# Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics (Adv Imag Electron Phys)

## Current impact factor: 0.34

## Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor | Available summer 2017 |
---|---|

2014 / 2015 Impact Factor | 0.338 |

2013 Impact Factor | 0.582 |

2012 Impact Factor | 0.712 |

2011 Impact Factor | 0.491 |

2010 Impact Factor | 0.862 |

2008 Impact Factor | 1.026 |

2007 Impact Factor | 1.026 |

2006 Impact Factor | 0.426 |

2005 Impact Factor | 0.462 |

2004 Impact Factor | 0.574 |

2003 Impact Factor | 0.349 |

2002 Impact Factor | 0.886 |

2001 Impact Factor | 1.188 |

## Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Year

## Additional details

5-year impact | 0.49 |
---|---|

Cited half-life | >10.0 |

Immediacy index | 0.24 |

Eigenfactor | 0.00 |

Article influence | 0.22 |

Other titles | Advances in imaging and electron physics, Imaging and electron physics |

ISSN | 1076-5670 |

OCLC | 30535280 |

Document type | Journal / Magazine / Newspaper |

## Publisher details

- Pre-print
- Author can archive a pre-print version

- Post-print
- Author can archive a post-print version

- Conditions
- Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
- Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
- Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
- Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
- Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
- Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
- Must link to publisher version with DOI
- Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
- Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015

- Classificationgreen

## Publications in this journal

- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Reflective electron-beam lithography (REBL), a novel nanolithography technique developed at KLA-Tencor Corporation, employs an array of micrometer-scale switchable electron reflectors, called the digital pattern generator (DPG), to impress pattern information on an electron beam. When illuminated by a beam of low-energy electrons, this reflector array acts as a programmable electron-luminous image source. In REBL, the reflected electron image is demagnified and projected onto the resist-coated surface of a silicon wafer to print the latent image of an integrated circuit pattern. Several generations of DPG have been built, and another is under study. This chapter reviews various versions of DPGs developed in the course of the REBL program and briefly discusses the principles and ambitions of the program. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Many problems in the fields of computer vision deal with image data that is embedded in very high-dimensional spaces. However, a typical assumption behind many algorithms is that the data lie on a low-dimensional manifold. Modeling the visual manifolds is quite challenging. Typically, image manifolds are neither smooth nor differentiable. This chapter presents the theory and applications of the concept of homeomorphic manifold analysis (HMA). Given a set of topologically equivalent manifolds, HMA models the variation in their geometries in the space of functions that map between a topologically equivalent common representation and each of them. This setting is suitable to different problems in visual learning. In particular, this chapter focuses on the applications of the framework to modeling the manifold of human motion in the image space. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We are witnessing tremendous opportunities in ultrafast sciences with the development of extremely bright radiation sources to investigate the structure and spectroscopy of matter with atomistic space and femtosecond time resolution. While generally a strong focus has been on X-ray sources—notably free electron laser (FEL) sources—the use of femtosecond electron pulses has also shown enormous promise in the last decade, especially in the investigation of materials from the sub-micrometer down to the angstrom scale, facilitated by the high sensitivity of electron scattering and the relative ease in designing electron optics for imaging and diffraction from nanomaterials. Moreover, important innovations have been achieved by incorporating ultrafast photoemission sources into various electron microscope setups. Most recently, a new trend of integrating the FEL high-brightness electron beam concept into the ultrafast electron diffraction and microscope system design is likely to open up new prospects and applications of femtosecond diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy with high throughput. -
##### Article: Theory of the Leptonic Monopole

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**This review firstly sets out to prove that the free Dirac equation (without external field) admits a second gauge pseudoscalar invariance corresponding to a light magnetic monopole, the leptonic monopole, interacting with pseudo-electromagnetic potentials. The wave equation of this monopole is then discussed and new physical properties are deduced. This monopole is a spin 1/2 massless particle traveling with the velocity of light. The main property is that the monopole is actually a pair of two chiral particles - left and right - with positive and negative magnetic charges. A fundamental property is that these two monopoles carry weak interactions with the intensity of the neutrino. They are hence able to take part in nuclear interactions with low or high energies but with the additional feature of an orientation arising from the action of their magnetic charge. Just as Louis de Broglie found the Einstein photon as a result of the fusion of two Dirac particles, a magnetic photon is found by the fusion of two precursor particles. These interact via magnetic photons just as electrons interact through the Einstein photon. In analogy with de Broglie's theory of spin particles, the fusion of four leptonic magnetic monopoles gives a particle with a maximum spin 2. Unlike other theories, which consider only the particle of spin 2 itself, there are now three kinds of particles: spin 2, the quantum approximation of a graviton; two spin 1 ordinary photons, including a spin 1 magnetic photon; spin 0 photon, one of which is parallel to the spin 0 case in the de Broglie theory, corresponding to the one that is proved to be responsable for the Aharonov-Bohm effect. An important prediction of the theory is the ability of the monopole to catalyse nuclear fusion. The whole chapter defines a new electromagnetism no longer based on one unique photon but on four photons: electric, magnetic, with spin 1, spin 0. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Recent progress in single particle electron cryo-microscopy has seen a big increase in the number of biological macromolecular structures being solved at close to atomic resolution. An important role in that success has been played by the introduction of direct electron detectors, with higher detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at all spatial frequencies and continuous readout, enabling dose-fractionated ‘movie’-mode imaging. The higher DQE results in intrinsically better images, while the movie-mode imaging has been invaluable both in compensating for beam-induced specimen movement and in allowing weighting of individual frames to maximise the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the exposure. Also crucial to the success of direct detectors was the development of sensors that had a wide field of view and sufficient radiation tolerance for use over long periods in the electron microscope. This review covers recent developments in detector technology culminating in the availability of direct detector systems from multiple vendors, which are now in daily use in many different laboratories. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Much parallel theoretical and experimental work is described on the elastic and inelastic electron scattering of amorphous carbon films for both thin and thick specimens, and also on films of aluminium and gold. The work contributed to the quantitative understanding of electron imaging by amorphous, especially biological, specimens.The appreciation that a very thin specimen is a complex scatterer and has to be specified by an amplitude and a phase, allied with the purchase of the prototype Vacuum Generators Ltd HB5 scanning transmission electron microscope, STEM, stimulated my work in parallel directions. First to modify the detected electron signal to allow the simultaneous imaging of the amplitude and phase distributions. Second to consider some of the theoretical aspects of the so-called Phase Problem. Some work on image data compression and principal image components was also undertaken.The arrival of STEM also allowed the writing of high resolution zone plates to focus soft X-rays in transmission. This led to the design and construction of a scanning X-ray microscope, the first in the UK, using synchrotron radiation. The principal initial hoped-for gain was the observation of wet biological specimens.The arrival of pulsed X-rays from the Vulcan X-ray laser led to our development of a laser X-ray microscope. Again there was a clear potential advantage, for greatly reduced radiation damage from the very short X-ray pulse. It was a triumph when, with our experimental X-ray laser microscope, the first image was recorded in a single laser pulse.Opportunity arose to consider imaging at microwave frequencies as in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We considered theoretically imaging at macroscopic scales. A physical optics development of the generalised theory of diffraction was applied to metal and dielectric wedges. Satisfactory experimental tests were applied to microwave interactions with fabricated wedges. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) is a method to observe magnetic domain structures at a ferromagnetic sample surface. It is based on the phenomenon where the spin-polarization of the secondary electrons from a ferromagnetic sample is anti-parallel to the magnetization vector at the originating point of the secondary electrons. The spin-polarizations are analyzed while scanning the sample surface with a probe electron beam, which produces an image of the magnetic domain structure. This principle has afforded several excellent capabilities. The spatial resolution is better than 10 nm, and the method can produce magnetic domain images that are not affected by topography. Moreover, it can analyze not only magnetic domain shapes, but also magnetization directions in three-dimensional (3-D) space. Spin SEM has mainly been used in metal ferromagnetics or for magnetic devices such as recording media and permanent magnets, taking advantage of these characteristics. In this chapter, after the principle and the basic components of the instrument are explained, various spin-SEM results are introduced. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Ever since the invention of electron microscopy, there has been the desire to image biological samples and other samples, such as colloids, in their native liquid environment (as one can do with light microscopy), and various approaches have been developed throughout the years. The usage of microchip technology to produce micrometer-sized liquid enclosures with electron transparent silicon nitride (SiN) windows has spurred the research area of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in liquid over the past decade. Solid material can be studied in situ in liquid layers of up to several hundreds of nanometers using liquid-cell TEM. Much thicker samples of up to 10 micrometers (μm) are available for the imaging of materials with a high atomic number (Z) in low-Z liquids using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In this chapter, a detailed discussion is presented of the practical aspects of the three most frequently used technical approaches for electron microscopy of liquid specimens: (1) environmental SEM (ESEM), (2) TEM and STEM of closed liquid cells, and (3) TEM and STEM of liquid flow devices. Details about the required equipment are also included. Liquid electron microscopy experiments need to be carried out carefully, and various factors need to be optimized. Nevertheless, user-friendly systems are now available, and exciting, novel scientific breakthroughs can be expected to result from the new capabilities to view images in liquid at a (sub-)nanoscale resolution. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Topology-preserving geometric deformable models (TGDMs) are used to segment objects that have a known topology. Their accuracy is inherently limited by the resolution of the underlying computational grid. Although this can be overcome by using fine-resolution grids, both the computational cost and the size of the resulting surface increase dramatically. In this article, we present a new octree grid topology-preserving deformable model (OTGDM). OTGDMs refine grid resolution locally, thus maintaining computational efficiency and keep the surface mesh size manageable. Topology preservation is achieved by adopting concepts from a digital topology framework on octree grids that we have proposed previously. Details of OTGDM implementation are discussed, including grid generation, model initialization, numerical schemes, and final surface model extraction. Experiments on both mathematical phantoms and real medical images are used to demonstrate the advantages of OTGDMs. -
##### Chapter: Publications from the Düsseldorf University Institute for Biophysics and Electron Microscopy

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**All the papers published by members of the Düsseldorf University Institute for Biophysics and Electron Microscopy during Helmut Ruska's directorship (1958-1973) are recorded here. -
##### Chapter: Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**4D ultrafast electron microscopy allows for studying complex biological samples that are directly related to the life sciences. Of particular interest is the possiblity of creating a video, and in the future, a real atomic movie, using the results of 4D electron tomography. In many ways, this is a tribute to the extremely high detection efficiency of 4D electron microscopy. In the last two decades, it has become possible to observe nuclear motion on the time interval corresponding to the oscillation period of the nuclei. The observed coherent changes in the nuclear subsystem on these intervals determine the fundamental transition from the standard kinetics to the dynamics of the phase trajectory of a molecule and the tomography of molecular quantum state. In recent years, ultrafast diffraction has been intensively developed. The latest achievements in the formation of ultrashort electron pulses allow the use of an attosecond temporal resolution and the observation of the coherent dynamics of the electrons in the molecules. This chapter describes transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), and gives the corresponding instrument designs. It also includes examples of the applications of time-resolved microscopy, including the study of phase transitions in the nanoparticles, laser-induced crystallization, and musical nanoscale instruments (a drum, a harp, and a piano). The chapter ends with the discussion of 4D electron tomography and future trends, and the results obtained by several internationally renowned scientific laboratories are included and cited. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Over the past 25 years, there has been much progress, both in the technique of formation of ultrashort electron pulses with corresponding measurement of their parameters and in the development of ultrasensitive electron detectors. These advances open up new possibilities in the study of structural dynamics—the creation of the experimental basis for the shooting of ultrafast “molecular movies” with possible femtosecond temporal resolution. In turn, using appropriate processing of time-dependent diffraction patterns, allows one to observe the coherent dynamics of nuclei in real time. This chapter presents the experimental and theoretical results devoted to the coherent dynamics of the nuclei and electrons in the fs-as temporal range. In addition, it describes the possible techniques of production and control of fs-as electron bunches. The chapter also presents the experimental technique, including diffraction of relativistic electron bunches, diffraction of single electrons, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), the supplementary of the methods of spectroscopy of the transient state and UED, the dynamics of the electrons with attosecond temporal resolution, molecular dynamics, and tomography of the electron density, laser-induced electron diffraction. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Morphological amoebas are image-adaptive structuring elements introduced by Lerallut, Decencière, & Meyer. Their construction relies on a distance measure that combines spatial distance with gray-value contrast (tonal distance). Amoebas can be used with various morphological filters. In connection with median filtering, they lead to an image enhancement filter with segmentation-like properties. In this chapter, we consider different amoeba-based iterative image filters and study their relations to partial differential equations (PDEs). In a continuous formulation, the iterated amoeba median filter asymptotically approximates the well-known self-snakes partial differential equation (PDE). Different edge-stopping functions in the PDE can be related to different metrics used in amoeba construction. PDE approximation results for further amoeba-based filters, as well as for an amoeba-based active contour segmentation method, are presented. Furthermore, we address the role of presmoothing in the self-snakes equation, and relate it to the nonzero structuring element radius in computations with amoeba models. Experiments demonstrate the validity of central theoretical results. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**In contrast to the traditional approach to electron diffraction and X-ray structural analysis of equilibrium systems, the data analysis process for time-resolved pump-probe electron and X-ray diffraction requires the inclusion of the interaction between the molecular ensemble and the laser field explicitly. The interference term that arises in the molecular scattering intensity of the electrons upon the coherent excitation of a molecular system under study and its Fourier transform makes it fundamentally possible to determine the density matrix and carry out the tomographic reconstruction of the molecular quantum state of this system. Thus, the time sequence of measurements of the scattering intensity and the use of the Fourier transform, which implements a transition from the space of scattering variables to the space of internuclear distances, gives necessary information for the tomographic reconstruction of the Wigner function. This chapter describes the theory and data analysis for time-resolved electron diffraction and presents the basic assumptions and the approximations, the illustration of the diffraction signatures of the excited molecules, simplified and complete cumulant analysis of the time-resolved electron diffraction (TRED) data, and the manifestation of chaotic nuclear dynamics in TRED studies of highly excited nonequilibrium ensembles. Here, the results of several internationally renowned research groups are included and cited.

Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.