Cellular Microbiology (Cell Microbiol)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Cellular Microbiology publishes the best original scientific contribution of the intersection of microbial on host-cell biology. The focus is the host cell responses elicited by the interaction of micro-organisms. Equal emphasis is placed on responses to prokaryotic, viral and eukaryotic micro-organisms. In addition to mammalion systems, papers addressing other hosts such as plants and insects are strongly encourage. Exploitation of host cell structure; Modification of cell signalling pathways; Molecular responses of the host cell; Responses of tissues and whole organs; Systemic effects elicited by micro-organisms; Induction of immune response; Modulation and exploitation of immune response; Remodelling of tissues; Co-pathogen interactions.

Current impact factor: 4.92

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 4.915
2013 Impact Factor 4.816
2012 Impact Factor 4.811
2011 Impact Factor 5.458
2010 Impact Factor 5.625
2009 Impact Factor 5.725
2008 Impact Factor 5.598
2007 Impact Factor 5.293
2006 Impact Factor 5.07
2005 Impact Factor 6.333
2004 Impact Factor 6.097
2003 Impact Factor 5.336
2002 Impact Factor 4.895
2001 Impact Factor 4.557
2000 Impact Factor 3.409

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 4.88
Cited half-life 6.40
Immediacy index 1.28
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.76
Website Cellular Microbiology website
Other titles Cellular microbiology (Online)
ISSN 1462-5822
OCLC 42869627
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apicomplexan parasites replicate by several budding mechanisms with two well-characterized examples being Toxoplasma endodyogeny and Plasmodium schizogony. Completion of budding requires the tapering of the nascent daughter buds toward the basal end, driven by contraction of the basal complex. This contraction is not executed by any of the known cell division associated contractile mechanisms and in order to reveal new components of the unusual basal complex we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with its major scaffolding protein, TgMORN1. Here we report on a conserved protein with a haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) phosphatase domain, hereafter named HAD2a, identified by yeast two-hybrid. HAD2a has demonstrated enzyme-activity in vitro, localizes to the nascent daughter buds and co-localizes with MORN1 to the basal complex during its contraction. Conditional knockout of HAD2a in Toxoplasma interferes with basal complex assembly, which leads to incomplete cytokinesis and conjoined daughters that ultimately results in disrupted proliferation. In Plasmodium, we further confirmed localization of the HAD2a ortholog to the basal complex toward the end of schizogony. In conclusion, our work highlights an essential role for this HAD phosphatase across apicomplexan budding and suggests a regulatory mechanism of differential phosphorylation on the structure and/or contractile function of the basal complex.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Aurora kinases are eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key events associated with chromatin condensation, centrosome and spindle function, and cytokinesis. Elucidating the roles of Aurora kinases in apicomplexan parasites is crucial to understand the cell cycle control during Plasmodium schizogony or Toxoplasma endodyogeny. Here, we report on the localization of two previously uncharacterized Toxoplasma Aurora-related kinases (Ark2 and Ark3) in tachyzoites and of the uncharacterized Ark3 orthologue in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages. In T. gondii, we show that TgArk2 and TgArk3 concentrate at specific sub-cellular structures linked to parasite division: the mitotic spindle and intranuclear mitotic structures (TgArk2), and the outer core of the centrosome and the budding daughter cells cytoskeleton (TgArk3). By tagging the endogenous PfArk3 gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live parasites, we show that PfArk3 protein expression peaks late in schizogony and localizes at the periphery of budding schizonts. Disruption of the TgArk2 gene reveals no essential function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is surprising giving that the P. falciparum and P. berghei orthologues are essential for erythrocyte schizogony. In contrast, knock-down of TgArk3 protein results in pronounced defects in parasite division and a major growth deficiency. TgArk3-depleted parasites display several defects, such as reduced parasite growth rate, delayed egress and parasite duplication, defect in rosette formation, reduced parasite size and invasion efficiency and lack of virulence in mice. Our study provides new insights into cell cycle control in Toxoplasma and malaria parasites, and highlights Aurora kinase 3 as potential drug target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages can respond to microbial infections with programmed cell death. The major cell death pathways of apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis, are tightly regulated to ensure adequate immune reactions to virulent and persistent invaders. Macrophage death eliminates the replicative niche of intracellular