Publisher: International Neuropsychiatric Assoc, Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

CNS Spectrums is a monthly Index Medicus/MEDLINE journal designed to bridge the clinical information needs of 48,000 psychiatrists and neurologists. Introduced in 1996, CNS Spectrums reaches more physicians than any other peer-reviewed neuropsychiatric journal in the world. CNS Spectrums' editorial mission is to address relevant neuropsychiatric topics, including the prevalence of comorbid diseases among patients, and original research and reports that emphasize the profound diagnostic and physiologic connections made within the neurologic and psychiatric fields. The journal's goal is to serve as a resource to psychiatrists and neurologists seeking to understand and treat disturbances of cognition, emotion, and behavior as a direct consequence of central nervous system disease, illness, or trauma.

Current impact factor: 2.71

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 2.71
2013 Impact Factor 1.304
2012 Impact Factor 1.727
2011 Impact Factor 2.197
2010 Impact Factor 2.667
2009 Impact Factor 2.197
2008 Impact Factor 1.974
2007 Impact Factor 2.222
2006 Impact Factor 2.051
2005 Impact Factor 2.037

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.38
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.87
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.65
Website CNS Spectrums website
Other titles CNS spectrums, International journal of neuropsychiatric medicine
ISSN 1092-8529
OCLC 36426249
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Sabrina M Gippert · Christina Switala · Bettina H Bewernick · Sarah Kayser · Alena Bräuer · Volker A Coenen · Thomas E Schlaepfer
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    ABSTRACT: Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders has established preliminary efficacy signals for treatment-resistant depression. There are only few studies on DBS that included patients suffering from bipolar disorder. This article gives an overview of these studies concerning DBS targets, antidepressant efficacy, and the occurrence of manic/hypomanic symptoms under stimulation. First, promising results show that all patients experienced significant improvement in depressive symptomatology. In a single case, hypomanic symptoms occurred, but they could be resolved by adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this article highlights important clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression that have to be considered throughout the course of treatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To analyze antipsychotic prescribing patterns in a UK high security hospital (HSH) that treats seriously violent men with either schizophrenia or personality disorder and examine how different groups consented to treatment and prescribing for metabolic conditions. We hypothesized that there would be high prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy, and high-dose antipsychotic and clozapine prescribing. Background HSHs treat seriously violent, mentally disordered offenders, and the extant literature on prescribing patterns in forensic settings is sparse. Methods Prescribing and clinical data on all 189 patients in a UK HSH were collected from the hospital’s databases. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The population was split into the following groups: schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD-only), personality disorder (PD-only), and comorbid schizophrenia spectrum disorder and PD. The majority (93.7%) of all patients were prescribed at least one antipsychotic, and (27.5%) were on clozapine. Polypharmacy was prevalent in 22.2% and high-dose antipsychotic in 27.5%. Patients on clozapine were more likely to be prescribed antidiabetic, statins, or antihypertensive medication. Patients in the PD-only group were more likely to be deemed to have the capacity to consent to treatment and be prescribed clozapine in contrast to the SSD-only group. Conclusions Rates of clozapine and high-dose antipsychotic prescribing were higher than in other psychiatric settings, while polypharmacy prescribing rates were lower. Higher clozapine prescribing rates may be a function of a treatment-resistant and aggressive population. A higher proportion of PD-only patients consented to treatment and received clozapine compared with in-house SSD-only as well as other psychiatric settings. Implications of the findings are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: The Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorders , Fifth Edition (DSM-5) somatic symptom and related disorders chapter has a limited clinical utility. In addition to the problems that the single diagnostic rubrics and the deletion of the diagnosis of hypochondriasis entail, there are 2 major ambiguities: (1) the use of the term “somatic symptoms” reflects an ill-defined concept of somatization and (2) abnormal illness behavior is included in all diagnostic rubrics, but it is never conceptually defined. In the present review of the literature, we will attempt to approach the clinical issue from a different angle, by introducing the trans-diagnostic viewpoint of illness behavior and propose an alternative clinimetric classification system, based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Treating to target in chronic diseases [e.g. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)] fosters precision, consistency, and appropriateness of treatment selection and sequencing. Therapeutic target definitions/endpoints in MDD should satisfy patient-, provider-, and societal expectations. Functional recovery in depression and return to both physical and mental health are the overarching therapeutic objectives. Treating to target in MDD implies multidimensional symptomatic remission, with a particular emphasis on cognitive function and aspects of positive mental health. Several atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e. brexpiprazole, aripiprazole, quetiapine) are FDA-approved as augmentation agents in MDD. Vortioxetine, duloxetine, and psychostimulants have evidence of independent, direct, and robust effects on cognitive function in MDD. Vortioxetine is the only agent that demonstrates efficacy across multiple cognitive domains in MDD associated with functional recovery. Measurement-based care, health information technology/systems, and integrated care models (e.g. medical homes) provide requisite tools and health environments for optimal health outcomes in MDD. Achieving remission in MDD does not equate to health. Return to positive mental health as well as full functioning provide the impetus to pivot away from traditional provider-defined outcomes toward an inclusive perspective involving patient- and society-defined outcomes (i.e. optimization of human capital). As in other chronic diseases, treating to target (e.g. cognitive function) further increases the probability of achieving optimal health outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Akathisia is one of the most vexing problems in neuropsychiatry. Although it is one of the most common side effects of antipsychotic medications, it is often difficult to describe by patients, and is difficult to diagnose and treat by practitioners. Akathisia is usually grouped with extrapyramidal movement disorders (ie, movement disorders that originate outside the pyramidal or corticospinal tracts and generally involve the basal ganglia). Yet, it can present as a purely subjective clinical complaint, without overt movement abnormalities. It has been subtyped into acute, subacute, chronic, tardive, withdrawal-related, and "pseudo" forms, although the distinction between many of these is unclear. It is therefore not surprising that akathisia is generally either underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, which is a serious problem because it can lead to such adverse outcomes as poor adherence to medications, exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, and, in some cases, aggression, violence, and suicide. In this article, we will attempt to address some of the confusion surrounding the condition, its relationship to other disorders, and differential diagnosis, as well as treatment alternatives.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common of eating disorders and is characterized by excessive, out-of-control, rapid food intake. This review focuses on cognitive impairments in BED, which represent an endophenotype that mediates brain function and behavior. Here we focus on reviewing impulsivity, compulsivity, attentional biases to food cues, and executive function. Behavioral regulation in BED appears to be influenced by the context of motivationally salient food cues and the degree of obesity. Deficits in delay discounting and risk taking under ambiguity are impaired in obesity irrespective of BED status. However, in BED subjects with milder obesity, greater risk seeking under explicit probabilistic risk is observed to monetary rewards, whereas this shifts to risk aversion and enhanced delay discounting in more severe obesity. Relative to non-BED obese subjects, BED is characterized by enhanced behavioral inflexibility or compulsivity across multiple domains, with subjects selecting the same choices despite change in relevance (set shifting), being no longer rewarding (habit formation), or irrespective of outcome (perseveration). The context of food cues was associated with multiple attentional and early and late inhibitory impairments and enhanced memory bias, although BED patients also have generalized cognitive interference in working memory. These findings may help explain the phenotype of binge eating. Motivationally salient food cues provoke attentional and memory biases along with impairing response inhibitory processes. Those with BED are also more susceptible to cognitive interference and have impaired decisional impulsivity, with the tendency to inflexibly stick with the same choices irrespective of changes in context. These findings suggest critical cognitive domains that may guide therapeutic interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a qualitative review of treatment studies of binge eating disorder (BED), focusing on randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Limited effectiveness has been demonstrated for self-help strategies, and substantial effectiveness has been shown for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). CBT and IPT may each be more effective than behavior weight loss therapy (BWLT) for reducing binge eating over the long term. The stimulant pro-drug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is the only drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of BED in adults based on 2 pivotal RCTs. Topiramate also decreases binge eating behavior, but its use is limited by its adverse event profile. Antidepressants may be modestly effective over the short term for reducing binge eating behavior and comorbid depressive symptoms, but are not associated with clinically significant weight loss. A RCT presented in abstract form suggests that intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There is no RCT of obesity surgery in BED, but many patients with BED seek and receive such surgery. While some studies suggest patients with BED and obesity do just as well as patients with obesity alone, other studies suggest that patients with BED have more post-operative complications, less weight loss, and more weight regain. This evidence suggests that patients with BED would benefit from receiving highly individualized treatment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D 2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dextromethorphan (DM)/quinidine (Q) is an approved treatment for pseudobulbar affect (PBA) based on trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis. PRISM II evaluated DM/Q effectiveness and tolerability for PBA secondary to dementia, stroke, or traumatic brain injury; dementia cohort results are reported. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, 90 day trial; patients received DM/Q 20/10 mg twice daily. Primary outcome was change in Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS) score. Secondary outcomes included PBA episode count and Clinical and Patient/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scores with respect to PBA (CGI-C/PGI-C). Results: 134 patients were treated. CNS-LS improved by a mean (SD) of 7.2 (6.0) points at Day 90/Endpoint (P<.001) vs. baseline. PBA episodes were reduced 67.7% (P<.001) vs. baseline; global measures showed 77.5% CGI-C and 76.5% PGI-C "much"/"very much" improved. Adverse events included headache (7.5%), urinary tract infection (4.5%), and diarrhea (3.7%); few patients dropped out for adverse events (10.4%). Conclusions: DM/Q significantly reduced PBA symptoms in patients with dementia; reported adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of DM/Q. Trial Registration identifier: NCT01799941.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · CNS spectrums
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · CNS spectrums