Avian Pathology (Avian Pathol)

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

Avian Pathology is a leading journal that has the aim of disseminating knowledge concerned with the entire field of research on infectious and non-infectious diseases of poultry and all other birds. Original research is published in the form of full papers, short communications and case reports. Subject areas include pathology, immune responses, vaccines, genetics e.g. in relation to disease resistance/susceptibility, epidemiology, diagnosis, detection and characterization of pathogens, gene sequences, and physiology and biochemistry (provided that the physiological and biochemical data refer to disease). Authoritative Reviews, Commentary Articles on topical subjects and Technical Reviews (detection and differentiation of pathogens) are published from time to time.

Current impact factor: 1.64

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.639
2013 Impact Factor 2.041
2012 Impact Factor 1.729
2011 Impact Factor 1.711
2010 Impact Factor 1.967
2009 Impact Factor 1.654
2008 Impact Factor 1.7
2007 Impact Factor 1.257
2006 Impact Factor 1.809
2005 Impact Factor 1.789
2004 Impact Factor 1.387
2003 Impact Factor 1.271
2002 Impact Factor 1.514
2001 Impact Factor 1.655
2000 Impact Factor 1.428
1999 Impact Factor 0.845
1998 Impact Factor 0.705
1997 Impact Factor 0.769
1996 Impact Factor 0.754
1995 Impact Factor 0.734
1994 Impact Factor 0.629
1993 Impact Factor 0.664
1992 Impact Factor 1.089

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.96
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.59
Website Avian Pathology website
Other titles Avian pathology (En ligne)
ISSN 1465-3338
OCLC 57214916
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
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    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important long bone defect of broiler chickens that disturbs the proximal growth plate and is characterized by non-vascularized cartilage, a distended growth plate and lameness. Celastrol, a medicinal root extract from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii is reported widely as a well-known heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. Recently, Hsp90 inhibition in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization were effective in restoring the morphology of the growth plate. The present study was aimed at investigating Hsp90 inhibition in Tibial dyschondroplasia using Celastrol. The broiler chicks were divided into three groups; Control; TD induced (40 mg/kg thiram) and Celastrol treatment. Hsp90, VEGF and Flk-1 expressions were evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of Hsp90 were measured by western blot analysis. Antioxidant enzymes were determined to assess the liver damage caused by thiram and the protective effects of the medicine was evaluated by levels of serum biomarkers. The expression levels of Hsp90 and VEGF mRNA transcripts were increased while Flk-1 receptor was decreased in TD affected chicks. Celastrol therapy inhibited Hsp90 mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated the expressions of receptor Flk-1 in TD affected tibial growth plates significantly (P<0.05) in addition to rectifying the damaging effects of thiram on the liver by decreasing the levels of AST, ALT and MDA and correcting the oxidative imbalance. In conclusion, administering celastrol to dyschondroplastic chicks prevented un-vascularized growth plate, lameness and reinstated angiogenesis. Celastrol may be efficacious for the treatment of TD through the inhibition of Hsp90 expression and limiting the liver damage caused by thiram in broiler chickens.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Avian Pathology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Highly virulent fowl aviadenoviruses (genus: Aviadenovirus) represent a significant risk in poultry farming that may contribute to increased mortality rates and may adversely affect the growth performance of poultry flocks. In this study, we performed the clinicopathological characterization of a FAdV strain SHP95 isolated from a commercial farm and its whole genome sequencing. The study revealed that the isolated strain is a highly virulent serotype 4 FAdV that can cause 100% mortality in day-old SPF chickens with a dose of 2.5 ×10(5) TCID50. At a minor viral dose (1.5×10(4) TCID50), the infection in day-old SPF chickens caused 40% mortality and lesions characteristic for Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome (HHS). The viral strain was detectable by real time PCR in chicken organs, including the lymphoid organs until day 28 after infection. The whole genome assembly of strain SHP95 revealed a size of 45,641 bp, which encodes for 42 viral ORF. The comparative analysis in the genome shows 98.1% similarity between strain SHP95 and other FAdV-4 genomes reported. The major differences in the genome sequence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic fowl Adenovirus were identified in the right arm of the genome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of novel infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) has been reported worldwide. Between 2011 and 2014, eight IBV isolates were identified from disease outbreaks in northeast China. In the current study we analyzed the S1 gene of these eight IBV isolates in addition to the complete genome of five of them. We confirmed that these isolates emerged through the recombination of LX4 and Taiwan group 1 (TW1) viruses at two switch sites, one was in the Nsp 16 region and the other in the spike protein gene. The S1 gene in these viruses exhibited high nucleotide similarity with TW1-like viruses; the TW1 genotype was found to be present in southern China from 2009. Pathogenicity experiments in chickens using three of the eight virus isolates revealed that they were nephropathogenic and had similar pathogenicity to the parental viruses. The results of our study demonstrate that recombination, coupled with mutations, is responsible for the emergence of novel IBVs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen, and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Chicken Toll-like receptor 15 (ChTLR15) has been identified to participate in immune activation in response to various pathogens and in the innate defense against infection. In this study, the correlation between ChTLR15 SNPs and the natural infection status of salmonella in hens, as well as the genetic and sex-specific effects on ChTLR15 mRNA expression in heterophils and the spleen during the acute Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection period (from 1 to 10 days after infection), were studied in two genetically distinct Chinese breeds (Qingyuan Partridge chickens and Baier chickens). Three SNPs (G168A, C726T and A1166G) in a single exon of ChTLR15 were identified in the two breeds, but only C726T showed a significant association with salmonella infection. Compared with laying-type Baier chicks, meat-type Qingyuan chicks showed a higher tolerance for capture stress and S. Enteritidis infection, as measured respectively by the modified body weight of chicks in the control group and in the infection group. Meanwhile, ChTLR15 down-regulation in heterophils and up-regulation in spleen was involved in the response to pathogenic S. Enteritidis colonization during the acute infection period. These significant genetic effects in females led to greater differences in both innate and adaptive immune responses than those exhibited in males. These results suggest that genetics, time and sex play important roles in the modulation of ChTLR15 mRNA level elicited by the S. Enteritidis -mediated immune response differentially in the two genetically distinct breeds, with a focus on sexual dimorphism.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The basic mechanism whereby Salmonella serovars colonize the chicken intestine remains poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that proton-translocating proteins utilizing oxygen as terminal electron acceptor do not appear to be of major importance in the gut of the newly hatched chicken and consequently they would be even less significant during intestinal colonization of more mature chickens where the complex gut microflora would trap most of the oxygen in the lumen. Consequently, alternative electron acceptors may be more significant or, in their absence, substrate-level phosphorylation may also be important to Salmonella serovars in this environment. To investigate this we constructed mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium defective in various aspects of oxidative or substrate-level phosphorylation to assess their role in colonization of the chicken intestine, assessed through faecal shedding, and virulence. Mutations affecting use of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors did not eliminate faecal shedding. By contrast mutations in either pta (phosphotransacetylase) or ackA (acetate kinase) abolished shedding. The pta but not the ackA mutation also abolished systemic virulence for chickens. An additional ldhA (lactate dehydrogenase) mutant also showed poor colonizing ability. We hypothesise that substrate-level phosphorylation may be more important than respiration using oxygen or alternative electron acceptors for colonization of the chicken caeca.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization in the chicken intestine. Recently, we demonstrated that certain selected Lactobacillus isolates were able to reduce Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver as well as down-regulated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum. To further understand the mechanisms through which Lactobacillus protected chickens from Salmonella infection, the present study has investigated the Lactobacillus isolate(s)-induced host immune response of chickens to Salmonella infection. A thorough examination of cytokine gene expression in the ileum, cecal tonsils and spleen on days 1 and 3 post Salmonella infection showed a dynamic spatial and temporal response to Salmonella infection and Lactobacillus treatments. In most instances, it was evident that treatment of chickens with Lactobacillus isolates could significantly attenuate Salmonella-induced changes in the gene expression profile. These included the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines [lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8], T helper (Th) 1 cytokines [IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ], and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Another important observation from the present investigation was that the response induced by a combination of Lactobacillus isolates was generally more effective than that induced by single Lactobacillus isolate. Our results show that administration of certain selected Lactobacillus isolates can effectively modulate Salmonella-induced cytokine gene expression and thus, help reduce Salmonella infection in chickens.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV) has been implicated in poor growth and renal disease of young chickens. This paper describes the development of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of ANV in commercial meat chickens and the use of High Resolution Melt (HRM) curves to detect the presence of genetically different ANVs. Pooled cloacal swabs from both healthy and ill commercial chicken broiler flocks were tested for the presence of ANV using a combination of PCR, molecular cloning, HRM curve analysis and sequencing. Except for one, all specimens were found to contain two genetically different ANVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid amino acid sequences revealed the presence of four of six groups of ANV identified previously in other countries as well as two novel groups of ANV. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of partial polymerase, capsid and 3' untranslated regions reveal that the genes of individual ANV virus isolates have different ancestors. This was shown to be due to a template switching event in the capsid gene that resulted in the 3' end of the capsid gene and the 3' untranslated region of one ANV isolate being transferred to another ANV. These results reveal that infection of chicken flocks with multiple ANV isolates is common and this needs to be taken into consideration in diagnosis of ANV using molecular techniques and in future epidemiological investigations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon (IFN) α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, as well as virus induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P<0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The IFN α response was down-regulated two to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus free controls (P<0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. iNOS expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus free controls (P<0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV-A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), an immunosuppressive virus that targets immune cells such as B cells and macrophage. However, the involvement of dendritic cells (DCs) during IBDV infection is not well understood. In this study the in vitro effects of live and inactivated very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) UPM0081 on bone marrow derived DCs (BM-DC) were characterized and compared with BM-DC treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphologically, BM-DC treated with LPS and vvIBDV showed stellate shape when compared to immature BM-DC. In addition, LPS-treated and both live and inactivated vvIBDV-infected BM-DC expressed high levels of double positive CD86 and MHC class II antigens (>20%). vvIBDV-infected BM-DC showed significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells compared to LPS. Replication of vvIBDV was detected in the infected BM-DC as evidenced by the increased expression of VP3 and VP4 IBDV antigens based on flow cytometry, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence tests. Levels of different immune-related genes such as IL-1β, CXCLi2 (IL-8), IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-12α, CCR7 and TLR3 were measured after LPS and vvIBDV treatments. However, marked differences were noticed in the onset and intensity of the gene expression between these two treatment groups. LPS was far more potent than live and inactivated vvIBDV in inducing the expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and CCR7 while expression of Th1-like cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12α were significantly increased in the live vvIBDV treatment group. Meanwhile, the expression of TLR3 was increased in live vvIBDV-infected BM-DC as compared to control. Inactivated vvIBDV-treated BM-DC failed to stimulate IFN-γ, IL-12α and TLR3 expressions. This study suggested that BM-DC may serve as another target cells during IBDV infection which require further confirmation via in vivo studies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of Group B chicken astrovirus (CAstV) infections is described. The test was based on the use of an affinity-purified capsid antigen, specific to CAstV isolate 11672, produced as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) N-terminal fusion protein by a recombinant baculovirus. Strongly positive ELISA signals were elicited against experimentally produced antisera raised to CAstVs from Group B (subgroups i and ii) but were negative for antisera raised to a Group A CAstV. Using a panel of 240 selected serum samples, 99% agreement was observed when the results obtained by ELISA were compared to those from an indirect immunofluorescence test for CAstV 11672. The ELISA test was applied to 68 serum sets comprising 1864 samples, which were obtained from parent and grandparent flocks originating mainly in the United Kingdom. Of the 52 sets containing ELISA-positive samples, 24 sets had >75% samples positive and 9 sets had <25% samples positive and were regarded as having high and low seropositivities respectively. Of the 1864 serum samples tested 1090 (58.5%) were ELISA positive and of these, 234 sera (21.5%) produced strongly positive signals, whereas moderately positive and weakly positive signals were produced by 562 (51.5%) and 294 (27%) sera. When used for flock screening purposes, this ELISA test can be used to (i) investigate the occurrence of first-time CAstV infections of parent flocks during lay and the possible adverse effects caused by vertically-transmitted CAstV infections on broiler hatchability and performance and (ii) diagnose Group B CAstV infections within SPF flocks.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have spread throughout many areas of Asia, Europe and Africa, and numerous cases of HPAI outbreaks in domestic and wild birds have been reported. Although recent studies suggest that the dissemination of H5N1 viruses is closely linked to the migration of wild birds, information on the potential for viral infection in species other than poultry and waterfowl is relatively limited. To investigate the susceptibility of terrestrial wild birds to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses, common reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus) and brown-eared bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis) were infected with A/mountain hawk-eagle/Kumamoto/1/07(H5N1) and A/whooper swan/Aomori/1/08(H5N1). The results showed that common reed buntings and brown-eared bulbuls were severely affected by both virus strains (100% mortality). While pale thrushes did not exhibit any clinical signs, seroconversion was confirmed. In common reed buntings, intraspecies-transmission of A/whooper swan/Aomori/1/08 to contact birds was also confirmed. The findings show that three passerine species; common reed buntings, brown-eared bulbuls and pale thrushes are susceptible to infection by H5N1 HPAI viruses, which emphasizes that continued surveillance of species other than waterfowl is crucial for effective monitoring of H5N1 HPAI virus outbreaks.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: GX0101 was the first reported field strain of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) that contained a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is a very virulent MDV strain, with relatively high horizontal transmission ability. The REV LTR in GX0101 genome was proved to decrease the pathogenicity but increase the potential for horizontal transmission of the virus. Here we constructed a recombinant MDV GX0101-ALV-LTR to study stability of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR at the REV LTR insertion site in GX0101 genome and its influence on biological activities of the recombinant virus. The results showed that GX0101-ALV-LTR was able to replicate stably both in vitro and in vivo. ALV LTR remained stable in chickens infected either by inoculation with the recombinant virus GX0101-ALV-LTR or by horizontal transmission, as well as in cell culture. The pathogenic properties of GX0101-ALV-LTR virus were evaluated in infected specific-pathogen-free chickens. The present study demonstrated that the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus had a weaker inhibitory effect on the growth rates of the infected chickens and induced weaker immunosuppressive effects. Horizontal transmission ability of the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus appeared to be similar with its parental virus GX0101. In short, ALV LTR was stable in GX0101 after replacing REV LTR, and the recombinant virus showed similar horizontal transmission ability but decreased pathogenicity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Avian Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental group of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titers in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < 0.05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-4 (P < 0.05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Avian Pathology