Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (PROSTATE CANCER P D)

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group

Journal description

Covers current developments relating to all aspects of prostate cancer research.

Current impact factor: 3.43

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.425
2013 Impact Factor 2.83
2012 Impact Factor 2.811
2011 Impact Factor 2.421
2010 Impact Factor 2.263
2009 Impact Factor 2.096
2008 Impact Factor 2.062
2007 Impact Factor 2.024
2006 Impact Factor 1.81
2005 Impact Factor 1.143
2004 Impact Factor 1.144
2003 Impact Factor 0.685
2002 Impact Factor 0.459
2001 Impact Factor 0.497
2000 Impact Factor 0.646
1999 Impact Factor 0.583
1998 Impact Factor 0.312

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.00
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.80
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 1.00
Website Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases website
Other titles Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases (Online)
ISSN 1365-7852
OCLC 42458934
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Nature Publishing Group

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 6 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Published source must be acknowledged and DOI cited
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website and institutional repository
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post authors version to their relevant funding body's archive, 6 months after publication
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Nature Publishing Group'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Although testosterone suppression during androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and obesity have been reported to affect ADT efficacy, there are few comprehensive analyses on the impact on ADT outcome. Recently, we demonstrated that the SRD5A2 polymorphism was associated with metastatic prostate cancer prognosis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between ADT serum testosterone levels or body mass index (BMI) and the prognosis among men treated with primary ADT for metastatic prostate cancer. In addition, we examined the association of serum testosterone levels during ADT with the SRD5A2 polymorphism. Methods: This study included 96 Japanese patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The relationship between clinicopathological parameters, including serum testosterone levels during ADT and BMI, and progression-free survival, overall survival and survival from progression following primary ADT treatment for metastatic prostate cancer was examined. Additionally, the association between the SRD5A2 gene polymorphism (rs523349) and serum testosterone levels during ADT was examined in 86 cases. Results: Among clinicopathological parameters, the lowest quartile of serum testosterone levels during ADT was a significant predictor of better overall survival as well as survival from castration resistance. However, BMI was not associated with prognosis. The CC allele in the SRD5A2 gene (rs523349), encoding the less active 5α-reductase, was associated with lower serum testosterone levels during ADT. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings revealed a dramatic suppression of serum testosterone by ADT was associated with better survival among men with metastatic prostate cancer that have undergone primary ADT, which may be affected by the SRD5A2 gene polymorphism.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 9 February 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.2.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents one of the most common long-term side effects in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (BNSRP). The aim of our study was to assess the influence of non-surgically related causes of ED in patients treated with BNSRP. Methods: Overall, 716 patients treated with BNSRP were retrospectively identified. All patients had complete data on erectile function (EF) assessed by the Index of Erectile Function-EF domain (IIEF-EF) and depressive status assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) questionnaire. EF recovery was defined as an IIEF-EF of ⩾22. Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed the impact of preoperative IIEF-EF, depression and adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) on the time to EF recovery. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to test the impact of aRT on EF recovery after accounting for depression and baseline IIEF-EF. Results: Median follow-up was 48 months. Patients with a preoperative IIEF-EF of ⩾22 had substantially higher EF recovery rates compared with those with a lower IIEF-EF (P<0.001). Patients with a CES-D of <16 had significantly higher EF recovery rates compared to those with depression (60.8 vs 49.2%; P=0.03). Patients receiving postoperative aRT had lower rates of EF compared with their counterparts left untreated after surgery (40.7 vs 59.8%; P<0.001). These results were confirmed in multivariable analyses, where preoperative IIEF-EF (P<0.001), depression (P=0.04) and aRT (P=0.03) were confirmed as significant predictors of EF recovery. Conclusions: Preoperative functional status and depression should be considered when counseling PCa patients regarding the long-term side effects of BNSRP. Moreover, the administration of aRT has a detrimental effect on the probability of recovering EF after BNSRP. This should be taken into account when balancing the potential benefits and side effects of multimodal therapies in PCa patients.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 9 February 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.1.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Contemporary therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have shown survival improvements, which do not account for patient experience and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: This literature review included a search of MEDLINE for randomized clinical trials enrolling ⩾50 patients with mCRPC and reporting on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) since 2010. Results: Nineteen of 25 publications describing seven treatment regimens (10 clinical trials and nine associated secondary analyses) met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The most commonly used measures were the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (n=5 trials) and Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (n=4 trials) questionnaires. The published data indicated that HRQoL and pain status augmented the clinical efficacy data by providing a better understanding of treatment impact in mCRPC. Abiraterone acetate and prednisone, enzalutamide, radium-223 dichloride and sipuleucel-T offered varying levels of HRQoL benefit and/or pain mitigation versus their respective comparators, whereas three treatments (mitoxantrone, estramustine phosphate and docetaxel, and cabazitaxel) had no meaningful impact on HRQoL or pain. The main limitation of the data were that the PROs utilized were not developed for use in mCRPC patients and hence may not have comprehensively captured symptoms important to this population. Conclusions: Recently published randomized clinical trials of new agents for mCRPC have captured elements of the patient experience while on treatment. Further research is required to standardize methods for measuring, quantifying and reporting on HRQoL and pain in patients with mCRPC in the clinical practice setting.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 2 February 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.42.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: To assess the prognostic value of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels for prognostication of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in a large multi-institutional cohort. Methods: Data from 7205 patients treated with RP at five institutions for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative serum levels of CRP within 24 h before surgery were evaluated. A CRP level ⩾0.5 mg dl(-1) was considered elevated. Associations of elevated CRP with BCR were evaluated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Harrel's C-index was used to assess prognostic accuracy (PA). Results: Patients with higher Gleason score on biopsy and RP, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastasis, and positive surgical margins status had a significantly elevated preoperative CRP compared to those without these features. Patients with elevated CRP had a lower 5-year BCR survival proportion as compared to those with normal CRP (55% vs 76%, respectively, P<0.0001). In pre- and postoperative multivariable models that adjusted for standard clinical and pathologic features, elevated CRP was independently associated with BCR (P<0.001). However, the addition of preoperative CRP did not improve the accuracy of the standard pre- and postoperative models for prediction of BCR (70.9% vs 71% and 78.9% vs 78.7%, respectively). Conclusions: Preoperative CRP is elevated in patients with pathological features of aggressive PCa and BCR after RP. While CRP has independent prognostic value, it does not add prognostically or clinically significant information to standard predictors of outcomes.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 26 January 2016; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.60.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Mixed evidence exists regarding the effects of statins among men with prostate cancer. We aimed to determine the association between statin use and clinical outcomes in prostate cancer using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Original articles published until second week of August 2015 were searched in electronic databases (Medline-Ovid, Pubmed, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest) for studies on statin use in prostate cancer. The main clinical outcomes for the review were: biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastases, and all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (pHR) and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2 statistics. Meta-regression was performed, wherever significant heterogeneity was found in the meta-analyses, to find factors associated with poor outcomes, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of findings. The analyses were conducted using RevMan v5.3, STATA v14, and R v3.1.1. Results: Out of the 1002 retrieved citations, 34 observational cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Statin use was associated with a 21% reduction in the risk of BCR among those treated with radiation therapy (pHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.95, P-value=0.01, 10 studies, I2=54%), whereas it was not associated with the BCR among those treated with radical prostatectomy (pHR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.09, P-value=0.43, 15 studies, I2=65%). Statin use was associated with a 22% reduction in the risk of metastases (pHR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87, P-value<0.001, 6 studies, I2=0%), and a 24% reduction in risk of both all-cause mortality (pHR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91, P-value=0.004, 6 studies, I2=71%), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (pHR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.89, P-value=0.0007, 5 studies, I2=40%). Conclusions: Our systematic review found that statin significantly reduced the all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality and improved the BCR in certain subgroup of men with prostate cancer. In future, randomized controlled trials should be conducted to establish efficacy of statins among men with prostate cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: High-volume surgeons with ⩾250 radical prostatectomies provide superior oncological outcomes as evidenced by a lower rate of PSA recurrence (PSAR). The financial benefits of performing prostatectomies at high-volume centers (HVC) are unexplored. Methods: A base case-referent scenario-where the share of prostatectomies at high- and low-volume centers were evenly divided at 50% was defined. Additional scenarios with increasing shares of prostatectomies at HVC with 10% increments were also modeled. Using a lower probability of PSAR as the only advantage of more experienced surgeons, the savings that would result from fewer recurrences, avoidance of salvage radiation therapy (SRT) and management of fewer men with metastatic cancer were calculated. Results: The savings associated with performing 80% of radical prostatectomy at HVC were $177, $357 and $559 per prostatectomy at 5, 10 and 20 years, respectively. These savings would offset referral costs of up to $1833 per prostatectomy referral at no additional total societal costs. Given the longer average biochemical failure-free survival with prostatectomies at HVC, referral costs of more than $1833 may be cost effective. Conclusions: Under the conservative assumption of accounting for lower rates of PSAR as the only benefit of surgery in an HVC, performing prostatectomies at an HVC was associated with savings that may offset part of the initial referral costs.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 15 December 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.56.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) occurs in approximately 5% of prostate biopsies. Approximately 30–40% of patients with ASAP may develop prostate cancer (PCa) within a 5-year period. Current guidelines recommend a repeat biopsy within 3–6 months after the initial diagnosis. Our objective was to examine the association between ASAP and subsequent diagnosis of high-grade PCa and to evaluate the need for immediate repeat biopsy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Prednisone and other corticosteroids can provide palliation and tumor responses in patients with prostate cancer. The combination of docetaxel and prednisone was the first treatment shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since the approval of docetaxel in 2004, additional treatments are available, including abiraterone, which is also administered with prednisone. Therefore, patients are increasingly likely to have prednisone therapy several times throughout their disease course, and the contribution of prednisone to the efficacy of docetaxel is unknown.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate PSA levels and kinetic cutoffs to predict positive bone scans for men with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) cohort. Retrospective analysis of 531 bone scans of 312 clinically CRPC patients with no known metastases at baseline treated with a variety of primary treatment types in the SEARCH database. The association of patients' demographics, pathological features, PSA levels and kinetics with risk of a positive scan was tested using generalized estimating equations. A total of 149 (28%) scans were positive. Positive scans were associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR)=0.98; P=0.014), higher Gleason scores (relative to Gleason 2-6, Gleason 3+4: OR=2.03, P=0.035; Gleason 4+3 and 8-10: OR=1.76, P=0.059), higher prescan PSA (OR=2.11; P<0.001), shorter prescan PSA doubling time (PSADT; OR=0.53; P<0.001), higher PSA velocity (OR=1.74; P<0.001) and more remote scan year (OR=0.92; P=0.004). Scan positivity was 6, 14, 29 and 57% for men with PSA>5, 5-14.9, 15-49.9 and greater than or equal to50 ng ml-1, respectively (P-trend <0.001). Men with PSADT greater than or equal to15, 9-14.9, 3-8.9 and <3 months had a scan positivity of 11, 22, 34 and 47%, correspondingly (P-trend <0.001). Tables were constructed using PSA and PSADT to predict the likelihood of a positive bone scan. PSA levels and kinetics were associated with positive bone scans. We developed tables to predict the risk of positive bone scans by PSA and PSADT. Combining PSA levels and kinetics may help select patients with CRPC for bone scans..Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 26 May 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.25.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer persisting in the primary site after systemic therapy may contribute to emergence of resistance and progression. We previously demonstrated molecular characteristics of lethal cancer in the prostatectomy specimens of patients presenting with lymph node metastasis after chemohormonal treatment. Here we report the post-treatment outcomes of these patients and assess whether a link exists between surgery and treatment-free/cancer-free survival. Patients with either clinically detected lymph node metastasis or primaries at high risk for nodal dissemination were treated with androgen ablation and docetaxel. Those responding with PSA concentration <1 ng ml-1 were recommended surgery 1 year from enrollment. ADT was withheld postoperatively. The rate of survival without biochemical progression 1 year after surgery was measured to screen for efficacy. Forty patients were enrolled and 39 were evaluable. Three patients (7.7%) declined surgery. Of the remaining 36, 4 patients experienced disease progression during treatment and 4 more did not reach PSA <1. Twenty-six patients (67%) completed surgery, and 13 (33%) were also progression-free 1 year postoperatively (8 with undetectable PSA). With a median follow-up of 61 months, time to treatment failure was 27 months in the patients undergoing surgery. The most frequent patterns of first disease recurrence were biochemical (10 patients) and systemic (5). Half of the patients undergoing surgery were off treatment and progression-free 1 year following completion of all therapy. These results suggest that integration of surgery is feasible and may be superior to systemic therapy alone for selected prostate cancer patients presenting with nodal metastasis. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 26 May 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.23.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intraprostatic injection of ethanol has been previously tested in clinical trials as a potential treatment of BPH, with variable outcomes. As evident from animal studies, the inconsistency was owing to various degrees of ethanol backflow along the needle tract. In acute canine experiments, we previously documented that using convection enhanced delivery (CED) eliminates backflow and improves ethanol distribution. The goal of this study was to compare the diffusion pattern between a microporous hollow fiber catheter (MiHFC) and a standard needle in human prostates from organ donors. Prostates were harvested from cadaveric organ donors immediately after removal of organs for transplant. After trimming off excess fat and weighing, prostates were injected with absolute ethanol. The total injected volume was 25% of the calculated prostate volume. One lateral lobe was injected using a single lumen 21-gauge control needle. The contralateral lobe was injected with the same volume but using a MiHFC. Immediately after injection, prostates were fixed en bloc in 10% neutral-buffered formalin, and then sectioned. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed to determine lesion volume based on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained cross-sections. Three fresh human prostates were harvested and injected. The time from harvest to intraprostatic injection was 15-35 min. The lesion created by the MiHFC was 1.14±0.52 cm3, whereas that from the control needle was 0.28±0.10 cm3 (P=0.038). No backflow was observed along the needle tract of the MiHFC. This study shows that freshly harvested human prostates can be used to evaluate new treatments using intraprostatic injection. Similar to in vivo canine experiments, the ethanol lesion sizes were significantly bigger with the use of a MiHFC when compared with a standard single lumen needle.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 26 May 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.24.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Owing to efficacy and tolerability, abiraterone acetate (AA) is a leading treatment for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Increased serum concentrations of AA, such as by taking AA with food, may lead to the inhibition of additional enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer progression. Medical records of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received AA between 1 April 2011 and 31 December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the percent of men with a rising PSA on AA who experienced any PSA decline within 3 months after changing the administration of AA from without food to with food. Secondary outcomes were median time on AA therapy in men who received AA therapy without food versus those that switched administration from without food to with food at PSA progression, and the percent of men who experienced any decline in serum testosterone concentration, and the rate of adverse events observed while taking AA with food. Nineteen men who switched AA administration from without food to with food and 41 patients who administered AA without food only were included in the study. Of those patients who took AA with food at PSA progression, a PSA decline was observed in 3 of the 19 (16%) men, including 3 of the 14 men who had an initial response to AA (21%). Testosterone declined in five out of seven patients from pre-food levels. The median time on AA therapy was increased by nearly 100 days in patients who switched AA administration from without food to with food. No increases in toxicity were observed. Some men with mCRPC may benefit from taking AA with food. Further prospective comparative studies are needed to determine if changing AA administration is beneficial.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 17 March 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.7.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate whether very high b-value computed diffusion-weighted imaging (cDWI) is able to provide better contrast between the foci of prostate cancer and background tissue than the standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, and whether this improved contrast could be used to improve the tumor detection. Methods: Very high b-value cDWI series up to b4000 were created for 14 patients with high-grade prostate cancer. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and CNR-to-ADC ratios were calculated. Three blinded readers also assessed the tumor conspicuity on a standard five-point scale. Results: The tumor CNR increased with increasing b-values in all the patients up to a maximum average CNR of 75.1 for a b-value of 4000 (average CNR for the ADC maps: 10.0). CNR/ADC ratios were higher than 1 (indicating higher CNR than respective ADC) for cDWI of 1500 and higher, with a maximum of 6.5 for cDWI4000. The average subjective tumor conspicuity scores for cDWI2000, 3000 and 4000 were significantly higher than that of the ADC (4.0): 4.5 (P=0.018), 4.5 (P=0.017) and 4.6 (P=0.012). Conclusions: cDWI is able to provide better contrast between the foci of prostate cancer and background tissue compared with a standard ADC map. This resulted in improved subjective tumor conspicuity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Permanent radioactive seed implantation provides highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that typically includes multidisciplinary collaboration between urologists and radiation oncologists. Low dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy offers excellent tumor control rates and has equivalent rates of rectal toxicity when compared with external beam radiotherapy. Owing to its proximity to the anterior rectal wall, a small portion of the rectum is often exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation from this procedure. Although rare, some patients develop transfusion-dependent rectal bleeding, ulcers or fistulas. These complications occasionally require permanent colostomy and thus can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. Aside from proper technique, a promising strategy has emerged that can help avoid these complications. By injecting biodegradable materials behind Denonviller's fascia, brachytherpists can increase the distance between the rectum and the radioactive sources to significantly decrease the rectal dose. This review summarizes the progress in this area and its applicability for use in combination with permanent LDR brachytherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 17 February 2015; doi:10.1038/pcan.2015.4.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Ketoconazole is a well-known CYP17-targeted systemic treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, most of the published data has been in the pre-chemotherapy setting; its efficacy in the post-chemotherapy setting has not been as widely described. Chemotherapy-naïve patients treated with attenuated doses of ketoconazole (200-300 mg three times daily) had PSA response rate (>50% decline) of 21-62%. We hypothesized that low-dose ketoconazole would likewise possess efficacy and tolerability in the CRPC post-chemotherapy state. Methods: Men with CRPC and performance status 0-3, adequate organ function and who had received prior docetaxel were treated with low-dose ketoconazole (200 mg orally three times daily) and hydrocortisone (20 mg PO qAM and 10 mg PO qPM) until disease progression. Primary endpoint was PSA response rate (>50% reduction from baseline) where a rate of 25% was to be considered promising for further study (versus a null rate of <5%); 25 patients were required. Secondary endpoints included PSA response >30% from baseline, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of stable disease and evaluation of adverse events (AEs). Results: Thirty patients were accrued with median age of 72 years (range 55-86) and median pre-treatment PSA of 73 ng ml(-1) (range 7-11,420). Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. PSA response (>50% reduction) was seen in 48% of patients; PSA response (>30% reduction) was seen in 59%. Median PFS was 138 days; median duration of stable disease was 123 days. Twelve patients experienced grade 3 or 4 AEs. Of the 17 grade 3 AEs, only 3 were attributed to treatment. None of the two grade 4 AEs were considered related to treatment. Conclusions: In docetaxel pre-treated CRPC patients, low-dose ketoconazole and hydrocortisone is a well-tolerated, relatively inexpensive and clinically active treatment option. PSA response to low-dose ketoconazole appears historically comparable to that of abiraterone in this patient context. A prospective, randomized study of available post-chemotherapy options is warranted to assess comparative efficacy.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In an era of personalized medicine, individualized risk assessment using easily available tools on the internet and the literature are appealing. However, uninformed use by clinicians and the public raises potential problems. Herein, we assess the performance of published models to predict insignificant prostate cancer (PCa), using a multi-national low-risk population that may be considered for active surveillance (AS) based on contemporary practice. Methods: Data on men suitable for AS but undergoing upfront radical prostatectomy were pooled from three international academic institutions in Cambridge (UK), Toronto (Canada) and Melbourne (Australia). Four predictive models identified from literature review were assessed for their ability to predict the presence of four definitions of insignificant PCa. Evaluation was performed using area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves and Brier scores for discrimination, calibration curves and decision curve analysis. Results: A cohort of 460 men meeting the inclusion criteria of all four nomograms was identified. The highest AUCs calculated for any of the four models ranged from 0.618 to 0.664, suggesting weak positive discrimination at best. Models had best discriminative ability for a definition of insignificant disease characterized by organ-confined Gleason score ⩽6 with a total volume ⩽0.5 ml or 1.3 ml. Calibration plots showed moderate range of predictive ability for the Kattan model though this model did not perform well at decision curve analysis. Conclusions: External assessment of models predicting insignificant PCa showed moderate performance at best. Uninformed interpretation may cause undue anxiety or false reassurance and they should be used with caution.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases