AMH levels (2.4 ± 2.4 vs. 3.4 ± 3.0 ng/ml; respectively, p = 0.011). Among HIV-infected women, after multivariate linear regression analysis we showed that increased age, BMI and viral load were associated with decreased serum AMH levels whereas in striking contrast an increase in CD4 count was associated with an increase of serum AMH levels. Conclusion: Serum AMH levels were lower in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. Age, BMI, CD4 count and viral load were the independent contributors affecting serum AMH levels amongst HIV-infected women.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We evaluated whether heavy alcohol use, illicit drug use or high levels of anxiety and depression symptoms were modifiers of the Retention through Enhanced Personal Contact ('REPC') intervention. The intervention had previously demonstrated overall efficacy in the parent study. Design: Randomized trial. Methods: A total of 1,838 patients from 6 U.S. HIV clinics were enrolled into a randomized trial in which intervention patients received an "enhanced contact" protocol for 12 months. All participants completed an ACASI interview that measured depression and anxiety symptoms from the Brief Symptom Inventory, alcohol use from the AUDIT-C instrument, and drug use from the WHO (ASSIST) questions. The 12-month binary outcome was completing an HIV primary care visit in three consecutive 4-month intervals. The outcome was compared between intervention and standard of care patients within subgroups on the effect modifier variables using log-binomial regression models. Results: Persons with high levels of anxiety or depression symptoms and those reporting illicit drug use, or heavy alcohol consumption had no response to the intervention. Patients without these "higher-risk" characteristics responded significantly to the intervention. Further analysis revealed higher-risk patients were less likely to have successfully received the telephone contact component of the intervention. Among higher-risk patients who did successfully receive this component, the intervention effect was significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that clinic-based retention in care interventions are able to have significant effects on HIV patients with common behavioral health issues, but the design of those interventions should assure successful delivery of intervention components to increase effectiveness.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradoxically intensifies bone loss in the setting of HIV infection. Although the extent of bone loss varies, it occurs with virtually all ART types, suggesting a common pathway that may be aligned with HIV disease reversal. Using an animal model of immunodeficiency we recently demonstrated that immune activation associated with CD4 T-cell reconstitution induces increased production of the osteoclastogenic cytokines RANKL and TNFα by immune cells, driving enhanced bone resorption and loss in bone mineral density. Design: To confirm these findings in humans, we investigated the early kinetics of CD4 T-cell recovery in relation to biomarkers of bone turnover and osteoclastogenic regulators in a prospective 24-week cohort study. Methods: Clinical data and blood sampling for HIV-RNA PCR, CD4 T-cell counts, bone turnover biomarkers, and osteoclastogenic regulators were obtained from ART-naïve HIV-infected study participants initiating standard doses of lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine at baseline and at weeks 2, 8, 12, and 24 post ART. Results: C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTx) a sensitive biomarker of bone resorption rose by 200% above baseline at week 12, remaining elevated through week 24 (α<0.01), and was associated with significant increases in plasma levels of osteoclastogenic regulators [receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor alpha, (TNFα)]. Importantly, the magnitude of CD4 T-cell recovery correlated significantly with CTx (rs = 0.387, α=0.01). Conclusion: Our data suggest that ART-induced bone loss occurs early, is aligned with early events of immune reconstitution, and these immune changes provide a unifying mechanism to explain in part the skeletal decline common to all ART.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Placental antibody transfer is impaired in the context of HIV infection, which may render HIV-exposed, uninfected infants vulnerable to group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease. The GBS antibody response predominately consists of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody. Thus we determined whether concentration and placental transfer of anti-GBS antibody subclasses was altered in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected mothers. Design: A retrospective analysis of anti-GBS antibody subclasses in 38 HIV-infected and 33 HIV-uninfected mothers and their uninfected infants. Methods: Sera were analysed using a novel flow cytometric assay that quantified binding of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 to serotype (ST)Ia, STIII and STV GBS bacteria. Results: IgG2 binding to GBS STIa and V was lower in HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women. Moreover, IgG2 binding to GBS STIa was also lower in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants compared with unexposed infants. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the transplacental transfer ratio of IgG2 for any GBS serotype. The transplacental transfer of total IgG was reduced for GBS STIII and V and IgG1 subclass for STIII; placental transfer of all other subclasses was comparable in HIV-affected and HIV-unaffected pregnancies. Conclusion: Anti-GBS IgG2 placental transfer is not affected by HIV infection. This is important for functional antibody against the capsular polysaccharide of GBS and provides confidence that maternal GBS vaccination may result in functional activity in HIV-infected and uninfected women.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of interferon (IFN)- and ribavirin (RBV)-free therapy with of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (HIV/HCV), who have an urgent need for effective antiviral therapy. We also assessed its impact on liver stiffness and liver enzymes. Design: Thirty-one thoroughly documented HIV/HCV with advanced liver disease (advanced liver fibrosis and/or portal hypertension) who were treated with SOF/DCV were retrospectively studied. Methods: The following treatment durations were applied: HCV-genotype (HCV-GT)1/4 without cirrhosis:12weeks; HCV-GT1/4 with cirrhosis:24weeks; HCV-GT3:24weeks; if HCV-RNA was detectable 4weeks before the end of treatment, treatment was extended by 4weeks at a time. Results: Fifty-two percent of patients were treatment-experienced. The majority of patients had HCV-GT1 (68%), while HCV-GT3 and HCV-GT4 were observed in 23% and 10% of patients, respectively. Ninety-four percent had liver stiffness>9.5kPa or METAVIR>F2 and 45% had liver stiffness>12.5kPa or METAVIR F4. Portal hypertension (HVPG≥6mmHg) and clinically significant portal hypertension (HVPG≥10mmHg) were observed in 67%(18/27) and 26%(7/27) of patients, respectively.Sustained virologic response 12weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was achieved in 100%(31/31). Treatment with SOF/DCV was generally well-tolerated and there were no treatment discontinuations.HCV eradication improved liver stiffness from 11.8(interquartile range [IQR]:11.5kPa to 6.9(IQR:8.2)kPa (median change: -3.6[IQR:5.2]kPa; P < 0.001) and decreased liver enzymes. The mean time period between treatment initiation and follow-up liver stiffness measurement was 32.7 ± 1.2weeks. Conclusions: IFN- and RBV-free treatment with SOF/DCV was well-tolerated and achieved SVR12 in all HIV/HCV with advanced liver disease. It also significantly improved liver stiffness, suggesting anti-fibrotic and anti-portal hypertensive effects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Among HIV-infected persons, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use is associated with higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because lower serum bicarbonate concentrations may precede CKD onset, this study investigated the associations between TDF use and bicarbonate concentrations, and between bicarbonate with CKD risk among TDF users and non-users. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 16,070 HIV-infected US veterans who initiated antiretroviral therapy between 1997-2011. The association between TDF use with longitudinal bicarbonate concentrations and associations between bicarbonate with incident CKD stratified by TDF use (never, initial, and later user) were evaluated. Results: Compared to TDF users, never users had faster declines in bicarbonate concentrations: change in bicarbonate -0.11 mmol/L/year (95% CI -0.16, -0.05), compared with -0.04 mmol/L/year (-0.06, 0.05) in initial users and -0.02 mmol/L/year (-0.05, 0.01) in later users. Low baseline bicarbonate (<22 mmol/L) was significantly associated with CKD risk among TDF never users (1.80; 1.21, 2.68), but not among TDF users (0.98; 0.69, 1.38). Similarly, declining bicarbonate concentrations were associated with higher CKD risk among never users (HR 1.67 per mmol/L; 1.34, 2.08), but not among TDF users (1.09; 0.98, 1.22). Interactions were highly significant for both analyses (p-value = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite associations with nephrotoxicity, TDF use was associated with higher serum bicarbonate concentrations longitudinally. Additionally, TDF use obscured the strong associations of bicarbonate with CKD risk in HIV-infected persons. Therefore, the role of bicarbonate concentrations as a tool to monitor kidney health in HIV-infected persons may be limited in the setting of TDF use.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AIDS (London, England)