The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care (Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care)

Publisher: European Society of Contraception, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

The Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception, The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care publishes original peer-reviewed research papers as well as review papers and other appropriate educational material. The Editors welcome submissions from members of the European Society of Contraception and also from non-members anywhere in the world.

Current impact factor: 1.39

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.394
2013 Impact Factor 1.835
2012 Impact Factor 1.808
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.616
2009 Impact Factor 0.973
2008 Impact Factor 0.824
2007 Impact Factor 0.862
2006 Impact Factor 0.467
2005 Impact Factor 0.721
2004 Impact Factor 0.48
2003 Impact Factor 0.571

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.39
Cited half-life 5.60
Immediacy index 0.17
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.42
Website European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, The website
Other titles European journal of contraception & reproductive health care (Online), European journal of contraception and reproductive health care
ISSN 1473-0782
OCLC 49885918
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and treatment assessments. During the treatment cycle CHC users displayed decreased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus in comparison with placebo users. No other significant activations were evident between treatment groups or within groups. Conclusion Overall, CHC use had marginal effects on brain activity during response inhibition. If anything, the findings of the study may suggest reduced effort or increased efficiency in maintaining orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory cognitive control when using a combined oral contraceptive.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The menstrual cycle is characterised by cyclical fluctuations in oestrogens, progesterone and androgens. Changes in hormone levels in the premenstrual phase with the decline in progesterone trigger a physiological reaction which culminates in menstruation. This process is accompanied in many women by various symptoms such as pelvic pain, headache, mood disorders and gastrointestinal discomfort. The aim of this article was to summarise the latest findings on the physiology and pathophysiology of menstruation and review the impact of shortening the hormone-free interval (HFI) on the health and wellbeing of women. Results Menstruation can be viewed as an inflammatory event in which local and systemic effects produce symptoms in genital and extragenital regions of the body. The mast cells are the main mediator of this reaction. In women using hormonal contraceptives, menstrual bleeding is not biologically necessary and it may be advantageous to maintain more stable levels of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens throughout the cycle. New combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been formulated with a progressively shorter HFI (24/4 and 26/2) than traditional 21/7 pills, with the rationale of reducing hormone withdrawal- associated symptoms. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of these regimens, which reduce the inflammatory exposure of the female organism and thus have the capacity to increase the quality of life of women. A combination of estradiol valerate (E2V) and dienogest (DNG) is administered on the shortest 26/2 regimen. This regimen has a broad evidence base from randomised controlled trials that have examined the impact of E2V/DNG on symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions Shortening the HFI reduces the occurrence of bleeding-related inflammatory processes and subsequent physical and mental symptoms. The shortest interval with evidence of reproductive and sexual health benefits is provided by a 26/2 regimen.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the trial was to assess the effect of self-evaluation and sexual diary keeping on female sexual function and depressive symptoms in women diagnosed with sexual dysfunction. Methods A single-arm non-randomised trial included 30 women (53 ± 7 years of age) with female sexual dysfunction (Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI] < 27) and a stable partnership duration of 5–40 years. Female sexual function was assessed by sexual, psychological and gynaecological history taking and validated questionnaires including the FSFI, Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), before and after 4 weeks of sexual diary keeping. Results A subjective improvement in communication of sexual problems was reported by 60% of participants; no participants reported any worsening of communication. FSFI and FSDS scores were, respectively, 18.0 ± 7.7 and 22.0 ± 10.0 at baseline and 20.2 ± 7.2 and 20.6 ± 11.5 after 4 weeks. HDS score decreased from 6.0 ± 4.0 at baseline to 4.4 ± 2.7 after 4 weeks (p = 0.042). Conclusions Self-evaluation and sexual diary keeping may improve aspects of sexual life, such as couple communication, without a direct effect on variables measured with validated questionnaires on different domains of sexual function.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of our study was to investigate the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of female Romanian university students, as possible future opinion leaders, about contraception and motherhood, by assessing their level of contraceptive use, opinions and knowledge with regard to combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Methods A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was conducted among 1105 female university students aged 19 to 30 years. The participants were recruited from six faculties at universities in Iasi and Arad, Romania. The study protocol was approved by the university ethics committees. Statistical analyses included percentages, χ(2) tests and Fisher's exact test. Results Two-thirds of respondents were in a relationship or married. Average age at first sexual intercourse was 18.6 years. Two out of three (69%) students identified themselves as sexually active. The same percentage showed a positive attitude towards contraception and stated that they used it. The most commonly used contraceptive methods were condoms, COCs and withdrawal. The students' perceptions of the benefits and adverse effects of COCs were analysed. Half of the students had heard about extended COC regimens, but only 24% showed interest in using them regularly. A large proportion of pharmacy and non-medical students appeared to have poor knowledge about contraception and reproductive health, which generated misperceptions and negative attitudes. Two-thirds of the participants considered 25 to 29 years to be the optimal age for starting a family, and 85.5% intended to have children in the future. Conclusions Medical students, but not pharmacy students, showed higher levels of knowledge. Improvement of students' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards general contraceptive use, COCs and childbearing is needed. Evidence-based information is required to address poor knowledge about the physiology of reproduction, misconceptions relating to COCs, and the possibility of menstrual suppression using hormonal contraceptive methods. Compulsory reproductive health education for students is desirable.