Extremophiles features original research articles reviews and method papers on the biology molecular biology structure function and applications of life at high or low temperature pressure acidity alkalinity salinity or oxygen concentration; or in the presence of organic solvents heavy metals normally toxic substances radiation or host defense mechanisms. Fields covered: molecular biology biodiversity genetics macromolecular structure development growth biotechnology / fermentation technology ultrastructure biotransformation metabolism enzymology biomembranes bioenergetics physiology cell biology symbiosis ecology bioremediation methodologies evolution isolation phylogeny taxonomy
Current impact factor: 2.31
Impact Factor Rankings
|2016 Impact Factor||Available summer 2017|
|2014 / 2015 Impact Factor||2.306|
|2013 Impact Factor||2.174|
|2012 Impact Factor||2.203|
|2011 Impact Factor||2.941|
|2010 Impact Factor||2.16|
|2009 Impact Factor||2|
|2008 Impact Factor||1.782|
|2007 Impact Factor||2.317|
|2006 Impact Factor||1.921|
|2005 Impact Factor||2.125|
|2004 Impact Factor||1.897|
|2003 Impact Factor||1.955|
|2002 Impact Factor||2.165|
|2001 Impact Factor||2.291|
|2000 Impact Factor||2.688|
|1999 Impact Factor||3.133|
|1998 Impact Factor||2.593|
|1997 Impact Factor|
Impact factor over time
|Other titles||Extremophiles (Online)|
|Material type||Document, Periodical, Internet resource|
|Document type||Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper|
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Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial proteolytic enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes that hydrolyze proteins. The applications of proteases under harsh industrial conditions like alkalinity, salinity, and temperature make them inactive and unstable. This suggests need for search for novel microbial sources for protease production having diverse properties. For this purpose, 54 bacterial strains were isolated from different salt mines of Karak, Pakistan and were investigated for their proteolytic activity on skim milk agar plates. The strain which showed maximum protease activity was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Furthermore, growth and protease production was optimized for the characterized bacteria under different physical factors, i.e., pH, temperature and salinity. The isolate BLK-1.5 exhibited strong protease production and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Maximum production of protease was recorded at pH 10, 37 °C and 7 % (w/v) NaCl. Molecular weight of proteases was estimated 38 kDa and its optimum activity was observed at pH 10, 50 °C and 2 % (w/v) NaCl. In conclusion, the protease produced by halo-tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain BLK-1.5 has diverse characteristics and could be useful in various industrial applications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional and structural characterizations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-independent aspartate racemase of the acidothermophilic archaeon Picrophilus torridus were performed. Picrophilus aspartate racemase exhibited high substrate specificity to aspartic acid. The optimal reaction temperature was 60 °C, which is almost the same as the optimal growth temperature. Reflecting the low pH in the cytosol, the optimal reaction pH of Picrophilus aspartate racemase was approximately 5.5. However, the activity at the putative cytosolic pH of 4.6 was approximately 6 times lower than that at the optimal pH of 5.5. The crystal structure of Picrophilus aspartate racemase was almost the same as that of other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate -independent aspartate racemases. In two molecules of the dimer, one molecule contained a tartaric acid molecule in the catalytic site; the structure of the other molecule was relatively flexible. Finally, we examined the intracellular existence of D-amino acids. Unexpectedly, the proportion of D-aspartate to total aspartate was not very high. In contrast, both D-proline and D-alanine were observed. Because Picrophilus aspartate racemase is highly specific to aspartate, other amino acid racemases might exist in Picrophilus torridus.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we analyze the first complete genome sequence of Pyrococcus chitonophagus. The archaeon was previously suggested to belong to the Thermococcus rather than the Pyrococcus genus. Whole genome phylogeny as well as whole proteome comparisons using all available complete genomes in Thermococcales clearly showed that the species belongs to the Pyrococcus genus. P. chitonophagus was originally isolated from a hydrothermal vent site and it has been described to effectively degrade chitin debris, and therefore is considered to play a major role in the sea water ecology and metabolic activity of microbial consortia within hot sea water ecosystems. Indeed, an obvious feature of the P. chitonophagus genome is that it carries proteins showing complementary activities for chitin degradation, i.e. endo- and exo-chitinase, diacetylchitobiose deacetylase and exo-β-D glucosaminidase activities. This finding supports the hypothesis that compared to other Thermococcales species P. chitonophagus is adapted to chitin degradation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene encoding an esterase, ThaEst2349, was identified in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Thalassospira sp. GB04J01. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 45 °C and the thermal stability displayed a retention of 75 % relative activity at 40 °C after 2 h. The optimal pH was 8.5 but the enzyme kept more than 75 % of its maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.5. ThaEst2349 also showed remarkable tolerance towards high concentrations of salt and it was active against short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters, displaying optimal activity with the acetate. The enzyme was tested for tolerance of organic solvents and the results are suggesting that it could function as an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ThaEst2349 was determined to 1.69 Å revealing an asymmetric unit containing two chains, which also is the biological unit. The structure has a characteristic cap domain and a catalytic triad comprising Ser158, His285 and Asp255. To explain the cold-active nature of the enzyme, we compared it against thermophilic counterparts. Our hypothesis is that a high methionine content, less hydrogen bonds and less ion pairs render the enzyme more flexible at low temperatures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abiotic and biotic processes associated with the degradation of a light petroleum in brines close to the salt-saturation (~31 %) and the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) supply (casaminoacids/citrate; 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively) were followed during an incubation of 30 days. After 4-week incubation at 40 °C under light/dark cycles, a 24 % of abiotic degradation was observed in untreated brines. The stimulation of native brines community with LOM addition allowed an additional 12.8 % oil attenuation due to biodegradation processes. Successional changes in the active microbial community structure due to the oil contamination (16S rRNA DGGE approach) showed the selection of one phylotype affiliated to Salinibacter and the disappearance of Haloquadratum walsbyi in untreated brines. In LOM-amended microcosms, phylotypes related to Salinibacter, Haloarcula, Haloterrigena and Halorhabdus were selected. An effect of hydrocarbon contamination was only observed in the bacterial community with the inhibition of two dominant proteobacterial phylotypes. This study further confirms that short-term and moderate oil biodegradation is possible in LOM-stimulated brines. Biodegradation should be much more reduced under in situ conditions. Self-cleaning capacities of close to saturation hypersaline lakes appears, therefore very limited compared to non-extreme haline environments.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TTHA0829 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 has a molecular mass of 22,754 Da and is composed of 210 amino acid residues. The expression of TTHA0829 is remarkably elevated in the latter half of logarithmic growth phase. TTHA0829 can form either a tetrameric or dimeric structure, and main-chain folding provides an N-terminal cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain and a C-terminal aspartate-kinase chorismate-mutase tyrA (ACT) domain. Both CBS and ACT are regulatory domains to which a small ligand molecule can bind. The CBS domain is found in proteins from organisms belonging to all kingdoms and is observed frequently as two or four tandem copies. This domain is considered as a small intracellular module with a regulatory function and is typically found adjacent to the active (or functional) site of several enzymes and integral membrane proteins. The ACT domain comprises four β-strands and two α-helices in a βαββαβ motif typical of intracellular small molecule binding domains that help control metabolism, solute transport and signal transduction. We discuss the possible role of TTHA0829 based on its structure and expression pattern. The results imply that TTHA0829 acts as a cell-stress sensor or a metabolite acceptor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated efficient transformation of the thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 using conjugative plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli BR408. To evaluate the versatility of this approach to thermophile transformation, this study examined genetic transformation of various thermophilic Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. using conjugative plasmid transfer from E. coli strains. E. coli BR408 successfully transferred the E. coli–Geobacillus shuttle plasmid pUCG18T to 16 of 18 thermophiles with transformation efficiencies between 4.1 × 10−7 and 3.8 × 10−2/recipient. Other E. coli strains that are different from E. coli BR408 in intracellular DNA methylation also generated transformants from 9 to 15 of the 18 thermophiles, including one that E. coli BR408 could not transform, although the transformation efficiencies of these strains were generally lower than those of E. coli BR408. The conjugation was performed by simple incubation of an E. coli donor and a thermophile recipient without optimization of experimental conditions. Moreover, thermophile transformants were distinguished from abundant E. coli donor only by high temperature incubation. These observations suggest that conjugative plasmid transfer, particularly using E. coli BR408, is a facile and versatile approach for plasmid introduction into thermophilic Bacillus and Geobacillus spp., and potentially a variety of other thermophiles.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (G6PDs) are important enzymes widely used in bioassay and biocatalysis. In this study, we reported the cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of G6PDs from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4 (TtG6PD). SDS-PAGE showed that purified recombinant enzyme had an apparent subunit molecular weight of 60 kDa. Kinetics assay indicated that TtG6PD preferred NADP+ (k cat/K m = 2618 mM−1 s−1, k cat = 249 s−1, K m = 0.10 ± 0.01 mM) as cofactor, although NAD+ (k cat/K m = 138 mM−1 s−1, k cat = 604 s−1, K m = 4.37 ± 0.56 mM) could also be accepted. The K m values of glucose-6-phosphate were 0.27 ± 0.07 mM and 5.08 ± 0.68 mM with NADP+ and NAD+ as cofactors, respectively. The enzyme displayed its optimum activity at pH 6.8–9.0 for NADP+ and at pH 7.0–8.6 for NAD+ while the optimal temperature was 80 °C for NADP+ and 70 °C for NAD+. This was the first observation that the NADP+-linked optimal temperature of a dual coenzyme-specific G6PD was higher than the NAD+-linked and growth (75 °C) optimal temperature, which suggested G6PD might contribute to the thermal resistance of a bacterium. The potential of TtG6PD to measure the activity of another thermophilic enzyme was demonstrated by the coupled assays for a thermophilic glucokinase.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multipartite genome of Deinococcus radiodurans forms toroidal structure. It encodes topoisomerase IB and both the subunits of DNA gyrase (DrGyr) while lacks other bacterial topoisomerases. Recently, PprA a pleiotropic protein involved in radiation resistance in D. radiodurans has been suggested for having roles in cell division and genome maintenance. In vivo interaction of PprA with topoisomerases has also been shown. DrGyr constituted from recombinant gyrase A and gyrase B subunits showed decatenation, relaxation and supercoiling activities. Wild type PprA stimulated DNA relaxation activity while inhibited supercoiling activity of DrGyr. Lysine133 to glutamic acid (K133E) and tryptophane183 to arginine (W183R) replacements resulted loss of DNA binding activity in PprA and that showed very little effect on DrGyr activities in vitro. Interestingly, wild type PprA and its K133E derivative continued interacting with GyrA in vivo while W183R, which formed relatively short oligomers did not interact with GyrA. The size of nucleoid in PprA mutant (1.9564 ± 0.324 µm) was significantly bigger than the wild type (1.6437 ± 0.345 µm). Thus, we showed that DrGyr confers all three activities of bacterial type IIA family DNA topoisomerases, which are differentially regulated by PprA, highlighting the significant role of PprA in DrGyr activity regulation and genome maintenance in D. radiodurans.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An aromatic amino acid, Tyr or Trp, located in the esterase active site wall, is highly conserved, with hyperthermophilic esterases showing preference for Tyr and lower temperature esterases showing preference for Trp. In this study, we investigated the role of Tyr182 in the active site wall of hyperthermophilic esterase EstE1. Mutation of Tyr to Phe or Ala had a moderate effect on EstE1 thermal stability. However, a small-to-large mutation such as Tyr to His or Trp had a devastating effect on thermal stability. All mutant EstE1 enzymes showed reduced catalytic rates and enhanced substrate affinities as compared with wild-type EstE1. Hydrogen bond formation involving Tyr182 was unimportant for maintaining EstE1 thermal stability, as the EstE1 structure is already adapted to high temperatures via increased intramolecular interactions. However, removal of hydrogen bond from Tyr182 significantly decreased EstE1 catalytic activity, suggesting its role in stabilization of the active site. These results suggest that Tyr is preferred over a similarly sized Phe residue or bulky His or Trp residue in the active site walls of hyperthermophilic esterases for stabilizing the active site and regulating catalytic activity at high temperatures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported a non-processive endo-type chitinase, ChiA, from a newly isolated marine psychrophilic bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. DL-6. In this study, a processive exo-type chitinase, ChiC, was cloned from the same bacterium and characterized in detail. ChiC could hydrolyze crystalline chitin into (GlcNAc)2 as the only observed product. It exhibited high catalytic activity even at low temperatures, e.g. close to 0 °C, or in the presence of 5 M NaCl, suggesting that ChiC was a cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant chitinase. ChiC could also hydrolyze other substrates, including chitosan and Avicel, indicating its broad substrate specificity. Sequence features indicated that ChiC was a multi-domain protein having a deep substrate-binding groove that was regarded as characteristic of processive exo-chitinases. Enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin by ChiC could be remarkably boosted in the presence of ChiA, suggesting the synergy of ChiC and ChiA. This work provided a new evidence to prove that marine psychrophilic bacteria utilized a synergistic enzyme system to degrade recalcitrant chitin.
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