Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (J OCUL PHARMACOL TH)

Publisher: Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mary Ann Liebert

Journal description

This peer-reviewed journal publishes research on all aspects of drug activity pertaining to preventing or controlling diseases of the eye. The official journal of the Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.47
2013 Impact Factor 1.42
2012 Impact Factor 1.293
2011 Impact Factor 1.509
2010 Impact Factor 1.609
2009 Impact Factor 1.457
2008 Impact Factor 1.37
2007 Impact Factor 1.034
2006 Impact Factor 1.035
2005 Impact Factor 0.897
2004 Impact Factor 1.228
2003 Impact Factor 1.383
2002 Impact Factor 1.051
2001 Impact Factor 1.085
2000 Impact Factor 0.757
1999 Impact Factor 0.763
1998 Impact Factor 0.841
1997 Impact Factor 0.763
1996 Impact Factor 0.937
1995 Impact Factor 0.514

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.56
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.34
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.43
Website Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website
Other titles Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics (Online), Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics
ISSN 1080-7683
OCLC 47295624
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website
    • On institutional repository, pre-print server or research network after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the systemic safety and patient tolerability of frequent dosing of cyclosporine A (CsA) 0.05% eyedrops in the treatment of ocular surface disease. This is a retrospective case series. Patients with significant ocular surface diseases who were treated using topical CsA higher than the usual twice daily dosing (3–8 times daily and over a treatment period of 1–70 months). The main outcome measures are plasma levels of CsA and local tolerability. Methods: Symptom assessment, corneal staining using fluorescein, conjunctival staining using lissamine green, tear film breakup time, and other signs according to the disease process were monitored. Discontinuation of treatment due to intolerability was recorded. CsA levels were measured in the plasma at a clinical laboratory. Results: Plasma levels of CsA were below the level of detection (7 ng/mL) in all the 41 patients included. All patients tolerated the treatment well with none discontinuing due to any treatment-related local adverse effects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that CsA 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion applied more frequently than the usual twice daily dosing was safe and well tolerated in patients with significant ocular surface diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare same-day pain control and safety of 2 different anesthetic gels utilizing 5% and 2% lidocaine gel. Main outcome is to determine whether 5% lidocaine gel is more effective in decreasing pain during conjunctival clamping compared to 2% lidocaine gel 5 and 10 min after gel application. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive 2% or 5% lidocaine gel in each eye. Discomfort during the gel instillation and pain during conjunctival clamping 5 and 10 min after gel application were compared. Extend of corneal conjunctival staining was graded according to the Oxford scale. Results: Eighty eyes of 40 patients were enrolled. The groups were similar in gender, with a mean age of 48 ± 16.26 years. The 5% lidocaine gel resulted in higher discomfort during initial instillation (P = 0.092), however, the pain during conjunctival clamping was lower in the 5% lidocaine gel eyes (P = 0.564) in both, 5 and 10 min later (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (80%) had no corneal conjunctival dye staining. The tear break-up time was not statistically different after lidocaine gel 2% (20.35 ± 7.37 s) and lidocaine 5% (19.75 ± 7.00 s). Conclusion: Five percent and 2% lidocaine gel have similar efficacy controlling pain 5 min after instillation, however, 5% lidocaine gel appears to be more effective with a longer duration of action, without corneal toxicity. There was no corneal toxicity noted with either concentration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Repeated subconjunctival injections with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after trabeculectomy are used in glaucoma patients for the inhibition of overproliferation in wound site. Thus, a certain amount of the drug may penetrate into epithelial layer, where it causes toxicity to corneal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of 5-FU and mechanisms of drug-induced apoptosis in cultured corneal epithelial cells. Methods: Cellular damage and the caspase pathway were estimated with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic characteristics were detected by flow cytometry, a TUNEL test, and western blotting in cultured corneal epithelial cells. Results: The results indicated that 5-FU was toxic to corneal epithelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with a general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), a caspase-8 inhibitor (Z-IETD-FMK), and a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) reversed 5-FU-induced cellular damage. Following exposure to 5-FU, a flow cytometric assay with MitoLight dye demonstrated the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. A positive TUNEL test revealed that cellular DNA apoptosis occurred following exposure to 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/mL 5-FU for 15 h. Positive annexin V–FITC and negative propidium iodide (PI) staining indicated that the cell membrane exhibited apoptosis upon exposure to 1 and 5 mg/mL 5-FU for 15 h. The western blot assay demonstrated upregulation of the p21 protein but downregulation of the Bcl-2 proteins induced by 5-FU. Conclusion: These data reveal that 5-FU-induced cellular apoptosis in corneal epithelial cells may be mediated through caspase-8, caspase-9, and mitochondria-regulated pathways, as well as by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2-dependent signal transduction pathways.