pathogens and induces immune attack. Not surprisingly, successful pathogens have evolved strategies to modulate macrophage cell death pathways to ensure microbial survival and replication. Uncontrolled macrophage death can also lead to tissue damage, which may augment bacterial dissemination and pathology. In this review, we highlight how pathogens hijack macrophage cell death signals to promote microbial survival and immune evasion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: GBF1 is a host factor required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. GBF1 functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for G-proteins of the Arf family, which regulate membrane dynamics in the early secretory pathway and the metabolism of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Here we established that the Arf-GEF activity of GBF1 is critical for its function in HCV replication, indicating that it promotes viral replication by activating one or more Arf family members. Arf involvement was confirmed with the use of two dominant-negative Arf1 mutants. However siRNA-mediated depletion of Arf1, Arf3 (class I Arfs), Arf4 or Arf5 (class II Arfs), which potentially interact with GBF1, did not significantly inhibit HCV infection. In contrast, the simultaneous depletion of both Arf4 and Arf5, but not of any other Arf pair, imposed a significant inhibition of HCV infection. Interestingly, the simultaneous depletion of both Arf4 and Arf5 had no impact on the activity of the secretory pathway and induced a compaction of the Golgi and an accumulation of lipid droplets. A similar phenotype of lipid droplet accumulation was also observed when GBF1 was inhibited by brefeldin A. In contrast, the simultaneous depletion of both Arf1 and Arf4 resulted in secretion inhibition and Golgi scattering, two actions reminiscent of GBF1 inhibition. We conclude that GBF1 could regulate different metabolic pathways through the activation of different pairs of Arf proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis is indispensable for the pathogenesis of the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we showed that in E. histolytica Rab8A, which is generally involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane in other organisms, but was previously identified in phagosomes of the ameba in the proteomic analysis, primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in phagocytosis. We demonstrated that down-regulation of EhRab8A by small antisense RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing, remarkably reduced adherence and phagocytosis of erythrocytes, bacteria, and carboxylated latex beads. Surface biotinylation followed by SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the surface expression of several proteins presumably involved in target recognition was reduced in the EhRab8A gene silenced strain. Further, overexpression of wild-type EhRab8A augmented phagocytosis whereas expression of the dominant-negative form of EhRab8A resulted in reduced phagocytosis. These results indicated that EhRab8A regulates transport of surface receptor(s) for the prey from the ER to the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the ER-resident Rab GTPase is involved in phagocytosis through the regulation of trafficking of a surface receptor, supporting a premise of direct involvement of the ER in phagocytosis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio vulnificus infects humans and causes lethal septicemia. The primary virulence factor is a multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin consisting of conserved repeats-containing regions and various effector domains. Recent genomic analyses for the newly emerged V. vulnificus biotype 3 strain revealed that its MARTX toxin has two previously unknown effector domains. Herein, we characterized one of these domain, Domain X (DmXVv ). A structure-based homology search revealed DmXVv belongs to the C58B cysteine peptidase subfamily. When ectopically expressed in cells, DmXVv was autoprocessed and induced cytopathicity including Golgi dispersion. When the catalytic cysteine or the region flanking the scissile bond was mutated, both autoprocessing and cytopathicity were significantly reduced indicating DmXVv cytopathicity is activated by amino-terminal autoprocessing. Consistent with this, host cell protein export was affected by Vibrio cells producing a toxin with wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, DmXVv . DmXVv was found to localize to Golgi and to directly interact with Golgi-associated ADP-ribosylation factors ARF1, ARF3, and ARF4, although ARF binding was not necessary for the subcellular localization. Rather, this interaction was found to induce autoprocessing of DmXVv . These data demonstrate that the V. vulnificus hijacks the host ARF proteins to activate the cytopathic DmXVv effector domain of MARTX toxin.