European Journal of Anatomy

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ISSN 1136-4890

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  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from a cleft palate and/or cleft lip present evident anatomical defects in both formations. However, these developmental disorders are often accompanied by important disturbances in other anatomical structures of the mouth and adjacent tissues that may affect normal dental occlusion and, consequently, the basic functions of mastication and phonation. The objectives of the present work were to describe and discuss the above structural modifications, presenting several clinical cases in which the anatomical defects are described together with the functional implications. The anomalies found include important variations in the number of teeth, the position, disposition and relation of the alveolar processes, and the impairment of dental occlusion. In the cases studied, these anatomical defects have elicited prominent alterations in the normal functions of mastication and phonation, and also in facial aesthetics. Photographs of mouths, dental casts, and X-rays are used to illustrate our report
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Journal of Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a precursor to gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), is currently one of the widest used drugs of abuse, with devastating effects. GHB produces a transient rise in the concentration of dopamine in the brain, inducing a stimulating effect. However, GHB can produce hallucinations, delirium, somnolence, hypotonia, confusion, and loss of balance. There may be subsequent progression to coma, with severe respiratory alterations due to CNS depression. The effects of GHB on humans are unpredictable, and its impact on the embryo and fetus is completely unknown. The purpose of our study was to contribute experimental data regarding the effects of GHB on development. Groups of chick embryos received 100 μl of GHB at dilutions of either 20% (GHB-A) or 30% (GHB-B) at 7 or 11 days of incubation, a further group serving as controls. After hatching, different cranial measurements were made using a Mitutoyo 500-331 series slide gauge in order to investigate possible effects of the drug on cranial development. At both doses studied, GHB significantly altered the transverse and vertical cranial measurements in comparison with vehicle-treated controls, suggesting a possible harmful effect on cranial development.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Journal of Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: The partial absence of teeth germs is a hereditary or acquired congenital defect called hypodontia. The present report analyses and discusses hypodontia in permanent dentition on the basis of eleven clinical cases. In these, the hypodontia corresponded to mandibular central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, maxillary canines, or maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. All these cases of hypodontia were recorded by photographs of the oral cavity and/or by orthopantomographic studies. Together with the most-frequent types of hypodontia already reported in the literature, other unusual anomalies-the lack of permanent canines, central incisors, or molars - from both the maxillary and mandibular alveolar arches- were also detected.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: Biometrical investigations were carried out on 23 biometrical parameters of the testes and epididymis of the domesticated adult African great cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus), also known as the grasscutter. The average weight and age of the cane rats used in the study were 1.93 ± 0.42 kg and 18.80 ± 1.39 months respectively, with an average testicular size of 18.75 x 11.33mm. The average weights of the right and left testes were 1.18 ± 0.17g and 1.13 0.16g respectively, with a significant difference (p< 0.05). The average weights of the right and left epididymis were 0.32 g ad 0.30 g respectively, with no significant difference (p<0.05). There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.8214) between the age of the rats and the weight of the testes and epididymis. The average percentage body weights for the testes and epididymis were 0.12% and 0.03% respectively. Unlike testicular parameters, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the right and left epididymal parameters. The results showed that the testes and epididymis of the cane rat are relatively smaller than those of comparable rodents. This work provides baseline data on the biometry of the testes and epididymis of the African great cane rats, thereby making available data useful in comparative regional anatomy and reproductive biology.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: The quadriceps angle (Q angle) is a clinical measure of the alignment of the quadriceps femoris musculature relative to the underlying skeletal structures of the pelvis, femur and tibia. The aims of this study were to calculate the Q angle in a young, healthy adult Indian population in order to document any significant differences in the Q angle between males and females and to analyze these differences. Two hundred limbs (100 from males and 100 from females) from healthy adult Indian volunteers were studied. The Q angle was measured using a goniometric method with the subjects supine, the quadriceps relaxed and the lower limbs in neutral rotation. Lateral placement of the tibial tuberosity with respect to the centre of the patella was measured. Inter-observer variations in the above mentioned parameters were studied in twenty limbs. The average Q angle value of all 200 limbs was 12.73° ±2.58. The mean value in females was 14.48° ±2.02 and 10.98° ±1.75 in males. The lateral placement of the tibial tuberosity was 0.9 ±0.59 cm and 1.8 ±0.65 cm in males and females respectively. Both the Q angle and the lateral placement of the tibial tuberosity were significantly greater in females. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.66 for the Q angle and 0.8 for the lateral placement of the tibial tuberosity. Females had a significantly greater Q angle as compared to males as a result of a more laterally placed tibial tuberosity.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Anatomy