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives As part of a broader investigation into maternal and child health, this study aimed to explore barriers to preventing unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for women in southeast Madagascar, in order to inform the development of interventions by a local non-governmental organisation. Methods A year-long mixed methods study was conducted. Qualitative information was obtained from 246 participants through focus groups, single-event and serial qualitative interviews. Quantitative data was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire with a sample of 373 women of reproductive age. Data was analysed using pre-determined and emerging themes. Results Family planning and sexual health services are not well integrated into other health services, nor routinely offered. Barriers to contraceptive use include actual or perceived side effects of hormonal methods, inaccurate information from health providers, and lack of support from partners or family members. STI prevalence is high, concurrent sexual relationships are common, and condom use is limited. Conclusions Women's ability to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs could be improved through measures aiming to dispel misconceptions about eligibility for and perceived risks of hormonal contraceptives, increase support for family planning among partners and families, and reframe the socio-cultural meaning of condom use in sexual relationships.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the study was to assess insulin resistance parameters using successive homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and clinical evaluations in healthy new users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Methods A prospective 12-month study was carried out to compare 31 DMPA users with 25 copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD; TCu380A) users, matched for age (± 1 year) and body mass index (BMI; ± 1 kg/m(2)). Participants met the following criteria: age 18 to 40 years, BMI < 30 kg/m(2), fasting glucose < 5.5 mmol/l, 2-h glucose after a 75 g oral glucose load < 140 mg/dl. BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were evaluated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of contraceptive use. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value > 2.7. Results The DMPA group showed significant increases in BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR throughout the observation period in relation to baseline. Significant increases in BMI and waist circumference were observed in the DMPA group at 12 months compared with the Cu-IUD group. Five DMPA users had abnormal HOMA-IR values, three of whom had gained > 5 kg in weight at 12 months. Conclusions HOMA-IR represents a useful tool to indicate changes in carbohydrate metabolism in non-obese DMPA users, especially when accompanied by measurement of clinical parameters such as BMI and waist circumference.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives The literature concerning the history of condoms is replete with errors. The paper Youssef published in 1993 is in our opinion the best. We update and expand the information. Methods To mention only established facts, we accessed primary sources, which are identified in the article. Findings The origin of the term 'condom' remains an enigma. Plausible hypotheses are that it is derived from either (i) the Latin 'condĕre' (to sheathe) or the corresponding noun 'condus' (receptacle); or (ii) the Venetian variant 'gondon' of the Italian word 'guantone' (glove). The earliest identified mention of a similar barrier method is in the legend of Minos and Pasiphae written (in the 2nd century AD) by Antoninus Liberalis. A penile sheath, made from animal gallbladder, was advocated in the 10th century by the Persian physician Al-Akhawayni. The earliest surviving condoms made of animal membranes date back to between 1642 and 1646. Such 'skin' condoms became increasingly popular for prevention of venereal disease, but as early as the 18th century their value as contraceptives was appreciated. Rubber condoms were available from 1855; since 1930, they are made of latex. We mention, in parallel, the most striking changes over time in sexual mores and behaviours, and illustrate these by referring to colourful figures such as, among others, Boswell, Mrs Philips, Casanova, Marguerite Gourdan, and Richard Carlile. Conclusion Papers related to this topic often contain errors, which we identify. Condoms over time evolved from animal gut receptacles to reliable contraceptives protecting also against certain sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Since its introduction 50 years ago, the contraceptive pill has continuously evolved to decrease the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with its use. An increased risk of VTE still remains, however. Other concerns, such as effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, have also been reported. In this study we compared two reference combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing ethinylestradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) and EE/drospirenone (DRSP) with COCs containing estradiol (E2) (estradiol valerate [E2V]/dienogest [DNG] and E2/nomegestrol acetate [NOMAC]). They were evaluated according to their influence on recognised haemostatic and metabolic markers. Methods A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted for head-to-head studies. EE/LNG was chosen as the comparator pill. Results The haemostatic impact of E2 pills and EE/LNG has been extensively compared, in contrast to that of EE/DRSP and EE/LNG. Changes in haemostatic and metabolic marker levels between EE/LNG and E2V/DNG were generally not statistically significant. E2/NOMAC showed statistically significantly favourable results on haemostatic markers and had a neutral effect on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism when compared with EE/LNG. Conclusion E2/NOMAC exhibits less haemostatic and metabolic impact than EE/LNG and other COCs, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate to reduce residual VTE risk associated with COC use. Confirmation from a well-powered prospective clinical trial is, however, needed.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care