Avian Pathology (Avian Pathol)
Avian Pathology is a leading journal that has the aim of disseminating knowledge concerned with the entire field of research on infectious and non-infectious diseases of poultry and all other birds. Original research is published in the form of full papers, short communications and case reports. Subject areas include pathology, immune responses, vaccines, genetics e.g. in relation to disease resistance/susceptibility, epidemiology, diagnosis, detection and characterization of pathogens, gene sequences, and physiology and biochemistry (provided that the physiological and biochemical data refer to disease). Authoritative Reviews, Commentary Articles on topical subjects and Technical Reviews (detection and differentiation of pathogens) are published from time to time.
Journal Impact: 1.65*
Journal impact history
|2016 Journal impact||Available summer 2017|
|2015 Journal impact||1.65|
|2014 Journal impact||1.95|
|2013 Journal impact||2.26|
|2012 Journal impact||2.19|
|2011 Journal impact||2.17|
|2010 Journal impact||2.16|
|2009 Journal impact||1.68|
|2004 Journal impact||1.50|
|2003 Journal impact||1.70|
|2002 Journal impact||1.67|
|2001 Journal impact||1.63|
Journal impact over time
|Website||Avian Pathology website|
|Other titles||Avian pathology (En ligne)|
|Material type||Document, Periodical, Internet resource|
|Document type||Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper|
Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression of genes cigR, gtgA, slrP, sopD, sseK1, steB and steC, but had a significantly effect on the expression of genes pipB2, sifB, sopD2, sseJ, sseL, sspH2, steD, sifA, pipB and steA at different degrees. These results suggest that SPI2 can significantly affect the expression of some T3SS2 effetor genes, some effectors may have other secretion pathway except T3SS2 and pseudogenes may play roles in the process of Salmonella Pullorum infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major disease in the broiler breeding industry. During PH, the pulmonary artery undergoes remodelling, which is caused by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. CyclinD1 regulates cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3–4 week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH. Histopathology indicated pulmonary arterial walls were thicker in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Target gene expressions of MIF, ERK, and cyclinD1 detected by quantitative real-time PCR were up-regulated in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Immunohistochemistry showed MIF, p-ERK and cyclinD1 were present on pulmonary vascular walls; MIF was present in the cytoplasm of arterial endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells; p-ERK and cyclinD1 were present in smooth muscle cell cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated MIF, phosphorylated ERK and cyclinD1 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the PH group compared with the healthy group. In summary, increased MIF in PH broiler pulmonary arteries upregulated cyclinD1 via the ERK signalling pathway to induce pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, causing pulmonary artery remodelling and hypertension.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear, which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 “Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance and vaccination” (working groups “Molecular virology” and “Epidemiology”), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of “CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year” to refer to AvCoV strains.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C. botulinum in the poultry house after the outbreak, and to assess egg contamination by C. botulinum. Several samples were collected on each visit: in the house (from the ventilation circuit, the egg circuit, water and feed, droppings) and the surrounding area. Thirty clean and 30 dirty eggs were also swabbed at each visit. In addition, 12 dirty and 12 clean eggs were collected to analyze eggshell and egg content. The samples were analyzed using real-time PCR to detect type C/D C. botulinum. The bacterium was still detected in the house more than 5 months after the outbreak, mostly on the walls and in the egg circuit. Regarding egg contamination, the bacteria was detected only on shell but not in the content of eggs. Control measures should therefore be implemented throughout the egg production period to avoid dissemination of the bacteria, particularly during egg collection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus which affects chickens of all ages. IBV mainly causes respiratory disease but can also result in reduced weight, reduced egg production, increased frequency of abnormal eggs and increased rates of mortality. Vaccination is the most important way to control the disease. Nevertheless, novel strains of IB continue to emerge in the field. In order to promptly respond, combinations of existing IB vaccines are frequently tested whether can provide cross-protection. The efficacy of a combination of vaccines based on Massachusetts, Dutch and QX-like IB strains against emerging IB Israel variant 2 and IB 793B strains was assessed by means of four challenge studies. At least 80% of the birds vaccinated with IB H120 (Mass type) combined with IB D274 (Dutch type) followed by a QX-like IB vaccine booster or vaccinated with a combination of IB H120, IB D274 and QX-like IB were protected against a challenge with IB 793B. In addition, IB 1263 (Mass type) boosted by QX-like IB showed an 85% protection following challenge with IB 793B. A combination of IB H120 and IB D274 boosted by QX-like IB vaccine conferred 70% protection whilst H120 and IB D274 combination on its own showed 61.1% protection against Israel variant 2 challenge. IB 1263 boosted by a QX-like IB vaccine showed 50% protection against IB Israel variant 2. Therefore, it can be concluded that a combination of the IB H120, IB D274 and QX-like IB confers broad protection against different non-related virulent IB strains.