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the EGF receptor (EGFR), results in receptor activation, down-stream signaling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive bacterial pathogens are engulfed upon host cell entry in a vacuolar environment called the bacteria-containing vacuole (BCV). BCVs directly contact with numerous host compartments, mainly vesicles of the endocytic pathway, such as endosomes or lysosomes. In addition, they also interact with the endoplasmic reticulum and endomembranes of the secretory pathway. These connections between the pathogen and the host occur either through heterotypic membrane fusions or through membrane contact sites. The precise regulation of BCV contacts with host compartments defines the constitution of the intracellular bacterial niche. It emerges that the associated pathways may control the stability of the BCV resulting either in vacuolar or cytoplasmically growing bacteria. Here, we will portray how the usage of novel proteomics and imaging technologies allows comparison of the communication of different host cell compartments with four relevant intracellular human pathogens, namely Salmonella enterica, Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri and Francisella tularensis. The first two remain mainly within the BCV, and the latter two escape into the cytoplasm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is mainly produced by locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) -negative strains of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). SubAB cleaves an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, BiP/Grp78, leading to induction of ER stress. This stress causes activation of ER stress sensor proteins and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. We found that SubAB induces stress granules (SG) in various cells. Aim of this study was to explore the mechanism by which SubAB induced SG formation. Here, we show that SubAB-induced SG formation is regulated by activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). The culture supernatant of STEC O113:H21 dramatically induced SG in Caco2 cells, although subAB knockout STEC O113:H21 culture supernatant did not. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, and lysosomal inhibitors, NH4 Cl and chloroquine, suppressed SubAB-induced SG formation, which was enhanced by PKC and PKD inhibitors. SubAB attenuated the level of PKD1 phosphorylation. Depletion of PKCδ and PKD1 by siRNA promoted SG formation in response to SubAB. Furthermore, death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) knockdown increased basal phospho-PKD1(S916) and suppressed SG formation by SubAB. However, SG formation by an ER stress inducer, Tapsigargin, was not inhibited in PMA-treated cells. Our findings show that SubAB-induced SG formation is regulated by the PERK/DAP1 signaling pathway, which may be modulated by PKCδ/PKD1, and different from the signal transduction pathway that results in Tapsigargin-induced SG formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Invasion and multiplication of the facultative, cytosolic, enteropathogen Shigella flexneri within the colonic epithelial lining leads to an acute inflammatory response, fever and diarrhea. During the inflammatory process, infected cells are subjected to numerous stresses including heat, oxidative stress and genotoxic stress. The evolutionarily conserved pathway of cellular stress management is the formation of stress granules that store translationally inactive cellular mRNAs and interfere with cellular signaling pathways by sequestering signaling components. In this study, we investigated the ability of S. flexneri-infected cells to form stress granules in response to exogenous stresses. We found that S. flexneri infection inhibits movement of the stress granule markers eIF3 and eIF4B into stress granules and prevents the aggregation of G3BP1 and eIF4G-containing stress granules. This inhibition occurred only with invasive, but not with non-invasive bacteria and occurred in response to stresses that induce translational arrest through the phosphorylation of eIF2 and by treating cells with pateamine A, a drug that induces stress granules by inhibiting the eIF4A helicase. The S. flexneri-mediated stress granule inhibition could be largely phenocopied by the microtubule-destabilizing drug nocodazole and while S. flexneri infection did not lead to microtubule depolymerization, infection greatly enhanced acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Our data suggest that either qualitative differences in the microtubule network or subversion of the microtubule-transport machinery by S. flexneri may be involved in preventing the full execution of this cellular stress response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis remains the single largest infectious disease with ten million new cases and 2 million deaths that are estimated to occur yearly, more than any time in history. The intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and its spread from the lungs to other sites occur before the development of adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells whose maturation is critical for the onset of the protective immune response against tuberculosis disease and may vary depending on the nature of the cell wall of Mtb strain. Here we describe the role of the endogenous production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on DC maturation and expansion of Mtb-specific lymphocytes. Here we show that Mtb induces DC maturation through TLR2/dectin-1 by generating of ROS and through DC-SIGN in a ROS-independently manner. Based on the differences observed in the ability to induce DC maturation, ROS production and lymphocyte proliferation by those Mtb families widespread in South America, ie, Haarlem and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) and the reference strain H37Rv, we propose that variance in ROS production might contribute to immune evasion affecting DC maturation and antigen presentation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation acts as a fundamental molecular switch that alters protein function and thereby regulates many cellular processes. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is an important factor regulating virulence by counteracting cellular immune responses against viral infection. NS1 was shown to be phosphorylated at several sites, however, so far no function has been conclusively assigned to this post-translational events yet. Here we show that the newly identified phospho-site threonine 49 of NS1 is differentially phosphorylated in the viral replication cycle. Phosphorylation impairs binding of NS1 to dsRNA and TRIM25 as well as complex formation with RIG-I thereby switching-off its interferon antagonistic activity. Because phosphorylation was shown to occur at later stages of infection, we hypothesize that at this stage other functions of the multifunctional NS1 beyond its IFN antagonistic activity are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The function of these effectors depends on their localization within infected cells, but the mechanisms determining subcellular targeting of each effector are mostly elusive. Here, we show that the Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Ectopically expressed SteA localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells. However, SteA was displaced from the PM of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mutants unable to synthesize the local pool of PI(4)P, and from the PM of HeLa cells after localized depletion of PI(4)P. Moreover, in infected cells, bacterially translocated or ectopically expressed SteA localized at the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and to Salmonella-induced tubules; using the PI(4)P-binding domain of the Legionella type IV secretion effector SidC as probe, we found PI(4)P at the SCV membrane and associated tubules throughout Salmonella infection of HeLa cells. Both binding of SteA to PI(4)P and the subcellular localization of ectopically expressed or bacterially translocated SteA were dependent on a lysine residue near the N-terminus of the protein. Overall, this indicates that binding of SteA to PI(4)P is necessary for its localization within host cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with the development of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here we show that infection of gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis induces expression and nuclear localization of the ZEB1 transcription factor which controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). P. gingivalis also caused an increase in ZEB1 expression as a dual species community with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Streptococcus gordonii. Increased ZEB1 expression was associated with elevated ZEB1 promoter activity and did not require suppression of the miR-200 family of micro RNAs. P. gingivalis strains lacking the FimA fimbrial protein were attenuated in their ability to induce ZEB1 expression. ZEB1 levels correlated with an increase in expression of mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and MMP-9, and with enhanced migration of epithelial cells into matrigel. Knockdown of ZEB1 with siRNA prevented the P. gingivalis-induced increase in mesenchymal markers and epithelial cell migration. Oral infection of mice by P. gingivalis increased ZEB1 levels in gingival tissues, and intracellular P. gingivalis were detected by antibody staining in biopsy samples from OSCC. These findings indicate that FimA-driven ZEB1 expression could provide a mechanistic basis for a P. gingivalis contribution to OSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Babesia parasites cause a malaria-like febrile illness by infection of RBCs. Despite the growing importance of this tick-borne infection, its basic biology has been neglected. Using novel synchronization tools, the sequence of intra-erythrocytic events was followed from invasion through development and differentiation to egress. The dynamics of the parasite population was studied in culture, revealing for the first time, the complete array of morphological forms in a precursor-product relationship. Important chronological constants including Babesia's highly unusual variable intra-erythrocytic life-cycle, the life-span of each population of infected cells and the time required for the genesis of the different parasite stages were elucidated. Importantly, the maintenance of specific ratios of the infected RBC populations was shown to be responsible for the parasites' choice of developmental pathways, enabling swift responses to changing environmental conditions like availability of RBCs and nutrition. These results could impact on the control of parasite proliferation and therefore disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cellular Microbiology