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although widely used for vitreous seed control in retinoblastoma patients, currently there are no data on melphalan pharmacokinetics after intravitreal injections. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the ocular and systemic disposition of melphalan after intravitreal injection in the rabbit eye. Methods: New Zealand rabbits received a single intravitreal injection of 15 μg of melphalan. Vitreous, aqueous, retina, and blood samples were collected at different times up to 12 h after the injection. Melphalan was quantitated in the biological samples using a validated high-performance liquid-chromatography technique and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by means of compartmental models. Results: Model-predicted melphalan maximum vitreous, aqueous, and retina concentrations were 7.8 μg/mL, 0.024 μg/mL, and 9.8 μg/g tissue, respectively, attained immediately and at 0.8 and 0.25 h after intravitreal injection. Melphalan vitreous concentrations were higher than 0.3 μg/mL for 5 h after dosing. The elimination half-life from the vitreous, aqueous humor, and retina was 1.0, 0.2, and 1.2 h, respectively. Aqueous exposure [area under the curve (AUC)] was only 0.7% of that of the vitreous AUC. Melphalan concentrations in the retina were still detectable 12 h after dosing, while plasma exposure was under the limit of quantitation. Conclusion: Intravitreal administration of 15 μg melphalan leads to pharmacological vitreous levels with low aqueous exposure. Melphalan concentrations in the retina were measurable up to 12 h after dosing, but we report nondetectable systemic exposure in the rabbit. The results correlate with the clinical features of retinoblastoma patients that show control of vitreous seeds without systemic toxicity using intravitreal melphalan.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether nonspecific and ICAM-1-specific IgG1 antibodies can accumulate in the rat retina following topical application, and to develop a model system to show that antibodies that reach the posterior segment retain their pharmacological properties. Methods: Eye drops containing mouse IgG1 or anti-ICAM-1 and the permeation enhancer saponin were topically applied to the eyes of Lewis rats. Concentrations were determined in the retina and optic nerve up to 30 min later using ELISA assays. We also developed an in vitro model to assess the pharmacologic activity of topically delivered antibodies in the retina based on the requirement of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for growth. Rat eyes were treated with anti-VEGF antibody in the same manner as above; their retinas, harvested shortly thereafter, were added to HUVECs cultured in VEGF-containing media. The effect of these retinal homogenates on HUVEC proliferation was then assessed. Results: Significant concentrations of IgG1 were detected in the optic nerve (P < 0.001) and retina (P < 0.0001) following topical application. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody also accumulated in the retina after topical application, though levels were less than those seen with IgG1 probably owing to a lower starting concentration. Retinal homogenates from eyes treated with anti-VEGF antibody significantly suppressed HUVEC proliferation (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our data support the contention that topically applied antibodies can accumulate in the posterior segment, and suggest they retain their pharmacological properties.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a food supplement containing forskolin, homotaurine, carnosine, folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, and magnesium in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) already in treatment and compensated by intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs, during a period of 12 months. Methods: Twenty-two patients (44 eyes) with POAG, with their IOP compensated by topical drugs, were enrolled and randomly assigned to the food supplement or control treatment group. The additional food supplement treatment consisted in 2 tablets per day (1 in the morning, 1 in the evening) given for 1 year of a balanced association of homotaurine, Coleus forskohlii root extract, l-carnosine, folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, and magnesium. Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) amplitude, foveal sensitivity obtained with the visual field analyzer frequency doubling technology, and IOP were detected at enrollment (T0), 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2), 9 months (T3), and 12 months (T4). Results: We observed in treated patients a significant further decrease of IOP and an improvement of PERG amplitude at 6, 9, and 12 months, and foveal sensitivity at 12 months. All values remained substantially stable in control patients. Conclusions: The results of the present pilot study indicate that the components of the food supplement reach the eye in a detectable manner, as evidenced by the effects on the IOP. Moreover, they suggest a short-term neuroactive effect, as indicated by the improvement of PERG amplitude and foveal sensitivity in treated, but not in control patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin ophthalmic solution for the treatment of chronic blepharitis and compare 2 different treatment durations. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients diagnosed with chronic blepharitis. The symptoms and signs were graded according to the severity. Furthermore, tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test values were recorded. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 30 patients treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for 2 days and then once a day for 12 days and group 2 consisted of 30 patients treated with 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for 2 days and then once a day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the signs and symptoms of blepharitis of both groups were recorded, and TBUT and Schirmer's tests were performed. The same analyses were conducted 1 month after the end of the treatment, and the results were compared. Results: A significant improvement in the ocular symptoms, signs, TBUT, and Schirmer's test values was noted after the treatment compared with baseline values of both groups. Between the groups, group 2 showed a significantly better and long-lasting improvement in terms of lid margin debris, meibomian gland (MG) expression, MG secretion scores, and Schirmer's test values (P=0.0001, P=0.02, P=0.01, and P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Topical 1.5% azithromycin ophthalmic solution is effective in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. The treatment duration of 1 month shows better improvement that lasted longer than the 2-week treatment regimen.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cell replacement therapy for the treatment of retinal degeneration is an increasingly feasible approach, but one that still requires optimization of the transplantation strategy. To this end, various polymer substrates can increase cell survival and integration, although the effect of their pore size on cell behavior, particularly differentiation, has yet to be explored. Methods: Salt crystals of varying known size were used to impart structure to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds by a salt leaching/solvent evaporation process. Mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) were seeded to the polymer scaffolds and supplemented with retinal differentiation media for up to 2 weeks. Proliferation was measured during the course of 2 weeks, while differentiation was evaluated using cell morphology and expression of early retinal development markers. Results: The salt leaching method of porous PLGA fabrication resulted in amorphous smooth pores. Cells attached to these scaffolds and proliferated, reaching a maximum cell number at 10 days postseeding that was 5 times higher on porous PLGA than on nonporous controls. The morphology of many of these cells, including their formation of neurites, was suggestive of neural phenotypes, while their expression of Sox2, Pax6, and Otx2 indicates early retinal development. Conclusions: The use of porous PLGA scaffolds to differentiate iPSCs to retinal phenotypes is a feasible pretransplantation approach. This adds to an important knowledge base; understanding how developing retinal cells interact with polymer substrates with varying structure is a crucial component of optimizing cell therapy strategies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a bioengineered protein widely applied as a drug carrier due to its biocompatibility and amenability to modification with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and therapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether topically applied ELP or CPP-fused ELPs penetrate the corneal barrier. Methods: In vitro binding and cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells were determined for ELP or CPP-ELPs. Corneal binding, clearance, and penetration were assessed in a rabbit model following topical application of the fluorescently labeled proteins by quantitative fluorescence imaging and histology. Results: ELP bound to HCE cells in vitro, and binding/uptake was enhanced 2- to 3-fold by the addition of CPPs. When applied topically to rabbit eyes, ELP accumulated in the cornea at levels 7.4-fold higher than did an equivalent dose of immunoglobulin G. Both ELP and a CPP-ELP penetrated the corneal epithelium and were detectable in the stroma. Addition of CPPs to ELP, however, did not significantly enhance corneal uptake or penetration in vivo relative to ELP alone. The polypeptides cleared from the cornea over a period of 20–30 min after application, after which cornea levels reached a steady state of 15–30 μg/mL for up to 3 h. Conclusions: The ELP drug carrier can penetrate the corneal epithelium and accumulate in the stroma. Given its amenability for fusion to multiple types of therapeutic agents, ELP has the potential to serve as a drug carrier for topical ocular applications.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topical ocular drug delivery has been considered to be an ideal route of administration for treatment of ocular diseases related to the anterior segment of the eye. However, topical ocular delivery is a challenging task because of barriers such as nasolacrimal drainage, corneal epithelium, blood–ocular barriers, and metabolism in the eye. Approaches to improve ocular bioavailability include physical approaches such as formulations of drugs as solutions (Zymaxid™), suspensions (Zigran®), gels (Akten®) and chemical approaches such as prodrugs (Xalatan™), chemical delivery systems, and soft drugs. The purpose of this review article is to summarize recent advances in topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye. Functional transporters in the corneal epithelium were also discussed as they provide prospects in topical ocular delivery. In addition to conventional delivery systems, novel delivery systems involving nanocarriers were also investigated for topical ocular delivery. Furthermore, due to increased interest, gene therapy applications of topical ocular delivery of genes to the anterior segment of the eye were also discussed. Research in topical ocular delivery is active for more than 50 years and proven to be advantageous for the treatment of many ocular diseases. However, there is scope for innovation in topical drug delivery to develop delivery systems with a high patient safety profile and compliance for effective clinical usefulness.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP) did not decrease after treatment using a prostaglandin analog (nonresponders). Methods: This was an open-label, retrospective, case series study from a single institution. We retrospectively investigated the mean IOP reduction rates, and the proportions of nonresponders, among normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients (209 cases, 209 eyes) treated using 1 of 4 prostaglandin analogs: latanoprost (40 patients), travoprost (64 patients), tafluprost (52 patients), or bimatoprost (53 patients). Absolute IOP was compared with pretreatment values for all 4 groups at the first and second visits after commencement of prostaglandin analog monotherapy. The IOP reduction rate was compared between groups. The proportion of nonresponders, defined as patients with IOP reduction rate <10% at both visits, was calculated in each group. Results: The average IOP had significantly decreased from the pretreatment value at the first visit after treatment; the average IOP reduction rate ranged from 15.3% to 22.6%. The IOP reduction rate in the bimatoprost group was significantly higher than those in the travoprost and tafluprost groups (P < 0.001). We identified 6 nonresponders (15.0%) in the latanoprost group, 9 (14.1%) in the travoprost group, 4 (7.7%) in the tafluprost group, and none (0.0%) in the bimatoprost group; nonresponse rates were significantly lower in the bimatoprost group than in the other groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Among NTG patients treated using prostaglandin analogs, from 0% to 15% were classified as nonresponders, depending on the prostaglandin analog used. The proportion of nonresponders was significantly lower in the bimatoprost group.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Brimonidine is a selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to reduce intraocular pressure and it has been shown to have some neuroprotective effects. Hydroquinone (HQ) is a toxicant present in cigarette smoke, and other sources. In this study, we investigated the cyto-protective effects in vitro of Brimonidine on human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1) that had been treated with HQ. Methods: Cells were pretreated for 6 h with different doses of Brimonidine tartrate 0.1% (1/2×, 1×, 5×, 10×), followed by a 24-h exposure to 100 μM of HQ, while the Brimonidine was still present. Assays were used to measure cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Results: Brimonidine increased the cell viability at all concentrations studied in both cell lines studied. ΔΨm also improved at all Brimonidine doses in ARPE-19 cells and in the 5× and 10× dosages MIO-M1 cells. The ROS levels decreased at 1×, 5×, and 10× doses of Brimonidine in ARPE-19 but only at 10× on MIO-M1 cells. The 10×-Brimonidine ARPE-19 cells had decreased LDH release, but no LDH changes were observed on MIO-M1 cells. Conclusion: HQ-induced toxicity is mediated through mitochondrial damaging, oxidative stress-related and necrosis-related pathways; Brimonidine significantly prevented the mitochondrial damaging and oxidative stress-related effects but had little effect on blocking the necrosis component of HQ-toxicity. Brimonidine protective effects differ between the different retinal cell types and high concentrations of Brimonidine (10×) have minimal damaging effects on human retinal cells.