Indian Journal of Dental Research (Indian J Dent Res)

Publisher: Medknow Publications

Journal description

Indian Journal of Dental Research (IJDR) is the official publication of the Indian Society for Dental Research (ISDR), India section of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), published quarterly. IJDR publishes scientific papers on well designed and controlled original research involving orodental sciences. Papers may also include reports on unusual and interesting case presentations and invited review papers on significant topics.

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Website Indian Journal of Dental Research website
Other titles IJDR
ISSN 0970-9290
OCLC 219719786
Material type Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Medknow Publications

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    • Non-commercial
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    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • All titles are open access journals
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The frequency, with which restricted mouth opening is encountered in the clinical practice, makes it essential to establish what constitutes the normal range. This study was undertaken to evaluate the normal range of mouth opening in adult population in south India. Settings and Design: randomized clinical study conducted on dentate adult patients to evaluate the normal range of mouth openin. Materials and Methods: 500 healthy patients aged between 18-59 were randomly selected and divided into four groups according to their age ranges. The maximum inter-incisal distance and width of right and left three fingers at the first distal inter-phalanges were measured using vernier calipers. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA test, student t test and pearsons correlation test. Results: The mean value and range of maximum mouth opening of 50.3mm±6.26mm for males and 49.9mm±6.74mm for females was recorded. These values were significant and correlated with the width of three fingers. It was found that the greatest mean maximum mouth opening was recorded in youngest age group and lowest was recorded in older age group in both genders. Conclusions: The mean mouth opening value decreases with age and is lesser in females as compared to males of same age. This study demonstrated that individuals in all the four groups were able to vertically align their right and left three fingers between the upper and lower central incisors upto the first distal interphalangeal folds thus suggesting that, width of three fingers can be used as 'tool' to distinguish 'normal' from 'restricted' mouth opening.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Traumatic dental injury and malocclusion constitute a public health problem due to their high prevalence. Preventing or detecting such conditions, in any population, is of paramount importance. Aim: Assessing the association of anterior occlusal characteristics and dental trauma in preschool children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 2-6-year-old randomly selected by a sample calculation, resulting in 606 subjects Materials and Methods: A questionnaire to collect information about the sample (age, gender, and race) was sent to the children's parents. Two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa 0.80) evaluated dental trauma according to criteria established by the World Health Organization. The following anterior occlusal characteristics were evaluated: Normal occlusion, anterior open bite, anterior crossbite, increased overjet (categorized as ≥3 mm), and increased overbite (categorized as ≥3 mm). Statistical Analysis Used: The variables associations were assessed (odds ratio, Chi-square test, and logistic regression, P < 0.05) using statistical software (SPSS, version 16.0). Results: Dental trauma was observed in 20.8% and malocclusion in 48.6% of the children. There is an association between malocclusion and dental trauma (P = 0.01). Children with malocclusion have a 64% higher chance of suffering dental trauma. Increased overjet was the type of malocclusion related to a higher rate of tooth fracture (P < 0.01). Subjects with this type of malocclusion suffered tooth fractures three times more often than subjects with other malocclusion types. Conclusions: There was association of dental trauma and malocclusion. Increased overjet was the most common malocclusion related to dental trauma. Preventive strategies are needed to reduce the rate of anterior malocclusion and, consequently, dental trauma in preschool children.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Atherosclerosis affects large and medium caliber arteries by forming calcific atheromas, precursors of cerebral vascular disease. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypertension are considered as risk factors of atherosclerosis. Panoramic radiographs can display images suggestive of carotid artery calcifications (CACs). Aims: To investigate the prevalence of images suggestive of CAC in panoramic radiographs of the jaws (PRJs) and confirm them by Doppler ultrasonography. To evaluate their anatomic locations and relationships between systemic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity) and the presence of unilateral or bilateral CAC detected on PRJ or by Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Of the 723 routinely performed PRJ in patients over 40 years at the Radiology Center in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, 21 PRJ containing images suggestive of CAC were selected in this cross-sectional study. The findings from the PRJ were confirmed by Doppler sonography. Results: Images suggestive of CAC was detected in 21 (2.9%) of the PRJ evaluated, consisting of 11 (52.4%) hypertensive, 7 (33.3%) diabetics, and 9 (42.9%) obese. There was a higher prevalence of hypertensive patients in the unilateral CAC group (100%) and bilateral CAC (60%) compared to patients without CAC (25%). Conclusions: CACs can be detected in PRJs, and are more frequent in common carotid arteries. No significant associations were detected between the presence of unilateral or bilateral CAC in PRJ and hypertension, diabetes, or obesity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Defensins are abundant and widely distributed peptides in human and animal tissues that are involved in host defence. Defensins not only have the ability to strengthen the innate immune system but can also enhance the adaptive immune system by chemotaxis of monocytes, T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and mast cells to the infection site. Defensins also improves the capacity of macrophage phagocytosis. A greater understanding of how these peptides act in the healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis conditions would definitely open new opportunities for identification, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. This discussion focuses on recent studies about biological function of defensins in human diseases and animal models.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of the study was to clinically evaluate age-related-oral manifestations and co-morbidities in different age groups of human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immune deficiency syndrome adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 adult patients aged above 20 years at infectious diseases units, medical wards and ART centre of Gandhi Medical Hospital, Hyderabad. Oral manifestations were diagnosed according to the presumptive criteria of EC-Clearinghouse Classification, and clinical data were retrieved from patient's medical records. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Men (72%) in the young age group of 21-30 years were commonly affected. Heterosexual mode of transmission was most common in all the age groups, and the overall distribution were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Most common oral findings seen in 21-30 years of age were depapillation (90%), hyperpigmentation (70% and 72%) in 31-40 and 41-50 years old and linear gingival erythema (68%) in above 50 years of age group. The various co-morbidities included the recurrent bacterial and skin infections (64% and 62% respectively) in the younger age group. Renal and cardiac diseases with pulmonary tuberculosis (74%) were commonly observed in middle-aged and elders. Conclusions: The underlying oral manifestations and co-morbidities could become very important variables that must be taken into account in determining treatment efficacy or health policy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy of use of a diode laser (DL) (810 nm) as an adjunct to modified Widman flap (MWF) surgery to that of MWF alone. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years with generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. Control sites (Group A) were randomly selected to receive an MWF, and the contralateral test sites (Group B) received MWF in conjunction with low-level laser therapy. The energy density of 4 J/cm 2 was applied to the gingival surface after periodontal treatment. The study tooth/site was treated along with any additional teeth in the quadrant in which the site was located if needed. Randomization was done using a coin flip. The DL was used to de-epithelialize the inner part of the periodontal flap and photo-biostimulate the surgical area. Plaque index (PI), papillary bleeding index (PBI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) scores were recorded at baseline and at 6 and 9 months. Statistical Analysis: Data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analyzes were performed using paired Student's t-testfor intragroup comparisons and unpaired Student's t-test for intergroup comparisons.Results: No significant difference was observed in PI scores between the two groups at baseline, 6 and 9 months. PBI scores were significantly lower in Group B versus Group A at 6 months (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in PBI scores at the end of 9 months. PD reduction in Group B versus Group A was statistically significant at the end of 9 months (P < 0.01). Gains in CAL were significantly greater in Group B versus Group A at 6 and 9 months. Conclusion: The use of an 810 nm DL provided additional benefits to MWF surgery in terms of clinical parameters.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Stainless steel crowns (SSC) are extensively used in child patients. They are mainly used following the pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. They are also used in multi-surface restoration, as an abutment in space maintainers, correction of anterior tooth cross bite, restoration of hypoplasic teeth, etc. In permanent teeth, they are mainly used as interim restorations following root canal treatment in first molars prior to the eruption of permanent second molars. The main advantage of SSC is its limited chair side time, durability and ease of placement. Patients with conditions such as pregnancy and old age who cannot tolerate multiple and long appointments can greatly benefit from the use of SSC. Though SSC can be used by other dental specialties very effectively, its use seems to be limited to pediatric dentistry. Presented here are few adult cases in which SSC is given with good success.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface topography and roughness of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium and beta-titanium (β-Ti) archwires after clinical use and sterilization. Settings and Design: Thirty wires each of SS, nitinol, and β-Ti (3M Unitek) were tested in as received, as received and autoclaved, and clinically retrieved then autoclaved conditions. Materials and Methods: A sterilization protocol of 134°C for 18 min was performed using an autoclave. Surface topography of specimens from each subgroup was examined using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM model Quanta 200, The Netherlands) at ×100, ×1000, and ×2500 magnifications. Surface roughness was measured using arithmetic mean roughness (Ra) values obtained from optical profilometric scanning (Taylor Hobson, Leicester, UK). Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc procedures. Results: Scanning electron microscope images revealed an increase in surface irregularities in SS and nitinol wires after clinical use. There was a significant increase in Ra values of SS orthodontic wires after intra-oral exposure (P = 0.0002). Conclusion: Surface roughness of SS wires increased significantly after clinical use. Autoclave sterilization did not affect considerably on surface characteristics of any archwire.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polyfiber posts used inside the root canal can help to restore the fracture resistance of weakened premolars. Aim: To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with different techniques, including the new polyfiber post (Spirapost). Materials and Methods: One hundred superior premolars were distributed into 10 groups (n = 10): Sound teeth (G1-positive control) and experimental (G2 to G10), which received MODP cavities and canal treatment. Groups were restored as follows: G2-unrestored (negative control); G3-microhybrid resin (MR); G4-flowable resin (FR) + (MR); G5-glass fiber post (Reforpost) + MR; G6-Reforpost + FR + MR; G7-polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) + MR; G8-Ribbond + FR + MR; G9-polyfiber post (Spirapost) + MR and G10-Spirapost + FR + MR. After 24 h, the specimens were loaded until fracture. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Results: Premolars restored with Spirapost (G9 and G10) provided the highest fracture strength (P < 0.05), similar to sound teeth (G1), regardless of the composite resin. Intermediate values were achieved by G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, and G8, which were similar (P > 0.05) and different from the others (P < 0.05). Inferior values were found in G2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fracture resistance of premolars with MODP cavities and endodontic access was recovered with the direct rehabilitation with Spirapost, regardless of the type of composite resin.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Despite the advances in orthodontic material and treatment mechanics, the placement of fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization. The development of fluoride release adhesives has attracted considerable interests because the combined use of antimicrobials and fluoride enhances the cariostatic effect. Aim: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of fluoride release adhesives with established orthodontic adhesives and assess failure mode using adhesive remnant index (ARI). Settings and Design: The present study included 80 maxillary premolars which were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20) and were further subdivided into two subgroups A-Pumice prophylaxis (PP) and subgroup B-No PP (n = 10). Materials and Methods: Stainless steel brackets were bonded with Transbond XT, Transbond plus (TP) color change adhesive, Light Bond, and Clearfil protect bond. After debonding, the ARI was used to assess the mode of bracket failure. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, Post-hoc Tukey Honest significant differences test, and Chi-square test. Results: The mean SBS of Group 4 was comparably higher regardless of PP. Brackets bonded with TP showed a comparable SBS to conventional Transbond XT. The ARI scores were predominately 2. Conclusions: Fluoride releasing adhesives combined with antibacterial monomer can play a vital role in reducing white spot lesions by enhancing the cariostatic effect especially in noncompliant\medically compromised patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Many synthetic bone materials have been introduced for repairing bone defects. Aim: The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and nano-bioglass bone materials with their traditional micro counterparts in repairing bone defects. Materials and Methods: In this prospective animal study, four healthy dogs were included. First to fourth premolars were extracted in each quadrant and five cavities in each quadrant were created using trephine. Sixteen cavities in each dog were filled by HA, nano-HA, bioglass, and nano-bioglass and four defects were left as the control group. All defects were covered by a nonrestorable membrane. Dogs were sacrificed after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days sequentially. All 20 samples were extracted by trephine #8 with a sufficient amount of surrounding bone. All specimens were investigated under an optical microscope and the percentage of total regenerated bone, lamellar, and woven bone were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was carried out by SPSS Software ver. 15 and Mann-Whitney U-test (α =0.05). Results: After 15 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between HA and nano-HA and between HA and bioglass (P < 0.001). The nano-HA group showed the highest rate of bone formation after 15 days. Nano-bioglass and bioglass and nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups represented a significant difference and nano-bioglass showed the highest rate of bone formation after 30 days (P = 0.01). After 45 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between nano-bioglass and bioglass and between nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Nano-HA and nano-bioglass biomaterials showed promising results when compared to conventional micro-particles in the repair of bone defects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Indian Journal of Dental Research