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, family Birnaviridae) is a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus for which two serotypes are described. Serotype 1 replicates in the bursa of Fabricius and causes an immunosuppressive and potentially fatal disease in young chickens. Serotype 2 is apathogenic in poultry species. Up to now, only one natural event of interserotypic reassortment has been described after the introduction of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) in the USA in 2009, resulting in an IBDV strain with its segment A related to vvIBDV and its segment B related to US serotype 2 strain OH. Here we present the first European isolate illustrative of interserotypic reassortment. The reassorting isolate, named 100056, exhibits a genomic segment A typical of current European vvIBDV but a segment B close to European serotype 2 viruses, advocating for an origin distinct from US strains. When inoculated to SPF chickens, isolate 100056 induced mild clinical signs in the absence of mortality but caused a severe bursal atrophy, which strongly suggests an immunosuppressive potential. These results illustrate that interserotypic reassortment is another mechanism that can create IBDV strains with a modified acute pathogenicity. As a consequence, and for a more precise inference of the possible phenotype, care should be taken that the molecular identification of IBDV strains is targeted to both genome segments.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) and results in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. As a Salmonella type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) effector and predicted membrane protein, CigR is encoded by cigR gene within Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI3). In order to research the influence of the cigR gene on S. Pullorum, a cigR mutant of S. Pullorum S06004 was constructed by lambda Red recombination system, and then its characterization were analyzed. Lack of cigR did not affect the growth and biochemical properties, but resulted in decreased biofilm formation, the mutant strain was stable with the deletion of cigR gene. Macrophage infection assay and in vivo competition assay showed that the mutant strain increased the replication and/or survival ability in HD11 cell line and in chickens compared to that of the parent strain, the half-lethal dose (LD50) of the mutant strain was one fifth of the parent strain for 2-day-old chickens when injected intramuscularly. These results demonstrate CigR plays roles in biofilm formation and pathogenicity of S. Pullorum, deletion of cigR can decrease significantly biofilm formation and increase significantly virulence.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hypervariable region, which affect charged or potentially glycosylated amino acids virtually associated with important changes in virus properties. Characterization of 41 IBDV strains detected in Italy between 2013 and 2014 showed that ITA is emergent in Italian densely populated poultry areas being the 68% of the IBDV detections made during routine diagnostic activity over a two-year period, in spite of the immunity induced by large-scale vaccination. Four very virulent strains (DV86) and one classical strain (HPR2), together with eight vaccine strains, were also detected. The currently available epidemiological and clinical data do not allow defining the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA genotype. Only in vivo experimental pathogenicity studies conducted in secure isolation conditions, through the evaluation of clinical signs and macro/microscopic lesions, will clarify conclusively the virulence of the new Italian genotype.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed and sampled for 33 weeks to analyse the course of infection and disease in comparison to that of PaBV-4. Similar to PaBV-4, PaBV-2 induced a persistent infection with seroconversion (from day 6 p.i. onwards) and shedding of viral RNA (from day 27 p.i. onwards). However, in contrast to PaBV-4, more birds displayed clinical signs and disease progression was more severe. After PaBV-2 infection, 12 birds exhibited clinical signs and 10 birds revealed a dilated proventriculus in necropsy. After PaBV-4 infection only four birds revealed clinical signs and seven birds showed a dilatation of the proventriculus. Clinically, different courses of disease were observed after PaBV-2 infection, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This had not been detected after PaBV-4 infection where more neurological signs were noted. The results provide evidence for different disease patterns according to different PaBV species, allowing the comparison between the infection with two PaBV species, and thus underlining the role of viral and individual host factors for disease outcome.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors also play a part in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 day-old Ross chickens was analyzed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli resistant strains isolated from one day chickens, being the highest rates for beta-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly hatched chickens from parenteral flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistances of E. coli to other antibiotics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reassortment among genome segments of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates was reported frequently worldwide, however the pathogenicity of the reassortant field IBDV is poorly understood. In this paper, a pathogenicity study on four representative IBDV field strains isolated from Southern China between 2005 and 2011 was conducted. Twenty-eight-day-old Three-Yellow chickens were divided into four groups and were inoculated intraocularly with one of the four field IBDV strains, namely NN1172, NN1005, GD10111 and JS7, respectively. The mortality and relative weight of bursa and thymus were subsequently determined in the acute phase of infection. In addition, B cells, T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and virus were quantified in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus, respectively, by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that isolate NN1172, of which parts of segment A and B encoding the hypervariable (v) region of viral protein (VP2) and VP1, respectively, derived from vvIBDV strains, showed the most severe pathogenicity, and caused the most severe bursal B cell depletion as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration in the bursa of Fabricius. However, the virus induced the strongest decrease in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus and exhibited the most efficient viral replication in the target organs. Isolate NN1005, whose vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and VP1 from unidentified origin, exhibited relatively lower pathogenicity compared to NN1172. The other two isolates, JS7 and GD10111, of which the vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and intermediate IBDV, and VP1 from 002-73 and attenuated IBDV, respectively, showed the lowest level of virulence. Our results suggest that various IBDV field isolates with different natural segment reassortments exhibit differential pathogenicity after infection of commercial Three-Yellow chickens.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the cytogenetic characteristics of acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with the subgroup J avian leukosis virus associated with the v-src oncogene, we performed a karyotype analysis of fibrosarcoma cell cultures. Twenty-nine of 50 qualified cell culture spreads demonstrated polyploidy of some macrochromosomes, 21 of which were trisomic for chromosome 7, and others were trisomic for chromosomes 3, 4, 5 (sex chromosome w), and 10. In addition, one of them was trisomic for both chromosome 7 and the sex chromosome 5 (w). In contrast, no aneuploidy was found for 10 macrochromosomes of 12 spreads of normal chicken embryo fibroblast cells, although aneuploidy for some microchromosomes was demonstrated in five of the 12 spreads. The cytogenetic mosaicism or polymorphism of the aneuploidy in the acute fibrosarcoma described in this study suggests that the analysed cells are polyclonal.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella infection causes a significant number of cases of gastroenteritis and more serious illnesses in people in the UK and EU. The serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most frequently associated with foodborne illness in Europe. Whilst control programmes exist to monitor these serovars in the chicken and turkey sectors, no regulatory programme is currently in place for the duck sector. A voluntary industry scheme (Duck Assurance Scheme) was launched in the UK in 2010. Hatcheries act as focal points of Salmonella contamination, in particular if Salmonella-contaminated eggs from positive breeding farms enter the hatchery. Five duck hatcheries were visited in this study and four were positive for Salmonella. S. Typhimurium DT8 and S. Indiana were isolated from hatchery 1 and S. Typhimurium DT41 and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 3. S. Kottbus, S. Bovismorbificans and S. Senftenberg were isolated from hatchery 2 and S. Kedougou was isolated from hatchery 4. Advice on the control/elimination of Salmonella was provided at each visit and a longitudinal study was undertaken to monitor its effectiveness. Extensive sampling was carried out in the hatcheries visited and the tray wash area and waste/external areas had the highest probability of being contaminated. The hatcher area was also found to be a primary focus of contamination. Improvements of farm and hatchery biosecurity standards have resulted in a reduction of hatchery contamination in this study and in previous investigations. Hatcheries 1 and 5 were cleared of Salmonella, demonstrating that elimination of Salmonella contamination from duck hatcheries is achievable.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, which were weighted, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.