Biomarker insights

Publisher: Libertas Academica

Journal description

Biomarker Insights is a peer-reviewed, open-access research journal where those engaged in biomarker research can turn for rapid communication of the latest advances in the application of biomarkers toward the discovery of new knowledge, and toward the clinical translation of that knowledge to increase the efficacy of practicing clinicians.

Current impact factor: 0.00

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Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Biomarker Insights website
ISSN 1177-2719
OCLC 71909732
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Libertas Academica

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On institutional repository or funder's designated repository
    • Author must be acknowledged
    • Reuse or distribution is made with the same conditions and permissions
    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 3.0
    • Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 only upon request
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher last contacted on 04/07/2014
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing studies of small RNAs reveal a complex milieu of noncoding RNAs in biological samples. Early data analysis was often limited to microRNAs due to their regulatory nature and potential as biomarkers; however, many more classes of noncoding RNAs are now being recognized. A class of fragments initially excluded from analysis were those derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs) because they were thought to be degradation products. More recently, critical cellular function has been attributed to tRNA fragments (tRFs), and their conservation across all domains of life has propelled them into an emerging area of scientific study. The biogenesis of tRFs is currently being elucidated, and initial studies show that a diverse array of tRFs are generated from all parts of a tRNA molecule. The goal of this review was to present what is currently known about tRFs and their potential as biomarkers for the earlier detection of disease.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes our efforts to further the field of noninvasive diagnostics, specifically in the area of liquid biopsies in oncology. We employed laser scanning cytometry using highly selective antibodies to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that were isolated using ApoStream(®) technology to identify folate receptor alpha (FRα)-positive cells. We demonstrate that FRα(+) CTCs can be isolated from patients with metastatic cancers, including NSCLC adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer, whereas squamous cell lung cancer and normal healthy controls were devoid of FRα(+) CTCs. We believe that the developed methodology will have applications in both the diagnosis and the monitoring of FRα-expressing cancers. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) expression may have utility as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in solid tumors. As tissue samples are not always available for patient screening, this study evaluated a noninvasive assay in CTCs from blood samples to detect FRα expression. The presence of FRα(+) CTCs enriched using ApoStream(®) and detected using laser capture cytometry was evaluated in blood samples from cancer patients [NSCLC adenocarcinoma (n = 14), breast cancer (n = 20), ovarian cancer (n = 6), and squamous lung cancer patients (n = 6)] and healthy subjects (n = 20). The data demonstrated that FRα(+) CTCs were detected in blood from NSCLC adenocarcinoma, breast, and ovarian cancer patients, whereas squamous cell lung cancer patients and normal healthy controls lacked FRα(+) CTCs as previously known. We demonstrate that CTCs captured using ApoStream(®) can be used to detect FRα(+) CTCs and may have clinical utility as a real-time liquid biopsy for assessing FRα levels in cancer patients.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarker identification is often associated with the diagnosis and evaluation of various diseases. Recently, the role of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in the development of diseases, particularly cancer. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the amount of data on miRNA has increased tremendously in the last decade, requiring new bioinformatics approaches for processing and storing new information. New strategies have been developed in mining these sequencing datasets to allow better understanding toward the actions of miRNAs. As a result, many databases have also been established to disseminate these findings. This review focuses on several curated databases of miRNAs and their targets from both predicted and validated sources.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular disorders of childhood and is associated with increased urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) excretion. We tested the hypothesis that uVDBP represents a biomarker to differentiate steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from the more benign forms of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with SRNS (n = 24), SSNS (n = 28), and normal controls (n = 5). Urine and clinical data were collected from patients. Measurements of uVDBP were performed with a commercially available ELISA kit and normalized to urine creatinine. Results: Concentrations of uVDBP were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with SRNS (13,659 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] 477-22,979) than in patients with SSNS (94 ng/mL, IQR 53-202) and normal controls (23 ng/mL, IQR 22-99, P = 0.002). Significance did not change when the results were corrected for urine creatinine. uVDBP was significantly negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; R = -0.76, P = 0.03). However, uVDBP was still markedly elevated in patients with SRNS with eGFR >100 mL/minute/1.73 m(2). There was a positive correlation between microalbuminuria (MALB/Cr) and uVDBP (R = 0.67, P < 0.001). However, uVDBP displayed a much higher discriminatory ability for distinguishing SRNS than MALB/Cr (area under the curve = 0.92 vs 0.67, respectively). An uVDBP cutoff of 362 ng/mL yielded the optimal sensitivity (80%) and specificity (83%) to distinguish SRNS from SSNS. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, uVDBP represents a noninvasive biomarker that could distinguish SRNS from the more benign SSNS with high discriminatory power.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a pyogenic infection present in the subarachnoid space, potentially fatal and frequently associated with neurological sequelae. During BM, cytokines (CTs) are locally produced. We sought to determine the CTs' clinical role as disease severity predictors in adults, which is not completely clear. Using a bead-based flow cytometric assay, levels of six CTs were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 18 adult BM patients and 19 uninfected controls. Long-term neurological sequelae were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). All evaluated CTs were higher in CSF than in plasma, and the levels of CSF interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and plasma IL-10 and IL-12p70 were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, suggesting an association with clinical severity. There was a strong negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and plasma IL-12p70 with GOS score, supporting the possible role of these CTs in the development of neurological long-term sequelae. These findings could be helpful to identify candidates to receive neuroprotective treatments and early physiotherapy schemes.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a rare but lethal tumor, is difficult to diagnose without performing an invasive procedure. miRNAs are known to be deregulated in PDAC patients, and recent studies have shown that they can be used as diagnostic and prognostic of the disease. The detection of miRNAs in samples acquired through minimally or noninvasive procedures, such as serum, plasma, and saliva, can have a positive impact on the clinical management of these patients. This article is a comprehensive review of the major studies that have evaluated the expression of miRNAs as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer and its premalignant lesions.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has significantly increased survival rate and quality of life for patients with CML. Despite the high efficacy of imatinib, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Resistance to imatinib can develop from a number of mechanisms. One of the main reasons for treatment failure is a mutation in the BCR-ABL gene, which leads to therapy resistance and clonal evolution. Clearly, new treatment approaches are required for patients who are resistant to imatinib. However, mutated clones are usually susceptible to second-generation TKIs, such as nilotinib and dasatinib. The choice of the therapy depends on the type of mutation. A large trial program showed that dasatinib is effective in patients previously exposed to imatinib. However, for a minority of patients who experience treatment failure with TKI or progress to advanced-phase disease, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains the therapeutic option. In spite of the high curative potential of allo-SCT, its high relapse rate still requires a feasible strategy of posttransplant treatment and prophylaxis. We report a case of a CML patient with primary resistance to first-line TKI therapy. The patient developed an undifferentiated blast crisis. Before dasatinib therapy, the patient was found to have an F317L mutation. He was successfully treated with dasatinib followed by allo-SCT. In the posttransplant period, preemptive dasatinib treatment was used to prevent disease relapse.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is a multifunctional molecule involved in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. It has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of many different hematological malignancies with either an oncogenic or a tumor-repressor effect, depending on the nature of the cell and the type of malignancy. In particular, it has been strongly implicated in the causation of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This review focuses on the molecular interactions of miR-155, its oncogenic mechanisms, and its potential as an effective therapeutic target for the associated malignancies.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biomarker insights

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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, phosphorylated Akt concentration was measured in 37 autistic children and 12, gender and age similar neurotypical, controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Akt levels were compared to biomarkers known to be associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor) pathways and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. We found phosphorylated Akt levels significantly lower in autistic children and low Akt levels correlated with high EGFR and HGF and low gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not other biomarkers. Low Akt levels also correlated significantly with increased severity of receptive language, conversational language, hypotonia, rocking and pacing, and stimming, These results suggest a relationship between decreased phosphorylated Akt and selected symptom severity in autistic children and support the suggestion that the AKT pathways may be associated with the etiology of autism.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biomarker insights
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    ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play a significant role in cancerogenesis and cancer cell function. Initial developments in this field go back to the early 80s, but the success story really started with the selective BCR-ABL inhibitor, imatinib. Owing to the cancer-driving role of BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), excellent response rates lead to fast FDA approval in both the first and second treatments of CML patients. Since then, numerous TKs were identified. TK inhibitors have been developed accordingly, and technology to test for ideal drug-target interactions has profoundly improved. By now, medical oncologists and hematologists struggle to have a pool of potential TK inhibitors, where the most efficient one could be picked out to treat a specific cancer patient, which might also help overcome the occurring resistance mechanisms against TK inhibitors. Whether disease eradication can be achieved via single or sequential TK inhibitor treatment(s) needs to be tested in the present and in the future.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biomarker insights