Intervirology (Intervirology)

Publisher: S. Karger (Firm), Karger

Journal description

As its title suggests, ëIntervirologyí covers progress in both basic and clinical virus research, and aims to provide a forum of exchange among the various disciplines within virology. Issues publishing original papers alternate with thematic issues, focusing on one clearly defined topic of basic or medical virology. This thematic concentration serves to make timely reviews, research reports and controversy easily accessible to both specialists in the field and those who want to keep track of the latest developments outside their own area of interest. The scope encompasses work on the molecular biology of animal viruses, including genome organization and regulation, and the structure and function of viral proteins. The pathogenesis, immunology, diagnosis and prophylaxis of viral diseases are discussed, with attention also given to virus-like agents such as prions and viroids.

Current impact factor: 1.68

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.683
2013 Impact Factor 1.773
2012 Impact Factor 1.889
2011 Impact Factor 2.337
2010 Impact Factor 1.756
2009 Impact Factor 1.106
2008 Impact Factor 1.418
2007 Impact Factor 1.827
2006 Impact Factor 1.448
2005 Impact Factor 1.776
2004 Impact Factor 1.219
2003 Impact Factor 1.45
2002 Impact Factor 1.441
2001 Impact Factor 1.871
2000 Impact Factor 0.955
1999 Impact Factor 1.215
1998 Impact Factor 1.186
1997 Impact Factor 0.787
1996 Impact Factor 1.054
1995 Impact Factor 1.26
1994 Impact Factor 0.788
1993 Impact Factor 1.189
1992 Impact Factor 1.667

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.79
Cited half-life 8.90
Immediacy index 0.27
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.51
Website Intervirology website
Other titles Intervirology (Online)
ISSN 1423-0100
OCLC 44724243
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The impact of myocardial viral persistence on the clinical outcome of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is still open to question. Methods: Fifty-two patients with DCM were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.8 years with respect to death or heart transplantation. Studied patients were clinically stable for at least 6 months before hospitalization. They underwent coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy. Specimens were examined by histo- and immunohistochemistry, and the viral genomes of parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB), and hepatitis B and C viruses were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Forty-two out of 52 patients were available for clinical follow-up. The viral genome was detected in the myocardium of 32 out of 42 patients. Among the viruses studied, CMV and CVB were the most frequently found. Nine out of 42 patients achieved the predefined study end point. No statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of a persistent viral genome and study end point. No statistically significant relationship between viral genomes studied and immunohistology results was detected. Conclusions: High prevalence of a viral genome in the myocardium of patients with DCM did not have an influence on their long-term clinical outcome.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To explore the possibility of single-cell analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods: Two hundred and twenty cells were isolated by laser capture microdissection from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks from 8 women who had HPV DNA detected in their cervical swab samples. The number of type-specific HPV copies in individual cells was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with and without a prior reverse transcription. The cells were assayed and counted for more than once if the corresponding swab sample was positive for ≥2 HPV types. Results: Infection with HPV16, HPV39, HPV51, HPV52, HPV58, HPV59 and HPV73 was detected in 12 (5.5%) of 220, 3 (9.4%) of 32, 3 (5.8%) of 52, 11 (22.9%) of 48, 9 (18.8%) of 48, 3 (9.4%) of 32 and none of 20 cells, respectively. The numbers of HPV genome copies varied widely from cell to cell. The coexistence of multiple HPV types was detected in 6 (31.6%) of 19 positive cells from 1 of the 6 women who had 2 or 3 HPV types detected in their swab samples. Conclusion: Given the heterogeneity of HPV status in individual cells, further clarification of HPV infection at the single-cell level may refine our understanding of HPV-related carcinogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to determine whether signal-to-cutoff (S/Co) ratios of reactive anti-HCV samples could be used as a basis for avoiding the need for supplemental testing in our study population. Methods: We analyzed 901 anti-HCV-positive sera from 8 institutions in China. The Ortho VITROS anti-HCV assay and Monolisa Plus anti-HCV version 2 were used as screening assays to detect anti-HCV antibodies. Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and quantitative tests for HCV RNA were performed to validate confirmed HCV infection status. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that 41.5% (114/275) of true-positive samples with S/Co ratios ≤3.0 would be missed and the negative predictive value was 63.9 and 87.06%, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RIBA as supplemental testing, respectively. 29.8% (90/302) of those who tested positive by RIBA samples were missed when only RT-PCR was used as supplemental testing. Conclusions: We determined that very low anti-HCV levels (S/Co ≤3.0), as determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay, was not an appropriate marker to preclude the need for supplemental testing in our study population. A screening strategy employing a secondary HCV antibody assay using different HCV antigens from the first assay as the supplemental testing method should be studied further. The immunoblot assay, as a supplemental testing method, is still necessary.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring the assembly and disassembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) is important in developing effective VLP-based vaccines. We tried to establish a simple and rapid method to evaluate the status of VLP assembly using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis (FSA) while developing a VLP-based vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b). We synthesized the gene coding for PCV2b capsid protein (CP). The CP was expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form, dialyzed into three different buffers, and assembled into VLPs. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the sera of mice immunized with inactivated PCV2b. The VLP assembly was detected using transmission electron microscopy and FSA. The assembled VLPs showed a distinct FSA curve with a peak at 320 nm. We found that the assembly status was related to the immunogenicity, fluorescence intensity, and morphology of the VLP. The FSA assay was able to monitor the various denatured statuses of PCV2b VLPs treated with β-mercaptoethanol or β-mercaptoethanol plus urea. We have demonstrated that FSA can be used to detect the assembly of PCV2b VLPs produced in E. coli. This provides a simple solution for monitoring VLP assembly during the production of VLP-based vaccines.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Cases of chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection have been described in HIV-infected patients. There are several commercial anti-HEV assays, but anti-HEV seroprevalence rates differ largely depending on the assay used. The aim of this study was to (1) compare two commercial anti-HEV assays in a German cohort of HIV-positive individuals, and (2) determine whether HEV takes chronic courses in controlled HIV infection. Methods: 246 HIV patients were tested for both HEV RNA and HEV antibodies. All patients received antiretroviral therapy, if this was indicated, according to European guidelines. All but 19 individuals had CD4+ counts above 200/µl. Anti-HEV IgG was determined by two independent commercial assays (Wantai and MP). Results: None of the patients tested HEV RNA positive. Anti-HEV IgG was detected more frequently by the Wantai assay (26%) than the MP assay (1.6%, p < 0.001). Patients born in Europe tested more frequently positive for anti-HEV (p = 0.047) than individuals from other regions. Increasing age but not CD4 count correlated with a higher likelihood of anti-HEV positivity (R = 0.313, p < 0.001). Conclusions: About one quarter of HIV-infected patients show evidence of previous HEV contact. The risk of developing chronic HEV infection is very low in individuals receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. The large variability in HEV seroprevalence rates determined by different assays requires consideration for the diagnostic workup of HIV patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tissue of chronic periapical lesions, and to compare the results in relation to the symptoms of patients and the size of the lesion. Methods: Periapical lesions analyzed in the study were collected from the roots of the teeth indicated for extraction. Samples were divided according to the symptoms into groups of symptomatic and asymptomatic, and according the size into groups of small and large lesions. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HCMV and EBV. The amplification was performed in a DNA Thermal Cycler (Hybaid). Results: Symptomatic lesions were 7.68 times more likely to be infected with HCMV than asymptomatic lesions (p < 0.001). Large symptomatic lesions were 73.50 times more likely to harbor HCMV than small symptomatic lesions (p < 0.001). Large symptomatic lesions were 7.64 times more likely to be infected with EBV than small symptomatic lesions (p = 0.05). Large symptomatic lesions were 5.38 times more likely to harbor dual HCMV/EBV infection than small symptomatic lesions (p = 0.115). Conclusion: Detection of HCMV and EBV in the samples of periapical lesions suggests an important role of herpesviruses in periapical tissue destruction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the biological characteristics of the two types of virion fractions of Coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), which include the real virion fraction and pseudo-virion fraction in their structure, pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Methods: We obtained the two CA16 virion fractions by density gradient centrifugation. The morphology of virion fractions was analyzed by electron microscopy, while the antigenic characteristics and immunogenicity of two virion fractions were determined by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, qRT-PCR, and the mouse model of immune response. Results: The two virion fractions contained the major viral antigen components in their structures, showed similar pathogenicity in a neonatal murine model and were capable of inducing an effective primary immune response in adult mice, regardless of the essential distinction between the two virion fractions, which was the cleavage of VP0 to VP2 and VP4. Conclusions: The two CA16 virion fractions showed antigenicity and immunogenicity with inducing a specific immune response in animals.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Of the 35 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients worldwide, 10-40% are coinfected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared to HCV-monoinfected patients, those coinfected experience decreased spontaneous HCV clearance, accelerated liver fibrosis, and a decreased response to anti-HCV therapy. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of treating acute HCV in HIV-positive patients with peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy. Methods: Two authors independently searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2014) for English articles, and reviewed bibliographies and abstracts from major liver and HIV conferences (2011-2013). Original studies featuring at least 10 treatment-naive, HIV-positive adults infected with acute HCV and treated with peginterferon and ribavirin were included. Analyses were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q test (p < 0.05) and the I2 statistic (>50%). Results: From 12 studies (450 patients), the pooled sustained virological response (SVR) was 71.4% (95% CI 64.7-77.4; Q statistic = 22.20, p = 0.023, I2 = 50.44). The rapid virological response (RVR; 7 studies, 196 patients) was 47.4% (95% CI 40.6-54.7), and the early virological response (EVR; 9 studies, 283 patients) was 82.8% (95% CI 67.0-92.0). The probability of an SVR was 93.1% (95% CI 84.9-97.0) in those who obtained an RVR (6 studies, 82 patients) and 85.9% (95% CI 78.7-91.0) if an EVR (7 studies, 168 patients) was reached. Conclusion: Peginterferon with ribavirin is an effective option for treating acute HCV in HIV-positive patients, especially if they achieve an RVR or an EVR.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the immune reactivity of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) against HCV immune positive and negative sera. Two published HVR1 consensus nucleotide sequences (Italian and Chinese) were synthesized, and with both of them, a splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing were performed. From the corresponding amino acid sequences, 3 Italian and 1 Chinese HVR1 peptides were selected for synthesis. The 4 peptides (MB1-MB4; GenBank No.: HQ846888-HQ846891) were used to screen 47 and 31 HCV (type 4) immune positive and negative sera, respectively, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 3 Italian HVR1 peptides (MB1, MB2, MB3) showed reactivities of 83, 68 and 76.6%, respectively, while the Chinese HVR1 peptide (MB4) showed a reactivity of 80.8%. Our results supported that the HVR1 is an attractive target for a peptide-based vaccine as it contains neutralizing epitopes, and all of the HCV patients' sera used in this study have anti-HVR1 antibodies. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of peptide MB1 has a close sequence similarity with the published mimotope R9, and it shows a high ELISA reactivity. So, MB1 could be tested in combination with other HCV-related peptides as a supplemental assay for HCV diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the host transcription factor E2F-1 and/or any mechanisms that may support viral entry and its effect on the HSV-1 production in anti-CD3-activated Jurkat cells. The expressions of ICP4, HVEM and E2F-1 were studied using reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. HSV-1 production was determined by plaque titration assay and HSV-1 DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. The viral uptake was observed by electron microscopy. In anti-CD3-activated Jurkat cells, there was a significant increase in the HSV-1 production. The expression of ICP4 mRNA after HSV-1 infection occurred 2 h prior to the synthesis of the ICP4 protein, which was significantly higher in activated than nonactivated T cells. There were no significant differences in the expressions of E2F-1 mRNA. The HVEM expression was positively correlated with the HSV-1 DNA in the activated T cells. From the electron micrograph, the formations of filopodia were observed only in HSV-1-infected, activated cells. High expressions of viral receptor protein and filopodia formations are the key factors that enhance the HSV-1 entry into activated T lymphocytes, resulting in an increased production of the virus. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome-like disease with high mortality rates have frequently occurred in Pelodiscus sinensis farms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen through challenge infection assays and partial sequencing of the genome of the pathogen. A 453-bp amplicon was obtained by random PCR using the nucleic acid extracted from the tissue homogenate filtrate and showed 32% identity at the amino acid level with the replicase polyprotein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by Blastx. Multiple alignments indicated the putative protein sequence has some similarities to the replicase polyprotein of Arteriviridae, and the phylogenetic tree showed it was closely related to equine arteritis virus. This sequence was found in the lung of the diseased P. sinensis by in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the lung had the highest content of virus. The peak replication of P. sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) in the lung occurred 4 days after infection. The ribonucleic nature of the viral genome was confirmed by RNase A or DNase I treatments. We named the virus TSHSV in this study as P. sinensis is also known as Trionyx sinensis. These results provide a fundamental basis for further understanding the biology and the molecular mechanisms of TSHSV. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Intervirology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the phylogeny and diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genotype ON1 that occurred during its early evolution (within the first 3.5 years since the detection of the first ON1 strains). ON1 strains have a 72-nucleotide-long in-frame duplication within the second hypervariable domain of the glycoprotein gene (HVR2). All available HVR2 sequences of strains belonging to the ON1 genotype published prior to June 20, 2014 were collected. Multiple sequence alignments, phylogeny, phylogeography, sequence clustering and putative protein analyses were performed. The worldwide spread and diversification of ON1 strains are presented. Only in a minority of ON1 strains do the two replicas remain identical, and various ON1 strains possess common differences between the first and the second copy (segments A and B). Mutations of the progenitor sequence were more frequent in segment B, a higher overall diversity on the protein level and more putative glycosylation sites exist in segment B, and, unlike in segment A, positive selection acts on that protein region. The fast spread of the novel HRSV genotype ON1 has been accompanied by its rapid concurrent diversification. Differences in variability of the two replicas within HVR2 were detected, with C-terminal replica being more variable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Intervirology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of IL28B polymorphism in occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and whether IL28B genetic variants are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell responses. The rs12979860 IL28B genotype was determined in 34 OBI blood donors, 22 spontaneous HBV resolvers, 36 inactive HBV carriers and 25 seronegative donors. T-cell responses to HBV recombinant proteins were assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The frequency of the IL28B CC genotype among OBI patients was similar to that of inactive carriers [41 vs. 39%, respectively, p = 0.961; odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-2.86; p = 0.845]. The IL28B CC genotype was found more frequently in spontaneous resolvers, although the differences were not significant (45 vs. 39%, spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, respectively; p = 0.828; OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.45-3.83; p = 0.622). HBV-specific T-cell responses were detected in OBIs, and significantly stronger T-cell responses towards hepatitis B envelope antigen were observed in those with the IL28B CC genotype. In spontaneous resolvers and inactive carriers, IL28B CC did not correlate with the magnitude of T-cell responses. In OBI donors, IL28B CC correlates with the intensity of HBV-specific T-cell responses. In this study, IL28B CC is not statistically associated with OBI or with HBV clearance, but a larger number of cases is needed before completely ruling out its role in HBV infection. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Intervirology