Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus
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Article: Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus
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ABSTRACT: A highly promising energy crop for biogas production can be Miscanthus * giganteus. It has multiple advantages, which include low soil requirements and the existence of genotypes adapted to dry conditions in comparison to other energy crops. Miscanthus cannot be used in the biogas plant without a pretreatment due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses. One of the most efficient pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass is steam explosion. This includes heating the biomass at high temperature values, followed by mechanical disruption of the biomass fibres by a rapid pressure drop. The objective of this study is to analyse the effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on the specific biogas and methane production of miscanthus. In addition methane hectare yields are calculated and compared to those of maize. Steam explosion pretreatment was carried out in a laboratory scale facility in As, Norway. The miscanthus was mixed with water and heated up to the desired temperature. After a defined pretreatment time the pressure in the reaction vessel was reduced rapidly, which caused the liquid water to vaporize immediately. The material was cooled down in a flushing tank and was then stored at 5°C until further analytical procedures. Pretreatment temperatures were 190°C and 210°C; holding times were 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Determination of the specific methane yield was done in triplicate using batch tests according to VDI 4630. The material was inoculated with the liquid fermentation residue of a biogas plant. The produced gas was collected in eudiometers and then analysed for the CH 4 and CO 2 content.
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the nutrients digestibility, backfat composition, cut-up parts and organ weights of intact and castrated finishing pigs. Forty eight Large White male pigs with initial average weight of 36.82±0.45 kg were randomly assigned to two treatments with each treatment consisting of three replicates of eight pigs each. Twenty four of the experimental animals were castrated while the remaining twenty four were left intact. Four pigs per replicate were selected and housed in metabolic cages to determine nutrient digestibility and carcass evaluation was performed when the pigs in each experimental group attained an average weight of 70 kg in order to verify the backfat composition, cut-up parts and organ weights. The experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomised Design. Dry matter intake, excreted faeces/dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility, crude protein digestibility, nitrogen intake, absorption and retention were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by state of boar. Castrated boars had higher mean values in these parameters except in excreted faeces/dry matter. Intact boars had higher significant (P<0.05) mean values in liver (1.98%), kidney (0.20%) and heart (0.22%) weights in comparison with the corresponding values (1.57, 0.12 and 0.12%, respectively) recorded for castrated boars. Subcutaneous fat depth and fat free index were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by state of boars. Intact boar recorded better value (49.07) for fat free index when compared to 43.46 obtained by the castrated boar. It was concluded that state of boar had effect on nutrient digestibilities, organ weights (liver, kidney and heart weights) and backfat deposits (subcutaneous fat depth and fat free index) of finishing pigs.
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