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the compliance of glaucoma patients to medical treatment and its impact on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and to verify the associated risk factors for noncompliance. Methods: All recruited patients were examined at the ophthalmology clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May and August 2012. Patients were interviewed and subjected to answer a questionnaire that was developed based on a pilot test. Collected data included age, gender, number of prescribed drugs, and different reasons for noncompliance to the prescribed drugs. Results: Noncompliance was detected in 18 (19.4%) of the recruited patients. Factors associated with noncompliance demonstrated a trend toward older patients, males, patients with lower IOP at presentation, higher cup to disc ratio, and drug self-administering patients. However, the only statistically significant characteristic was being under lifelong medications (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Noncompliance was detected in around one-fifth of our glaucoma patients, particularly, the older group. Awareness programs, maintaining good patient-physician relationship, and personalizing treatment can lead to better adherence to treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate possible changes in pupil size subsequent to panretinal and focal/grid laser photocoagulation. Methods: Sixty-four eyes of 64 participants were included. Thirty-two eyes with planned panretinal photocoagulation formed Group 1, and 32 eyes with planned focal retinal photocoagulation formed Group 2. The participants underwent full ophthalmologic examination at baseline. Automated infrared pupillometry was performed at baseline and month 1. Results: The mean pupillary measurements (in millimeters) for Group 1 (in order photopic, mesopic, scotopic) were 3.09 ± 0.69 mm, 3.66 ± 0.85 mm, and 3.87 ± 1.01 mm and changed to 3.34 ± 0.74 mm, 3.82 ± 0.92 mm, and 4.03 ± 1.02 mm. There was a significant increase in pupil size at month 1 (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.003). For Group 2, they were 2.65 ± 0.87 mm, 3.08 ± 1.08 mm, and 3.18 ± 1.19 mm and changed to 2.92 ± 0.72 mm, 3.45 ± 0.76 mm, and 3.57 ± 0.88 mm. There was no significant difference in pupil size at month 1 (P = 0.151, P = 0.106, P = 0.095). Conclusion: We have demonstrated through automated infrared pupillary measurements that panretinal laser photocoagulation may significantly influence pupil size and focal/grid laser photocoagulation may not.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the efficacy and incidence of treatment-related side effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy in patients with noninfectious inflammatory eye diseases. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 27 Chilean patients treated for noninfectious inflammatory eye diseases using MMF therapy over a 10-year period. Main outcome measures were: ability to control ocular inflammation and to taper prednisone to ≤10 mg daily (treatment success); incidence of treatment-related side effects. Results: The proportion of patients with sustained control of inflammation was 81.48% at 6 months. Additionally 55.56% and 22.22% of patients succeeded in tapering their prednisone to 5–10 mg/day and <5 mg/day, at 6 months. Two patients developed a neoplasia during MMF therapy; however, this cohort is too small to interpret the significance of this relation to MMF treatment. Conclusions: MMF seems to be an effective corticosteroid-sparing agent with an acceptable safety profile.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The goals of the current study were to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of tigecycline against multiple clinically relevant ocular pathogens and to evaluate the in vivo ocular tolerability and efficacy of 0.5% tigecycline in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) keratitis model. Methods: In vitro: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for 110 clinical conjunctivitis isolates, 26 keratitis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 endophthalmitis isolates each of MRSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), MR, and MS coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Tolerability: Six uninfected rabbits were topically treated in both eyes with 0.5% tigecycline, vehicle, or saline every 15 min for 3 h. Efficacy: Thirty-two rabbits were intrastromally injected with 700 Colony Forming Units (CFU) of MRSA in both eyes and were separated into 4 groups (n = 8): tigecycline 0.5%; vancomycin 5%; saline; and no treatment (euthanized before treatment for baseline CFU). Four hours after MRSA challenge, topical treatment of 1 drop every 15 min for 5 h was initiated. One hour after treatment, the corneas were harvested for CFU. The data were analyzed nonparametrically. Results: In vitro: Tigecycline demonstrated lower MICs than the other tested antibiotics against gram-positive organisms, especially MRSA, while MICs against gram-negative pathogens, including fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa, appeared to be in the treatable range with aggressive topical therapy. Tolerability: 0.5% tigecycline was graded as minimally irritating. Efficacy: 0.5% tigecycline and vancomycin produced similar reductions in CFU and were less than saline (P < 0.05). Tigecycline and vancomycin demonstrated 99.9% reductions compared with baseline CFU. Conclusions: Tigecycline is a potential candidate for a topical ocular antibiotic.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics