Brain Injury (Brain Inj)

Publisher: International Association for the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury; European Brain Injury Society, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

This journal covers all aspects of brain injury from basic science, neurological techniques and outcomes to vocational aspects, with studies of rehabilitation and outcome of both patients and their families. It addresses both adult and pediatric issues and it embraces issues such as family and peer relationships, effects of alcohol and drugs, communication problems and management techniques and creating new programs. Brain Injury uses case studies to illustrate different approaches to a subject, and provides a forum for the appraisal of theories which may influence future research. Brain Injury is the official journal of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) and the European Brain Injury Society (EBIS).

Current impact factor: 1.81

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.808
2013 Impact Factor 1.861
2012 Impact Factor 1.513
2011 Impact Factor 1.36
2010 Impact Factor 1.75
2009 Impact Factor 1.533
2008 Impact Factor 1.116
2007 Impact Factor 1.25
2006 Impact Factor 1.182
2005 Impact Factor 1.471
2004 Impact Factor 1.136
2003 Impact Factor 1.12
2002 Impact Factor 1.043
2001 Impact Factor 0.924
2000 Impact Factor 0.914
1999 Impact Factor 1.017
1998 Impact Factor 1.085
1997 Impact Factor 1.256
1996 Impact Factor 0.843
1995 Impact Factor 0.88

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.13
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.60
Website Brain Injury website
Other titles Brain injury (Online), BI
ISSN 1362-301X
OCLC 38266063
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the incidence and injury characteristics of hospitalized trauma patients diagnosed with TBI. Methods: A retrospective study of all injured hospitalized patients recorded in the National Trauma Registry at 19 trauma centres in Israel between 2002-2011. Incidence and injury characteristics were examined among children, adults and seniors. Results: The annual incidence rate of hospitalized TBI for the Israeli population in 2011 was 31.8/100 000. Age-specific incidence was highest among seniors with a dramatic decrease in TBI-related mortality rate among them. Adults, in comparison to children and seniors, had higher rates of severe TBI, severe and critical injuries, more admission to the intensive care unit, underwent surgery, were hospitalization for more than 2 weeks and were discharged to rehabilitation. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, mechanism of injury and injury severity score, TBI-related in-hospital mortality was higher among seniors and adults compared to children. Conclusion: Seniors are at high risk for TBI-related in-hospital mortality, although adults had more severe and critical injuries and utilized more hospital resources. However, seniors showed the most significant reduction in mortality rate during the study period. Appropriate intervention programmes should be designed and implemented, targeted to reduce TBI among high risk groups.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Object: Basilar dolichoectasia (BD) is an atherosclerotic, a distinct arteriopathy or a chronic-phase dissection characterized by elongation and dilation of the basilar artery. Spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissection (siVAD) is an important cause of stroke in young and middle-aged people. It is hypothesized that the BD and the siVAD might partially share aetiologies and this study aimed to examine the relationship. Methods: This study compared clinical and radiological characteristics in 93 patients with siVAD with 93 controls. Ectasia was defined as basilar artery diameter >4.5 mm and dolichosis, as either basilar artery bifurcation above the suprasellar cistern or lateral to the margin of the clivus or dorsum sellae. The BD was defined if both ectasia and dolichosis were simultaneously observed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using variables that were marginally or significantly associated with siVAD on univariate analysis (p < 0.20). Results: Multivariate analysis showed siVAD patients have higher proportions of hypertension (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.6; p = 0.007) and BD (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.1-12; p = 0.036). Conclusions: The present study suggested that BD was related to the siVAD. A randomized study from multi-institutions with an adequate sample size is needed to make a strong argument about the association between BD and siVAD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the shunt placement in patients who had normal pressure hydrocephalus after poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Methods: Patients diagnosed with NPH after poor-grade aSAH were divided into a treatment group and control group, based on whether they had received ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. The treatment group was then divided into an improvement group and non-improvement group according to their recovery. The Glasgow Outcome Scale and Mini Mental Scale Examination were used for 3 month and 1 year follow-up rehabilitation measures. Results: Of the 46 total patients, significant improvement was observed at the 3 month and 1 year follow-ups (p < 0.01) after shunt implantation in the treatment group compared to the control group. Furthermore, patients who were younger (p = 0.022), had better neurological function (higher Glasgow Coma Score, p < 0.01) and less severe hydrocephalus (lower EI, p < 0.01) appears to be more likely to benefit from the shunt. Conclusions: Patients who had NPH due to poor-grade aSAH would benefit from shunt placement when given the correct candidates and timely management of shunt malfunction. Additionally, the curative effect of the shunt should have been regarded as a long-term goal of rehabilitation in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Recovery of consciousness and recovery of function among patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness rarely occur. Those patients who do regain consciousness typically remain with severe disability. The aim of this retrospective study is to suggest that continuing improvement is possible in a survivor of catastrophic brain injury after being in a prolonged state of disordered consciousness. Case study: This retrospective single case study follows the progress of a 29 year old man, I.J, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury following an assault in October 2011. He was in a vegetative state for 15 months and in a minimally conscious state for a further 4 months. This was followed by a slow and steady recovery of motor and cognitive functions. At 3 years post-injury I.J is considered to be moderately disabled. He is now living in the community with continuing outpatient support. On the disability rating scale his level of functioning is rated as mildly dependent. Conclusion: This study shows that continuing recovery to a level of moderate disability is possible, even after a prolonged disorder of consciousness. Intense multi-disciplinary long-term rehabilitation and cranioplasty may be contributing factors for such an unexpected recovery.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood acquired brain injuries can disrupt communication functions needed for success in school, work and social interaction. Cognitive-communication difficulties may not be apparent until adolescence, when academic, environmental and social-emotional demands increase. Objective: The Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies for Students (S-FAVRES) is a new activity-level measure of cognitive-communication skills in complex, contextual and integrative tasks that simulate real world communication challenges. It is hypothesized that S-FAVRES performance would differentiate adolescents with and without acquired brain injury (ABI) on scores for Accuracy, Rationale, Reasoning Subskills and Time. Methods: S-FAVRES was administered to 182 typically-developing (TD) and 57 adolescents with mild-to-severe ABI aged 12-19. Group differences, internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity, reliability and contributing factors to performance (age, gender, brain injury) were examined statistically. Results: Those with ABI attained statistically lower Accuracy, Rationale and Reasoning sub-skills scores than their TD peers. Time scores were not significantly different. Performance trends were consistent across tasks, administrations, gender and age groups. Inter-rater reliability for scoring was acceptable. Conclusion: The S-FAVRES provides a reliable, functional and quantifiable measure of subtle cognitive-communication difficulties in adolescents that can assist speech-language pathologists in planning treatment and integration to school and real world communication.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The number of traumatic injuries among children is increasing. However, so-called mild TBI might result in unfavourable outcomes. Early diagnosis of intracranial haematomas prior to development of serious complications may be a decisive factor for a favourable outcome. InfraScan company developed and brought to the market the Infrascanner® model 1000, which is a portable detector of blood collections that operates in the near infrared (NIR) band.Objective: To estimate the efficiency of the Infrascanner® model 1000 for detection of intracranial haematomas among children with mild TBI.Materials and methods: Ninety-five patients with mild TBI were examined. An indication for cerebral CT after mild TBI was the presence of risk factors of intracranial lesions. The Infrascanner was used by a neurosurgeon during primary examination. CT was performed in 43 patients (45%), while 52 patients (55%) with a low risk of intracranial lesions were under observation.Results: The results of examination of patients using CT and infrared scanning coincided in 39 cases and intracranial haematomas were detected in eight patients. False-positive results were obtained in three cases. The sensitivity of the procedure used in this group of patients with a medium and high risk of development of intracranial haemorrhages was 1.00 (0.66; 1.00). The specificity was 0.91 (0.81; 1.00)—the proportions and a 95% CI. The false-positive risk is 0.27 (0.00; 0.58). During infrared scanning in patients with low risk of intracranial lesions, false-positive results were obtained in four cases and false-negative results were absent.Conclusion: Infra-scanning might be viewed as a screening technique for intracranial haemorrhages in ambulances and outpatient trauma centres in order to decide on hospitalization, CT scanning and referral to a neurosurgeon. Infra-scanning combined with evaluation of risk factors of intracranial damage might reduce the number of unnecessary radiological examinations.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chest trauma (CT) on the number of peripheral blood (PB) stem cells in affected patients in comparison to normal controls. Additionally, the aim was to determine the relationship between CD34+ cell counts and TBI-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in the acute phase of trauma. Patients and method: Thirty patients with TBI, 12 patients with CT and 53 healthy subjects were included in the study. Results: CD34+ cell counts within the first 24-48 hours of TBI were found to be lower than those obtained on the 7(th) day of TBI and those in the healthy controls. CD34+ cell counts obtained on the 2(nd) day of CT were lower than those in the healthy group, but did not differ from those measured on the 7(th) day of CT. There was no correlation between CD34+ cell counts and serum total cortisol (STC) levels on the 2(nd) and 7(th) days in the TBI or CT groups. Conclusion: An increase in CD34+ cell counts as observed on the 7(th) day in both TBI and CT groups suggested that CD34 changes were not specific to TBI. Moreover, this study showed for the first time that CD34 response was not affected by changes in cortisol levels induced by TBI and severity of TBI.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Research into olfactory dysfunction (OD) following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is limited. The current study investigated the frequency of OD following paediatric TBI and the relationship between OD and injury characteristics including severity, site of impact and cause of injury. It was hypothesized that children with moderate/severe TBI would demonstrate greater OD than those with mild TBI. Design/method: Thirty-seven children aged 8-16 with TBI were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study at a metropolitan children's hospital. Olfactory assessment, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, was completed at 0-3 months post-injury. Results: Nineteen per cent of participants demonstrated impaired olfaction, while a small number (5%) were anosmic. A significant relationship between OD and severity of injury was found. No other injury variables demonstrated a significant relationship with olfactory outcomes. Conclusions: OD was relatively common in this paediatric TBI cohort and the hypothesized relationship with severity of injury was supported. It is recommended that information about OD after TBI be routinely provided to children and families. Further research is needed in larger cohorts to support the implementation of routine clinical assessment, understand the relationship between OD and other injury characteristics, determine the functional implications of OD and document recovery trajectories.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a lower dose of levetiracetam (500 mg every 12 hours) to prevent early seizures after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that the seizure rate would be low and comparable to previous studies using phenytoin. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care, academic institution that is designated as a level 1 trauma centre in the US. Consecutive patients with TBI were evaluated. Patients who were given a levetiracetam dose of 500 mg every 12 hours were included. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a seizure within 7 days of TBI. Results: There were a total of 169 patients included in the study, who were treated with levetiracetam 500 mg every 12 hours. The median time to first dose of levetiracetam was 3.5 hours after injury (interquartile range = 1-13 hours). After initiation of levetiracetam, there were four (2.4%) patients who had a seizure within 7 days. This was not significantly different than the hypothesized population value of 3.6% (p = 0.390). Conclusions: A lower dose of levetiracetam 500 mg every 12 hours after TBI may be effective for early seizure prevention after TBI.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Brain injury is an important, potentially devastating, complication in cardiac surgery. A significant number of patients suffer perioperative complications involving the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations of brain injury are associated with significantly increased mortality, morbidity and health resource utilization. Serum biomarkers have been studied in cardiac surgery to measure the degree and incidence of brain injury and to improve patient management. Methods: All relevant studies were identified by computerized searches of PubMed using the following Medical Subject Headings and keywords term: biomarker, cardiac surgery, brain injury and neurological complication. Results: The biomarkers that appear to be better indicators of brain injury severity in cardiac surgery and its consequences are S100B protein, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, ubiquitin C terminal hydroxylase-L1 and neurofilaments. Conclusions: These biomarkers, independently of clinical and radiological findings, show global cerebral situation at the cellular level and the degree of brain dysfunction. However, up to date, there is no biomarker entirely suitable for the detection of brain injury after cardiac surgery.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a 30-70% mortality rate. Nevertheless, in clinical practice there are no effective biomarkers for the prediction of fatal outcome following severe TBI. Therefore, the aim was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients with severe TBI. Methods: This prospective study enrolled 120 male patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8 at emergency room admission). The plasma BDNF level was determined at ICU admission (mean 6.4 hours after emergency room admission). Results: Severe TBI was associated with a 35% mortality rate and 64% of the patients presented severe TBI with multi-trauma. The mean plasma BDNF concentration among the severe TBI victims was 704.2 ± 63.4 pg ml(-1) (±SEM). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between BDNF levels in the survivor (700.2 ± 82.8 pg ml(-1)) or non-survivor (711.6 ± 97.4 pg ml(-1)) groups (p = 0.238) or in the isolated TBI (800.4 ± 117.4 pg ml(-1)) or TBI with multi-trauma groups (650.5 ± 73.9 pg ml(-1)) (p = 0.109). Conclusions: Plasma BDNF concentrations did not correlate with either short-term fatal outcome or type of injury following severe TBI.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature relating to the neuropsychiatric symptoms at presentation and outcome of childhood brain tumours. Methods: Seven online databases pertaining to the neuropsychiatric presentation and outcomes of childhood CNS tumours were searched and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Temporal limits were not applied to the searches. Results: There were 1879 relevant search results in total. After discovering the large body of both primary and secondary research in the field of cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes of brain tumours in children, these studies were excluded. Quality-of-life studies were excluded for the same reason. Thirty-one papers were chosen for discussion in this review. Conclusion: This timely systematic review concluded that neuropsychiatric presentations are common in children with CNS tumours-with the presence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in up to 57% of cases, their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated with time since diagnosis. The findings highlight the necessity for routine psychological and psychiatric screenings of children with suspected brain tumours and at follow-up and a number of clinical recommendations to this effect are listed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study explored using the FIT as a measure of performance validity among veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Background: The Rey Fifteen-Item Memory Test (FIT) is a performance validity measure criticized for poor sensitivity. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-seven veterans completed the FIT and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, Digit Span (DS); 109 of whom completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). FIT cut-offs of <9, <8 and stricter cut-offs were examined using DS and/or TOMM as criterion performance validity measures. Results: Only four participants scored below the standard cut score of 9 on the FIT. Among the 13 veterans failing both criterion tests, only two scored below 9 on the FIT. Regardless of which FIT cut-off was used, the FIT had poor diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: Despite its popularity, the FIT is not supported as an appropriate measure of performance validity in veterans undergoing evaluation for possible mTBI. Therefore, inferences regarding neuropsychological data reliability with adequate statistical certainty require use of other measures of performance validity with greater sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Brain Injury