Zoo Biology (Zoo Biol)

Publisher: American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Wiley

Journal description

Zoo Biology is concerned with reproduction demographics genetics behavior medicine husbandry nutrition conservation and all empirical aspects of the exhibition and maintenance of wild animals in wildlife parks zoos and aquariums. This diverse journal offers a forum for effectively communicating scientific findings original ideas and critical thinking related to the role of wildlife collections and their unique contribution to conservation.

Current impact factor: 0.83

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 0.831
2013 Impact Factor 0.846
2012 Impact Factor 1.136
2011 Impact Factor 0.84
2010 Impact Factor 0.663
2009 Impact Factor 0.695
2008 Impact Factor 0.468
2007 Impact Factor 0.564
2006 Impact Factor 0.779
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.622
2003 Impact Factor 0.416
2002 Impact Factor 0.481
2001 Impact Factor 0.31
2000 Impact Factor 0.494
1999 Impact Factor 0.803
1998 Impact Factor 0.714
1997 Impact Factor 0.553
1996 Impact Factor 0.64
1995 Impact Factor 0.436
1994 Impact Factor 0.45
1993 Impact Factor 0.326
1992 Impact Factor 0.422

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.09
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.19
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.29
Website Zoo Biology website
Other titles Zoo biology (Online), Zoo biology
ISSN 1098-2361
OCLC 38866489
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Red pandas, Ailurus fulgens, are popular exhibit animals in zoos. It is clear from data in the global studbook that there is considerable variation in their breeding success in different zoos. Population managers have long suspected that environmental temperature plays a key role in these differences. It is generally thought that this species, which is so well adapted to life in the cold damp climate of the mid-altitude forests of the Himalayas, has a problem coping with warmer climates. However, this hypothesis has not been tested until now. Using data extracted from the global studbook, we have demonstrated that climate at the location of birth has a clear impact on the survival of infant red pandas. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Zoo Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endangered Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) has experienced significant population declines over the past century due to poaching, habitat destruction, and resource competition. Remaining animals in zoos and the wild are regionally isolated. Artificial insemination (AI) may be particularly useful as a means of aiding in global genetic management of these isolated populations. The first successful AI in onagers was performed in 2009 utilizing urinary hormone analyses and regular transrectal ultrasound examinations that required specialized handling devices. A method for estrous synchronization in this species would alleviate the need for daily handling and provide a more feasible approach to AI. This study tested long-acting controlled-release preparations of estradiol and progesterone, followed by a single injection of prostaglandin 10 days later, in six adult female Persian onagers to determine whether ovulation would occur within a narrow window of time. Serial transrectal ultrasound exams were performed to determine the day of ovulation following hormone treatment. Means and standard deviations were determined for the lengths of follicular and luteal phases, follicle sizes, and time to ovulation, and compared to historical data in this species. All six onagers ovulated between Days 18 and 22, with three females ovulating on Day 19, as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum. This is an apparently safe and effective method for the synchronization of estrous cycles in the Persian onager, and may be used to develop a timed AI protocol for use at institutions that do not have specialized handling facilities to enable regular transrectal ultrasound. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The activity patterns and social interactions of two species of captive sifaka were observed during a 2-year period. Allogrooming was not observed in golden-crowned sifaka and they spent significantly more time resting than the Coquerel's sifaka. Females of both species were found to be dominant to males. The golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli) spent significantly less time feeding than the Coquerel's sifaka. Temperature, time of day, species, and interpair comparisons for the golden-crowned sifaka were found to affect activity and social interactions, while gender did not. Like the Coquerel's sifaka, the golden-crowned sifaka was found to be diurnal; however, they differed in that the golden-crowned sifaka did not descend to the ground. Zoo Biol. XX:XX–XX, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the utility of previously described molecular methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. Using phylogenetic analyses and DNA sequence comparisons at X-chromosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, we have identified a hybrid animal in the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo (USA)—an identification that was not known a priori but was later confirmed by review of zoo records. The molecular techniques employed here are of great use to studies of the genus Cercopithecus because, unlike most mammals, these monkeys frequently form polyspecific associations, and recent deforestation is likely to have driven otherwise low-level hybridization to higher frequencies which may reduce the fitness of threatened populations. Y-chromosomal markers are especially informative because they provide working hypotheses for (1) the primary mechanism of hybridization (i.e., species A males × species B females) and, by extension; (2) the major direction of gene flow. Zoo Biol. XX:XX–XX, 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7-12 years) and one group of three adult (24-25 years) African elephant females, Loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by EIA. Samples were collected during May, June, and November 2012 (n = 147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr intervals from 20:00 to 20:00 of the next day (seven samples per animal in each trial). The animals are kept under standard zoo management: the herd is maintained in their indoor enclosures until 10:00 and then released into the outdoor enclosures until 21:00-21:30 (May/June) and 18:30-19:00 (November). No adult elephant bull was present at the zoo during this time. The results demonstrate a clear diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion with the lowest concentration observed at 20:00 (2.03 ± 0.08 ng/ml saliva) and the peak concentrations at 08:00 (5.26 ± 0.35 ng/ml saliva). Although the cortisol values were higher in the adult cows compared to the juvenile cows in the May-June period, the differences were not significant. However, the values obtained in November from the juvenile group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations measured in this group in June. In conclusion, salivary cortisol in zoo elephants follows a circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle) adapted to daily zoo husbandry routines. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Zoo Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Incorporating technology with research is becoming increasingly important to enhance animal welfare in zoological settings. Video technology is used in the management of avian populations to facilitate efficient information collection on aspects of avian reproduction that are impractical or impossible to obtain through direct observation. Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) maintains a successful breeding colony of Northern carmine bee-eaters. This African species is a cavity nester, making their nesting behavior difficult to study and manage in an ex situ setting. After initial research focused on developing a suitable nesting environment, our goal was to continue developing methods to improve reproductive success and increase likelihood of chicks fledging. We installed infrared bullet cameras in five nest boxes and connected them to a digital video recording system, with data recorded continuously through the breeding season. We then scored and summarized nesting behaviors. Using remote video methods of observation provided much insight into the behavior of the birds in the colony's nest boxes. We observed aggression between birds during the egg-laying period, and therefore immediately removed all of the eggs for artificial incubation which completely eliminated egg breakage. We also used observations of adult feeding behavior to refine chick hand-rearing diet and practices. Although many video recording configurations have been summarized and evaluated in various reviews, we found success with the digital video recorder and infrared cameras described here. Applying emerging technologies to cavity nesting avian species is a necessary addition to improving management in and sustainability of zoo avian populations. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In order to find out the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive Lady Amherst's pheasants (LAP) on molt, 18 male birds were randomly distributed into three groups of six each in an experiment based on completely randomized block design. The CP content of the diets of birds in groups I, II, and III was 13.4, 16.5, and 19.1%, respectively. Intake and apparent balance of nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.001) as CP content of the diet increased. Intake and utilization of energy, calcium, and phosphorous were similar among groups. Body mass change and growth rate of feathers were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in group I as compared to groups II and III. There was a positive co-relationship between ME intake and change in body weight (R(2) = 0.89, F = 126.4, P < 0.001). Regression analysis indicates that LAP can maintain body mass when ME supply is 122.2 Kcal/kg BW(0.75) /d. Linear relationships between intake and apparent retention of N, Ca, and P as expressed on mg/kg BW(0.75) /d were all significant. Apparent nitrogen retention, and mean feather growth rate was lower in birds fed diet containing 13.4% CP. Feeding of the diets containing 16.5% CP resulted in improved retention of nitrogen, and mean feather growth rate. Further increase in dietary concentration of CP to 19.1% showed no further improvement. It was concluded that a diet containing 16.5% CP would be optimum for Lady Amherst's pheasants during molt. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate postnatal growth is important for young bats to develop skilled sensory and locomotor abilities, which are highly associated with their survival once independent. This study investigated the postnatal growth and development of Scotophilus kuhlii in captivity. An empirical growth curve was established, and the postnatal growth rate was quantified to derive an age-predictive equation. By further controlling the fostering conditions of twins, the differences in the development patterns between pups that received maternal care or were hand-reared were analyzed to determine whether the latter developed in the same manner as their maternally reared counterparts. Our results indicate that both forearm length and body mass increased rapidly and linearly during the first 4 weeks, after which the growth rate gradually decreased to reach a stable level. The first flight occurred at an average age of 39 days with a mean forearm length and body mass of 92.07% and 70.52% of maternal size, respectively. The developmental pattern of hand-reared pups, although similar to that of their maternally reared twin siblings, displayed a slightly faster growth rate in the 4th and 5th weeks. The heavier body mass of hand-reared pups during the pre-fledging period may cause higher wing loading, potentially influencing the flight performance and survival of the bats once independent. Zoo Biol. XX:1-8, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program. Zoo Biol. XX:1-6, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the structure of the fecal bacterial community of five giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) at Disney's Animal Kingdom, FL. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and variable regions 1-3 of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified and then sequenced. The MOTHUR software-program was used for sequence processing, diversity analysis, and classification. A total of 181,689 non-chimeric bacterial sequences were obtained, and average number of sequences per sample was 36,338 -± 8,818. Sequences were assigned to 8,284 operational taxonomic units (OTU) with 95% of genetic similarity, which included 2,942 singletons (36%). Number of OTUs per sample was 2,554 ± 264. Samples were normalized and alpha (intra-sample) diversity indices; Chao1, Inverse Simpson, Shannon, and coverage were estimated as 3,712 ± 430, 116 -± 70, 6.1 ± 0.4, and 96 ± 1%, respectively. Thirteen phyla were detected and Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes were the most dominant phyla (more than 2% of total sequences), and constituted 92% of the classified sequences, 66% of total sequences, and 43% of total OTUs. Our computation predicted that three OTUs were likely to be present in at least three of the five samples at greater than 1% dominance rate. These OTUs were Treponema, an unidentified OTU belonging to the order Bacteroidales, and Ruminococcus. This report was the first to characterize the bacterial community of the distal gut in giraffes utilizing fecal samples, and it demonstrated that the distal gut of giraffes is likely a potential reservoir for a number of undocumented species of bacteria. Zoo Biol. XX:1-10, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore-American mink-to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Zoo Biology
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    ABSTRACT: To better define the life history in the captive environment, we describe the reproductive history and advanced age of pupping of a female Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) at the Henry Vilas Zoo (HVZ) in Madison, Wisconsin. This female gave birth to a viable pup on May 16, 2012, at the age of 42 years and is the oldest documented birth reported for this species. This female also demonstrated high temporal fidelity to her previously described birth timing. The pup's sire was also 42 years at the time of birth. Captive harbor seals can remain reproductively healthy into their 5th decade. Zoo Biol. XX:1-3, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Zoo Biology