Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine (Environ Health Prev Med)

Publisher: Nihon Eisei Gakkai, Springer Verlag

Journal description

Journal of the Japan Society for Hygiene

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Website Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine website
Other titles Environmental health and preventive medicine (Online), Environmental health and preventive medicine
ISSN 1347-4715
OCLC 47992699
Material type Document, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with silica exposure. Materials and methods The study included 104 male subjects with silica exposure and 36 healthy subjects. Posterior–anterior radiographs were classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) Classification. Category 0 patients were classified as Group I (n = 54), category I patients were classified as Group II (n = 25), Category II and III patients were classified as Group III (n = 25). Results Femoral neck BMD values were significantly lower in Group III (p = 0.007). Lumbar vertebrae BMD values were significantly lower in all groups with silica exposure than in the control group (p = 0.000). The osteoporosis rate was significantly higher in Group III (p = 0.000). Subjects with silica exposure were determined to have diminished 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.012). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that subjects with silica exposure have diminished BMD and 25(OH)D levels.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. Methods: We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. Results: The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. Conclusion: On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and depressive symptoms, with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using twins and measured SMCs and depressive symptoms as outcomes and explanatory variables, respectively. First, we performed regression analyses using generalized estimating equations to investigate the associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors (individual-level analyses). We then performed regression analyses for within-pair differences using monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and MZ twin pairs to investigate these associations with adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors by subtracting the values of one twin from those of co-twin variables (within-pair level analyses). Therefore, differences between the associations at individual- and within-pair level analyses suggested confounding by genetic factors. Results: We included 556 twins aged ≥20 years. In the individual-level analyses, SMCs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both males and females [standardized coefficients: males, 0.23 (95 % CI 0.08-0.38); females, 0.35 (95 % CI 0.23-0.46)]. In the within-pair level analyses using MZ and same-sex DZ twin pairs, SMCs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. In the within-pair level analyses using the MZ twin pairs, SMCs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms [standardized coefficients: males, 0.32 (95 % CI 0.08-0.56); females, 0.24 (95 % CI 0.13-0.42)]. Conclusions: This study suggested that SMCs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms after adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate students' subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde (FA) during a gross anatomy course and to survey how the risk of subjective symptoms was affected by exposure to FA. Methods: We conducted three questionnaire surveys of 125 students enrolled in an anatomy course (FA exposure group) and 124 students not enrolled in the course (FA nonexposure group) before, during, and 6 months after the course. The questionnaire included questions inquiring about subjective symptoms, sex, age, and allergies. We analyzed differences in the prevalence of subjective symptoms in distinct survey periods. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms and exposure to FA after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of some of the ocular, nasal, and nonspecific symptoms in the FA exposure group was low before the course, increased during the course and decreased 6 months after the course. A significant positive relationship was observed between exposure to FA and some symptoms after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age. Conclusions: We identified some concrete symptoms associated with exposure to FA. We suggest that the exposure to low levels of FA influences students' subjective symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We performed the two inhalation exposures, whole-body inhalation and nose-only inhalation, to investigate the pulmonary deposition and health effects of the two inhalation methods. Methods: In both methods, we exposed rats to the same TiO2 nanoparticles at almost the same exposure concentration for 6 h and compared the deposited amounts of nanoparticles and histopathological changes in the lungs. Rats were exposed to rutile-type TiO2 nanoparticles generated by the spray-dry method for 6 h. The exposure concentration in the whole-body chamber was 4.10 ± 1.07 mg/m(3), and that in nose-only chamber was 4.01 ± 1.11 mg/m(3). The particle sizes were 230 and 180 nm, respectively. A control group was exposed to fresh air. Results: The amounts of TiO2 deposited in the lungs as measured by ICP-AES after acid digestion just after the exposure were: 42.6 ± 3.5 μg in the whole-body exposure and 46.0 ± 7.7 μg in the nose-only exposure groups. The histopathological evaluation was the same in both exposure groups: no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the alveolar space and interstitium, and no fibrosis. Conclusion: The two inhalation methods using the same material under the same exposure conditions resulted in the same particle deposition and histopathology in the lung.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study investigated factors associated with the ability of Japanese junior high school students to recognize the signs of dating violence. Methods: During a period of 20 months (from June 2011 to January 2013), a survey was distributed to 3340 students aged 13-15 years in the second and third grades at 18 junior high schools in a Japanese prefecture. The survey examined gender, recognition of the signs of dating violence, knowledge of dating violence, self-esteem, attitudes toward sexual activity, attitudes toward an equal dating relationship, and relationships with school teachers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of the ability of boys and girls respondents to recognize the signs of physical and psychological dating violence. Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to identify predictors of the ability of boys and girls respondents to recognize the sign of sexual dating violence. The Ethics Committee of Saga University Medical School approved the study protocol. Results: A total of 3050 (91.3 %) students participated in this study (1547 boys and 1503 girls). Gender differences were noted with regard to the scores for some of the variables measured. The results indicated that boys who had more knowledge of dating violence, who focused on an equal dating relationship, and had a positive relationship with their teachers showed a greater ability to recognize the signs of dating violence. In addition, boys with a conservative attitude toward sexual activity showed a greater ability to recognize the signs of physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, girls with more knowledge of dating violence had a conservative attitude toward sexual activity, and girls who focused on an equal dating relationship showed greater ability to recognize the signs of dating violence. Conclusions: These findings suggest that education programs to prevent dating violence should promote understanding about dating violence with consideration of gender differences and should foster better relations between students and teachers, as well as promoting the establishment of an equal dating relationship between boys and girls.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess the difference between self-reported and measured weight values in Japanese men and women and to determine the underlying determinants of the differences between self-reported and measured values. Methods: The data were collected from 363 general Japanese individuals aged 16-88 years living in Kumamoto prefecture. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for this study with self-reported weight and height values. Measured weight and height were measured immediately after questionnaire completion. Paired t-tests identified differences between self-reported and measured values by sex. Multiple-stepwise regression analysis examined the independent variables' effects on the differences between self-reported and measured weights. Results: Significant differences were found between self-reported and measured values for both sexes (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative relationship between the difference in an individual's self-reported and measured weight in each sex, with higher measured weight individuals more likely to underestimate their weight. Multiple-stepwise regression analysis models explained 12.1 % (p < 0.01), 11.3 % (p < 0.01), and 5.6 % (p < 0.01) of the variance in all participants, men, and women, respectively. Significant effects were found for age, weight measurement frequency, and measured weight in total participants, weight measurement frequency, and measured weight for men, and age for women. Conclusions: In this study, the mean absolute value of the weight and height variances proved the unreliability of self-reported weight and height values. This study's findings suggest self-reported weight inaccuracy especially for obese populations. This should be adjusted when using it in epidemiological studies and healthcare planning.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to identify associations between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol consumption, and hypertension in Japanese men. The study participants were 1,225 male Japanese workers. We collected lifestyle information, body measurements, blood biochemical parameters, blood pressure measurements, and ALDH2 genotyping data during medical examinations conducted between March 2004 and January 2005 at a work facility and an affiliated company. Lifestyle data on alcohol intake and smoking were collected using self-administered questionnaires at the same time as when the aforementioned measurements were obtained. The genotype frequencies of ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms were 62.6, 32.7, and 4.7 % for *1/*1, *1/*2, and *2/*2, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the *1/*2 or *2/*2 group were significantly lower than those in the *1/*1 group (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) for blood pressure according to ALDH2 genetic polymorphism revealed that the amount of daily alcohol intake affected systolic blood pressure in participants who harbored the ALDH2 genetic polymorphism *1/*2 or *2/*2. The interaction between alcohol intake and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms might affect systolic blood pressure in adult male workers.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The first autochthonous case of dengue fever in Japan since 1945 was reported on August 27, 2014. Infection was transmitted by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Tokyo's Yoyogi Park. A total of 65 cases with no history of overseas travel and who may have been infected around the park were reported as of September 5, 2014. To quantify infection risk of the local epidemic, the reproduction number and vector density per person at the onset of the epidemic were estimated. The estimated probability distribution and the number of female mosquitoes per person (MPP) were determined from the data of the initial epidemic. The estimated distribution R 0i for the initial epidemic was fitted to a Gamma distribution using location parameter 4.25, scale parameter 0.19, and shape parameter 7.76 with median 7.78 and IQR (7.21-8.40). The MPP was fitted to a normal distribution with mean 5.71 and standard deviation 0.53. Both estimated reproduction number and vector density per person at the onset of the epidemic were higher than previously reported values. These results indicate the potential for dengue outbreaks in places with elevated vector density per person, even in dengue non-endemic countries. To investigate the cause of this outbreak, further studies will be needed, including assessments of social, behavioral, and environmental factors that may have contributed to this epidemic by altering host and vector conditions in the park.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to analyze birth defects (congenital anomalies) after assisted reproductive technology (ART) according to the method of treatment, namely in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Individual lists of all ART pregnancies resulting in birth defects from birth year 2004 to 2012 presented in the annual reports by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology were used as the initial sources of information. Relative risks (RRs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with IVF as the reference group when calculating RR of ICSI for IVF, and with FET as the reference group when calculating the RR of fresh embryo transfer for FET. In total, 2725 stillbirths or live births with birth defects were analyzed. The prevalence of birth defects was slightly yet significantly higher in ICSI compared with IVF throughout the study period (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.02-1.29) and in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.00-1.58). The prevalence of birth defects was significantly higher for fresh embryo transfer compared with FET in the 2004-2006 period (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.12-1.72). The prevalence of birth defects in multiple births was significantly lower in fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (RR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.55-0.90, live births of 2007-2012). The present descriptive epidemiological study suggests that the impacts of different ART methods on birth defects might differ.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the occupational risks and their effects on the work stress of the health professionals working in state hospitals in the Southeast of Turkey. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was composed of 360 health professionals of the Pazarcık, Ergani, and Şehitkamil State Hospitals between December 2014 and January 2015. The data of the study were obtained by performing the survey which was composed of questions related to the socio-demographic characteristics, factors that were thought to affect the occupational risks and job stress, as well as, the questions of the Work Stress Scale. The analyses of the data have been performed using Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance. The working hours, the number of being on-duty, insomnia, and burnout in health professionals were determined to be with the highest mean scores among other stressful risks and hazards. The mean work stress level, which increases the success by creating the group-stimulus effect, was indicated as 2.4 and 2.5 for the health professionals in Pazarcık and Ergani State Hospital, respectively. However, the stress level which poses a threat for the group-health and efficiency was found to be 4.0 for the health professionals of the Şehitkamil State Hospital. As the exposure of the occupational risks increases in the health professionals, the work stress scores also increase (p < 0.05). The occupational risks and work stress of the health professionals in the Şehitkamil State Hospital should be evaluated in terms of occupational health and safety.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the participation, implementation, and effect of the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals in China, and to provide evidence for the improvement of prenatal education. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the hospitals in Hunan Province, China. Mothers aged 20-45 years who had given birth between 1 May 2011 and 1 May 2012 and not diagnosed with pregnancy-related complications were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to examine the effect of prenatal education curriculum on prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode, and recovery status from delivery. Among the total 604 respondents, only 175 (29.1 %) surveyed mothers participated in prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals during their latest delivery. These mothers had a higher rate of attending all the required prenatal examinations (57.9 vs. 48.3 %), and a higher rate of recovering very well and well (80 vs. 73.7 %) from the latest delivery, than those who did not participate in prenatal education curriculum (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the delivery mode between mothers who participated and those who did not participate in the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals. Prenatal education is indispensable for the improvement of maternal and child health, and thus should be advocated. In China, a standard and convenient specification prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals and their doctors is appropriated for providing prenatal education to pregnant women.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study are to assess cigarette and hookah smoking rates amongst adult population in Jordan and to determine predictors of smoking status. Selected beliefs, perceptions and attitudes toward cigarettes and hookah smoking were also assessed. This cross-sectional study was conducted in five regional governorates of Jordan through face-to-face interviews on a random sample of adult population aged 18-79 years. Data was collected using a piloted questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Questionnaire. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking in our sample (869) was 59.1 % amongst males and 23.3 % amongst females, while the overall prevalence of hookah smoking was 18.9 % amongst males and 23.1 % amongst females. Leisure and imitation were the most commonly reported reasons for smoking. Regardless of smoking status, people were aware of health risks associated smoking and also had negative perceptions toward smoking. Smoking rates for both genders have reached alarmingly high rates in Jordan. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive national programme to target the country's growing burden of smoking. Suggestions on leisure time activities should be included in such programmes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Since the Cabinet's decision concerning the Basic Policies 2005, the Japanese government has implemented specific measures to suppress increases in national medical care expenditure. However, we believe that the economic significance of medical care should be quantified in terms of its economic impact on national medical care expenditure. No one has examined the economic impact of all medical institutions in Japan using data from a statement of profits and losses. We used an input-output analysis to quantitatively estimate economic impact of medical care and examined its estimation range with a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. To estimate the economic impact and economic impact multipliers of all medical institutions in Japan, an input-output analysis model was developed using an input-output table, statement of profits and losses, margin rates, employee income rates, consumption propensity and an equilibrium output model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation. Economic impact of medical care in all medical institutions was ¥72,107.4 billion ($661.5 billion). This impact yielded a 2.78-fold return of medical care expenditure with a 95 % confidence interval ranging from 2.74 to 2.90. Economic impact of medical care in Japan was two to three times the medical care expenditure (per unit). Production inducement of medical care is comparable to other industrial sectors that are highly influential toward the economy. The contribution to medical care should be evaluated more explicitly in national medical care expenditure policies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the mesothelin (MSLN) methylation and its relationship with soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) levels in participants stratified by asbestos exposure scenarios and benign asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The presence of benign ARDs was confirmed through chest X-ray and the asbestos exposure history was obtained using a standardized questionnaire in this study, including 262 participants. Sera SMRP were measured using MESOMARK, and MSLN methylation in genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was detected by real-time methylation-specific PCR. Covariates were compared with SMRP concentrations using correlation analysis and the potential covariates affecting SMRP were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, and the distribution of methylation status was analyzed by Chi-square test. There was a trend toward elevation of SMRP values in healthy individuals exposed to asbestos as compared with those without asbestos exposure. The highest median level of SMRP was 1.3 nM in subjects with asbestosis, followed by cases with pleura plaque and asbestosis (1.2 nM), pleura plaque (0.9 nM), healthy subjects with occupational exposure (0.9 nM), non-occupational exposure (0.8 nM), and mixed exposure (0.8 nM). Within asbestosis cases, those with higher profusion scores had higher SMRP values than those with lower profusion scores (1.6 vs. 0.8 nM). Based on multi-regression analysis, the trend toward elevation of SMRP remained significant in subjects with occupational exposure or in those with asbestosis, as compared with healthy subjects without exposure (p < 0.01), although body mass index had an effect on SMRP (p < 0.0001). Regardless of the differences in SMRP levels among these subgroups, MSLN methylation ranged from 80.5 to 92.5 %, with no significant difference. The elevated level of SMRP in asbestosis with higher profusion scores could not be attributed to low MSLN methylation status. Our findings suggest that the elevation of SMRP is related to asbestos exposure and benign ARDs especially for cases with high profusion scores, which is independent of MSLN methylation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine