Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Current impact factor: 1.38

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.378
2013 Impact Factor 1.262
2012 Impact Factor 1
2011 Impact Factor 0.964
2010 Impact Factor 0.476

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.32
Cited half-life 3.60
Immediacy index 0.32
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.27
ISSN 1226-4512

Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ion channels in carcinoma and their roles in cell proliferation are drawing attention. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i)-dependent signaling affects the fate of cancer cells. Here we investigate the role of Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK4) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells (HNSCCs) of different cell lines; SNU-1076, OSC-19 and HN5. Treatment with 1 µM ionomycin induced cell death in all the three cell lines. Whole-cell patch clamp study suggested common expressions of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (Ano-1) and Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channels (CAN). 1-EBIO, an activator of SK4, induced outward K+ current (ISK4) in SNU-1076 and OSC-19. In HN5, ISK4 was not observed or negligible. The 1-EBIO-induced current was abolished by TRAM-34, a selective SK4 blocker. Interestingly, the ionomycin-induced cell death was effectively prevented by 1-EBIO in SNU-1076 and OSC-19, and the rescue effect was annihilated by combined TRAM-34. Consistent with the lower level of ISK4, the rescue by 1-EBIO was least effective in HN5. The results newly demonstrate the role of SK4 in the fate of HNSCCs under the Ca2+ overloaded condition. Pharmacological modulation of SK4 might provide an intriguing novel tool for the anti-cancer strategy in HNSCC.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reducing [Mg2+]o to 0.1 mM can evoke repetitive [Ca2+]i spikes and seizure activity, which induces neuronal cell death in a process called excitotoxicity. We examined the issue of whether cultured rat hippocampal neurons preconditioned by a brief exposure to 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o are rendered resistant to excitotoxicity induced by a subsequent prolonged exposure and whether Ca2+ spikes are involved in this process. Preconditioning by an exposure to 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o for 5 min inhibited significantly subsequent 24 h exposure-induced cell death 24 h later (tolerance). Such tolerance was prevented by both the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 and the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nimodipine, which blocked 0.1 mM [Mg2+]o-induced [Ca2+]i spikes. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX significantly inhibited both the tolerance and the [Ca2+]i spikes. The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM significantly prevented the tolerance. The nonspecific PKC inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the tolerance without affecting the [Ca2+]i spikes. While Gö6976, a specific inhibitor of PKCα had no effect on the tolerance, both the PKCε translocation inhibitor and the PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor significantly inhibited the tolerance without affecting the [Ca2+]i spikes. Furthermore, JAK-2 inhibitor AG490, MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059, and CaMKII inhibitor KN-62 inhibited the tolerance, but PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294,002 did not. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly inhibited the tolerance. Collectively, these results suggest that low [Mg2+]o preconditioning induced excitotoxic tolerance was directly or indirectly mediated through the [Ca2+]i spike-induced activation of PKCε and PKCξ, JAK-2, MAPK kinase, CaMKII and the de novo synthesis of proteins.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an often lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The safety of clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been validated, but mixed results have been obtained due to heterogeneity of the MSCs. In this phase I study, the safety of bone marrow-derived homogeneous clonal MSCs (cMSCs) isolated by a new subfractionation culturing method was evaluated. cMSCs were produced in a GMP facility and intravenously administered to patients who had refractory GVHD to standard treatment resulting after allogeneic HSCT for hematologic malignancies. After administration of a single dose (1×106 cells/kg), 11 patients were evaluated for cMSC treatment safety and efficacy. During the trial, nine patients had 85 total adverse events and the rate of serious adverse events was 27.3% (3/11 patients). The only one adverse drug reaction related to cMSC administration was grade 2 myalgia in one patient. Treatment response was observed in four patients: one with acute GVHD (partial response) and three with chronic GVHD. The other chronic patients maintained stable disease during the observation period. This study demonstrates single cMSC infusion to have an acceptable safety profile and promising efficacy, suggesting that we can proceed with the next stage of the clinical trial.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow and other somatic tissues reside in an environment with relative low oxygen tension. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can mimic hypoxic conditions through transcriptional changes of some genes including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study evaluated the potential role of CoCl2 preconditioning on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2, a murine MSC line to understand its possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. CoCl2 treatment of MSCs markedly increased HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA, and protein expression of HIF-1α. Temporary preconditioning of MSCs with CoCl2 induced up-regulation of osteogenic markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen during osteogenic differentiation, followed by enhanced mineralization. CoCl2 also increased chondrogenic markers including aggrecan, sox9, and type II collagen, and promoted chondrocyte differentiation. CoCl2 suppressed the expression of adipogenic markers including PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα, and inhibited adipogenesis. Temporary preconditioning with CoCl2 could affect the multi-lineage differentiation of MSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Damage in the periphery or spinal cord induces maladaptive plastic changes along the somatosensory nervous system from the periphery to the cortex, often leading to chronic pain. Although the role of neural circuit remodeling and structural synaptic plasticity in the 'pain matrix' cortices in chronic pain has been thought as a secondary epiphenomenon to altered nociceptive signaling in the spinal cord, progress in whole brain imaging studies on human patients and animal models has suggested a possibility that plastic changes in cortical neural circuits may actively contribute to chronic pain symptoms. Furthermore, recent development in two-photon microscopy and fluorescence labeling techniques have enabled us to longitudinally trace the structural and functional changes in local circuits, single neurons and even individual synapses in the brain of living animals. These technical advances has started to reveal that cortical structural remodeling following tissue or nerve damage could rapidly occur within days, which are temporally correlated with functional plasticity of cortical circuits as well as the development and maintenance of chronic pain behavior, thereby modifying the previous concept that it takes much longer periods (e.g. months or years). In this review, we discuss the relation of neural circuit plasticity in the 'pain matrix' cortices, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, with chronic pain. We also introduce how to apply long-term in vivo two-photon imaging approaches for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic pain.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is the life-threatening response to infection which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. In the current study, the effect of orally administered D-glucose on the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by D-Galactosamine (GaLN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis was examined in ICR mice. After various amounts of D-glucose (from 1 to 8 g/kg) were orally fed, sepsis was induced by injecting intraperitoneally (i.p.) the mixture of GaLN /LPS. Oral pre-treatment with D-glucose dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level and caused a reduction of sepsis-induced mortality. The oral post-treatment with D-glucose (8 g/kg) up to 3 h caused an elevation of the blood glucose level and protected the mortality observed in sepsis model. However, D-glucose post-treated at 6, 9, or 12 h after sepsis induction did not affect the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by sepsis. Furthermore, the intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment once with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.1 µg/5 ml) for 6 days caused a reduction of D-glucose-induced protection of mortality and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, once the hypoglycemic state is continued up to 6 h after sepsis initiated, sepsis-induced mortality could not be reversed by D-glucose fed orally. Based on these findings, it is assumed that the hypoglycemic duration between 3 and 6 h after the sepsis induction may be a critical time of period for the survival. D-glucose-induced protective effect against sepsis-induced mortality appears to be mediated via activating PTX-sensitive G-proteins in the spinal cord. Finally, the production of hyperglycemic state may be critical for the survival against the sepsis-induced mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of cardamonin on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism(s) involved. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Cardamonin significantly relaxed fluoride-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions, suggesting that it has an anti-hypertensive effect on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Furthermore, cardamonin significantly inhibited the fluoride-induced increase in pMYPT1 level and phenylephrine-induced increase in pERK1/2 level, suggesting inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activity and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. This study provides evidence that the relaxing effect of cardamonin on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function involves inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been widely used to treat of several cardiovascular diseases. An excessive shortening of action potential duration (APD) due to the reduction of Ca2+ channel current (ICa) might increase the risk of arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological effects of nicardipine (NIC), isradipine (ISR), and amlodipine (AML) on the cardiac APD in rabbit Purkinje fibers, voltage-gated K+ channel currents (IKr,IKs) and voltage-gated Na+ channel current (INa). The concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ channel currents (ICa) was examined in rat cardiomyocytes; these CCBs have similar potency on ICa channel blocking with IC50 (the half-maximum inhibiting concentration) values of 0.142, 0.229, and 0.227 nM on NIC, ISR, and AML, respectively. However, ISR shortened both APD50 and APD90 already at 1 µM whereas NIC and AML shortened APD50 but not APD90 up to 30 µM. According to ion channel studies, NIC and AML concentration-dependently inhibited IKr and IKs while ISR had only partial inhibitory effects (<50% at 30 µM). Inhibition of INa was similarly observed in the three CCBs. Since the IKr and IKs mainly contribute to cardiac repolarization, their inhibition by NIC and AML could compensate for the AP shortening effects due to the block of ICa.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been reported to have an effect on several ion channels including human ether-a-go-go-related gene in a SSRI-independent manner. These results suggest that paroxetine may cause side effects on cardiac system. In this study, we investigated the effect of paroxetine on Kv1.5, which is one of cardiac ion channels. The action of paroxetine on the cloned neuronal rat Kv1.5 channels stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Paroxetine reduced Kv1.5 whole-cell currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 4.11 µM and 0.98, respectively. Paroxetine accelerated the decay rate of inactivation of Kv1.5 currents without modifying the kinetics of current activation. The inhibition increased steeply between -30 and 0 mV, which corresponded with the voltage range for channel opening. In the voltage range positive to 0 mV, inhibition displayed a weak voltage dependence, consistent with an electrical distance δ of 0.32. The binding (k+1) and unbinding (k-1) rate constants for paroxetine-induced block of Kv1.5 were 4.9 µM-1s-1 and 16.1 s-1, respectively. The theoretical KD value derived by k-1/k+1 yielded 3.3 µM. Paroxetine slowed the deactivation time course, resulting in a tail crossover phenomenon when the tail currents, recorded in the presence and absence of paroxetine, were superimposed. Inhibition of Kv1.5 by paroxetine was use-dependent. The present results suggest that paroxetine acts on Kv1.5 currents as an open-channel blocker.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal dentate granule neurons are generated from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mammalian brain, and the fate specification of adult NSCs is precisely controlled by the local niches and environment, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus (DG), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenolic flavonoid in green tea that has neuroprotective activities, but there is no clear understanding of the role of EGCG in adult neurogenesis in the DG after neuroinflammation. Here, we investigate the effect and the mechanism of EGCG on adult neurogenesis impaired by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS-induced neuroinflammation inhibited adult neurogenesis by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the DG, which was indicated by the decreased number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-, Doublecortin (DCX)- and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells. In addition, microglia were recruited with activatingTLR4-NF-κB signaling in the adult hippocampus by LPS injection. Treating LPS-injured mice with EGCG restored the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in the DG, which were decreased by LPS, and EGCG treatment also ameliorated the apoptosis of NSCs. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS was attenuated by EGCG treatment through modulating the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. These results illustrate that EGCG has a beneficial effect on impaired adult neurogenesis caused by LPSinduced neuroinflammation, and it may be applicable as a therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative disorders caused by inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (E)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-pyrrolyl)-2-propenone (MPP) is an aldol condensation product resulting from pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and m- and p- substituted acetophenones. However, its biological activity has not yet been evaluated. Since it has been reported that some propenone-type compounds display anti-inflammatory activity, we investigated whether MPP could negatively modulate inflammatory responses. To do this, we employed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and examined the inhibitory levels of nitric oxide (NO) production and transcriptional activation, as well as the target proteins involved in the inflammatory signaling cascade. Interestingly, MPP was found to reduce the production of NO in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, without causing cytotoxicity. Moreover, this compound suppressed the mRNA levels of inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Using luciferase reporter gene assays performed in HEK293 cells and immunoblotting analysis with nuclear protein fractions, we determined that MPP reduced the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Furthermore, the activation of a series of upstream signals for NF-κB activation, composed of Src, Syk, Akt, and IκBα, were also blocked by this compound. It was confirmed that MPP was able to suppress autophosphorylation of overexpressed Src and Syk in HEK293 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that MPP can function as an anti-inflammatory drug with NF-κB inhibitory properties via the suppression of Src and Syk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vagal nerve activity has been known to play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear how the distribution and concentration of local acetylcholine (ACh) promotes AF. In this study, we investigated the effect of the spatial distribution and concentration of ACh on fibrillation patterns in an in silico human atrial model. A human atrial action potential model with an ACh-dependent K+ current (IKAch) was used to examine the effect of vagal activation. A simulation of cardiac wave dynamics was performed in a realistic 3D model of the atrium. A model of the ganglionated plexus (GP) and nerve was developed based on the "octopus hypothesis". The pattern of cardiac wave dynamics was examined by applying vagal activation to the GP areas or randomly. AF inducibility in the octopus hypothesis-based GP and nerve model was tested. The effect of the ACh concentration level was also examined. In the single cell simulation, an increase in the ACh concentration shortened APD90 and increased the maximal slope of the restitution curve. In the 3D simulation, a random distribution of vagal activation promoted wavebreaks while ACh secretion limited to the GP areas did not induce a noticeable change in wave dynamics. The octopus hypothesis-based model of the GP and nerve exhibited AF inducibility at higher ACh concentrations. In conclusion, a 3D in silico model of the GP and parasympathetic nerve based on the octopus model exhibited higher AF inducibility with higher ACh concentrations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) participates in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, including the Na+-K+-ATPase (sodium pump). Ouabain, used in the treatment of several heart diseases, is known to increase cAMP levels but its effects on the atrium are not understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of ouabain on the regulation of atrial cAMP production and its roles in atrial endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion in isolated perfused beating rabbit atria. Our results showed that ouabain (3.0 µmol/L) significantly increased atrial dynamics and cAMP levels during recovery period. The ouabain-increased atrial dynamics was blocked by KB-R7943 (3.0 µmol/L), an inhibitor for reverse mode of Na+-Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), but did not by L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1.0 µmol/L) or protein kinase A (PKA) selective inhibitor H-89 (3.0 µmol/L). Ouabain also enhanced atrial intracellular cAMP production in response to forskolin and theophyline (100.0 µmol/L), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, potentiated the ouabain-induced increase in cAMP. Ouabain and 8-Bromo-cAMP (0.5 µmol/L) markedly increased atrial ET-1 secretion, which was blocked by H-89 and by PD98059 (30 µmol/L), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) without changing ouabain-induced atrial dynamics. Our results demonstrated that ouabain increases atrial cAMP levels and promotes atrial ET-1 secretion via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway. These findings may explain the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to digitalis-like compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure. The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnosic acid (CA) on APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanism in mice. To induce hepatotoxicity, APAP solution (400 mg/kg) was administered into mice by intraperitoneal injection. Histological analysis revealed that CA treatment significantly ameliorated APAP-induced hepatic necrosis. The levels of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum were reduced by CA treatment. Moreover, CA treatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocytes necrosis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing. Western blot analysis showed that CA abrogated APAP-induced cleaved caspase-3, Bax and phosphorylated JNK protein expression. Further results showed that CA treatment markedly inhibited APAP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression and the levels of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 protein in the liver. In addition, CA treatment reduced APAP- induced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Conversely, hepatic glutathione (GSH) level was increased by administration of CA in APAP-treated mice. Mechanistically, CA facilitated Nrf2 translocation into nuclear through blocking the interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1, which, in turn, upregulated anti-oxidant genes mRNA expression. Taken together, our results indicate that CA facilitates Nrf2 nuclear translocation, causing induction of Nrf2-dependent genes, which contributes to protection from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate whether an intra-articular injection of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX) would alleviate behavioral signs of arthritic pain in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). We also sought to determine the effect of RTX treatment on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in the spinal cord. Knee joint inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 8 mg/50 µl) and weight bearing percentage on right and left hindpaws during walking, paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation, and paw withdrawal latency to heat were measured to evaluate pain behavior. Intra-articular administration of RTX (0.03, 0.003 and 0.0003%) at 2 weeks after the induction of knee joint inflammation significantly improved reduction of weight bearing on the ipsilateral hindlimb and increased paw withdrawal sensitivity to mechanical and heat stimuli. The reduction of pain behavior persisted for 3~10 days according to each behavioral test. The MIA-induced increase in CGRP immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was decreased by RTX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that a single intra-articular administration of RTX reduced pain behaviors for a relatively long time in an experimental model of OA and could normalize OA-associated changes in peptide expression in the spinal cord.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] regulates synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex. Although the effects of 5-HT on plasticity showed huge diversity depending on the ages of animals and species, it has been unclear how 5-HT can show such diverse effects. In the rat visual cortex, 5-HT suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP) at 5 weeks but enhanced LTP at 8 weeks. We speculated that this difference may originate from differential regulation of neurotransmission by 5-HT between the age groups. Thus, we investigated the effects of 5-HT on apha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAAR)-, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmissions and their involvement in the differential regulation of plasticity between 5 and 8 weeks. AMPAR-mediated currents were not affected by 5-HT at both 5 and 8 weeks. GABAAR-mediated currents were enhanced by 5-HT at both age groups. However, 5-HT enhanced NMDAR-mediated currents only at 8 weeks. The enhancement of NMDAR-mediated currents appeared to be mediated by the enhanced function of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR. The enhanced GABAAR-and NMDAR-mediated neurotransmissions were responsible for the suppression of LTP at 5 weeks and the facilitation of LTP at 8 weeks, respectively. These results indicate that the effects of 5-HT on neurotransmission change with development, and the changes may underlie the differential regulation of synaptic plasticity between different age groups. Thus, the developmental changes in 5-HT function should be carefully considered while investigating the 5-HT-mediated metaplastic control of the cortical network.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key mediator of hypertensive, causes structural changes in the arteries (vascular remodeling), which involve alterations in cell growth, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy. Ang II promotes fibrotic factor like IGFBP5, which mediates the profibrotic effects of Ang II in the heart and kidneys, lung and so on. The purpose of this study was to identify the signaling pathway of IGFBP5 on cell proliferation and migration of Ang II-stimulated VSMC. We have been interested in Ang II-induced IGFBP5 and were curious to determine whether a Pitavastatin would ameliorate the effects. Herein, we investigated the question of whether Ang II induced the levels of IGFBP5 protein followed by proliferation and migration in VSMC. Pretreatment with the specific Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) inhibitor (Losartan), Angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2) inhibitor (PD123319), MAPK inhibitor (U0126), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), P38 inhibitor (SB600125) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) resulted in significantly inhibited IGFBP5 production, proliferation, and migration in Ang II-stimulated VSMC. In addition, IGFBP5 knockdown resulted in modulation of Ang II induced proliferation and migration via IGFBP5 induction. In addition, Pitavastatin modulated Ang II induced proliferation and migration in VSMC. Taken together, our results indicated that Ang II induces IGFBP5 through AT1, ERK1/2, P38, and PI3K signaling pathways, which were inhibited by Pitavastatin. These findings may suggest that Pitavastatin has an effect on vascular disease including hypertension.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage failure of the kidney, but the efficacy of currently available strategies for the prevention of DN remains unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effects of free anthraquinones (FARs) extract, which was extracted from the rhubarb and purified by macroporous resin DM130 with gradient mixtures of ethanol/water as the lelution solvents, in high glucose-cultured glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). The cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay, the levels of TGF-β1, CTGF, ColIV and FN proteins in the supernatant of MCs were measured by ELISA assays, and the mRNA levels of these four genes were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the increased proliferation of MCs, the mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, ColIV and FN induced by high glucose were inhibited after the treatment with the FARs extract. This indicated that FARs extract could inhibit cell proliferation and the expression of main extracellular matrix induced by high glucose in MCs. The FARs extract exhibited potential values for prophylaxis and therapy of DN.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We attempted to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by determining signaling molecules involved in chemokine production. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) with thrombin resulted not only in elevated transcription of the (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) gene but also in enhanced secretion of CCL11 protein. Co-treatment of HAoSMCs with GF109230X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, or GW5074, an inhibitor of Raf-1 kinase, caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and significantly attenuated expression of CCL11 at transcriptional and protein levels induced by thrombin. Both Akt phosphorylation and CCL11 expression induced by thrombin were attenuated in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi protein-coupled receptor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In addition, thrombin-induced production of CCL11 was significantly attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Akt or MEK which phosphorylates ERK1/2. These results indicate that thrombin is likely to promote expression of CCL11 via PKC/Raf-1/ERK1/2 and PTX-sensitive protease-activated receptors/PI3K/Akt pathways in HAoSMCs. We propose that multiple signaling pathways are involved in change of VSMCs to a secretory phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology