Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (J ENVIRON PLANN MAN)

Publisher: University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Dept. of Town and Country Planning, Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

Journal description

2001 is the journal's tenth year since re-launch. It has already established itself as a leading forum for up-to-date scholarly but accessible papers on all aspects of environmental planning and management. With contributions from leading international authors, the Journal publishes influential, high quality papers -an essential feature whether you are a subscriber, reader, contributor or all three. The Editors and International Editorial Advisory Board are drawn from around the world and are committed to encouraging researchers and practitioners to contribute to multidisciplinary and international debate in the field. The central aim is to focus on the integrated planning and management of the environment. Papers published encompass applied research, the application of new approaches and techniques, and the evaluation of policy and practice. The Editors are also pleased to consider short reports, speculations and commentaries on any aspect of environmental planning and management. Contributions from integrated and cross-disciplinary research teams and from policy makers and practitioners are especially welcome. Specific topics covered include: environmental policy and legislation sustainability, environmental change and environmental quality environmental planning natural resource planning and management environmental and strategic impact assessment, project appraisal and auditing environmental management environmental economics, valuation and natural resource accounting command and control and market-based instruments for environmental management innovations in policy and in practice international and cross-disciplinary practice and integration The journal's focus on research findings, policy analyses and practical management experiences provides a wide range of information, and makes it essential reading for researchers and other specialists confronted with practical, technical, social and political problems in the planning and management of the environment. Occasional Special Issues provide in-depth treatment of contemporary issues or research areas, and there is an extensive Book Review Section.

RG Journal Impact: 1.08 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2019Available summer 2020
20181.08
20171.13
20161.71
20151.68
20142.10
20131.39
20120.65

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

Additional details

Cited half-life6.60
Immediacy index0.18
Eigenfactor0.00
Article influencedata not available
Websitehttp://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=journal&issn=09640568
Website descriptionJournal of Environmental Planning and Management website
Other titlesJournal of environmental planning and management (Online)
ISSN0964-0568
OCLC37915546
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

This paper develops a simple framework to analyze various pollution control strategies that have been used or are proposed in the urban passenger transport sector. The context is the declining quality of air in urban areas, which is among the serious problems associated with the rapid motorization of societies the world over. The paper examines the point of impact of different policy levers and provides a categorization of different instruments that should assist policy makers when choosing between them. A distinguishing feature of this framework is its explicit recognition of behavioral incentives, in particular, the fact that offsetting changes in consumer behavior can often undermine the original intent of particular policies. The paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the basic framework we have used to examine transport emissions. Section III reviews pollutant characteristics and their impact. The resulting policy choices are discussed in more detail in section IV. Several urban transport projects supported by the World Bank are then reviewed in section VI, and section V concludes the report.
A common assumption in the economic valuation of the environment is that environmental resources can essentially be treated identically to produced goods and services in estimating welfare measures. The most critical aspect of this assumption in this regard is that individuals are willing to trade-off environmental quality changes in exchange for changes in their income. In this paper, we briefly review some of the conceptual arguments over this issue, and existing empirical evidence, before presenting the results of a new pilot study which addresses some of the possible problems in viewing the environment in this fashion.
We empirically test existing theories on the provision of public goods, in particular air quality, using data on sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Global Environment Monitoring Projects for 107 cities in 42 countries from 1971 to 1996. The results are as follows: First, we provide additional support for the claim that the degree of democracy has an independent positive effect on air quality. Second, we find that among democracies, presidential systems are more conducive to air quality than parliamentary ones. Third, in testing competing claims about the effect of interest groups on public goods provision in democracies we establish that labor union strength contributes to lower environmental quality, whereas the strength of green parties has the opposite effect.
This paper sets out the legislative background to the recycling of waste materials in the UK. Relevant items in this background include: the provision of recycling credits under the 1990 Environmental Protection Act; the draft EC Packaging Waste Directive; and the German DSD scheme. We next set out the elements of a cost‐benefit analysis of waste paper recycling, including the environmental impacts of recycling. The method is then applied to a recycling scheme in central Scotland. We find that whilst on private, financial grounds the scheme is unattractive, it passes the cost‐benefit test in the base‐line case; this justifies government support for this recycling scheme, given the data used.
This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the question in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents’ cognitive ability was measured and where they participate in a contingent valuation survey it is found that scale sensitivity is the strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first (“Bottom-up” approach). This contradicts some previous evidence in the literature. It is also found that the respondents’ cognitive ability is correlated with their answers being line with theoretical predictions. The latter being important for the validity of the answers. Hence, the results of this paper suggest that scale sensitivity is related to the order of the questions and to respondents’ cognitive ability.
The provision of leisure facilities is usually assessed on their value to users. This paper outlines the use of contingent valuation methods in an ex ante appraisal of the costs and benefits of enhancing river flow for recreational purposes in a low flow river. A number of rivers in England and Wales experience low flows, especially during summer months, due to over abstraction of water, creating a trade-off between leisure uses and the demands of water consumers. The sequential benefits of enhanced flows are estimated from those associated with abstraction up to licensed limits: to river flow at 70% of licensed abstraction levels; to flow levels required for an environmentally acceptable flow regime, which would permit leisure activities such as fishing, enhanced scenic walking and wildlife encounters. These benefits are compared to the costs which would be incurred to achieve these enhanced flow regimes. The study illustrates the importance of including non-user benefits in benefit-cost analysis, if leisure provision is to be provided in certain areas.
The sustainability debate highlights the frequently contradictory aspects of land use and protection. Whereas traditional nature conservation primarily represents ecological issues, different forms of human land uses are determined by social and economic factors and interests. The anthropocentric term 'cultural landscape' provides-in contrast to the biocentric term 'natural landscape'-a basic framework and suitable approach for an integrated strategy of sustainable regional development. Such an integrated approach is represented by the concept 'protecting by use' in biosphere reserves. The paper discusses the approaches and successes in the implementation of sustainability-orientated aims and demands in planning practice as exemplified by a case-study of the Schorfheide-Chorin biosphere reserve in Brandenburg (Germany).
The main aim of the energy and environmental prediction (EEP) model is to provide an auditing tool for quantifying energy use and emissions in cities to assist in planning for sustainable development. The EEP model can be used as a planning and policy tool that will allow local government to select sites for development that will assist in the drive for sustainability. It can also be used as an impact assessment tool to determine the impact of proposed developments by assessing likely travel patterns and energy use. The computer-based model provides an integrative method for domestic, commercial, industrial process and transport sectors of the built environment to predict and account for energy use within a region so that plans can be made to reduce carbon dioxide and other emissions.
Efficient planning and management of household waste recycling schemes demands an insight into how consumers will respond to the scheme and how they will react to any management interventions that are designed to promote or sustain its performance. This paper develops the framework of a computer based decision support model which can help enable these insights to be made. The model addresses the balance of attitudes, barriers and normative influences within a community, adopting a stochastic approach to model the variability between individuals. Model output provides simultaneous information on participation levels and weight recoveries including their likely spatial and temporal variations. Applications of the model to scheme planning, performance analysis and proactive management through intervention are illustrated by case studies drawn from a kerbside newspaper recycling scheme.
This paper explores the concept of packaging stewardship to establish methods that could be used formatively in the development of packaging stewardship programmes or in a post hoc fashion after their implementation. It argues that an independent set of values criteria for evaluation are important at this juncture because of the number of jurisdictions considering packaging stewardship programmes. Additional urgency is added by industry's tendency to promote sales of products through their participation in such programmes. A framework is developed that provides a pathway for future packaging programmesto converge on stewardship.The framework is developed around the notion of a steward, as explored by Lerner and Bookchin, and the principles proposed for the Canadian National Packaging Protocol. The frameworkis illustrated with examples from Germany, France, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Canada.
It is often stated that social pressures to conform to the norm can help stimulate some individuals into recycling. Whilst this can be intuitively accepted by most people, there have been few scientific studies to show if and how these normative influences can make any significant impact on recycling behaviour within a community. Normative influences, however, are not directly measurable quantities. Their presence may only be supposed either: (1) by showing that models of the expected effects are consistent with observed behaviours; or (2) by questioning individuals on their motivation for recycling. This paper explores both approaches. Measured recycling performance indicators have been examined for evidence that non-chance behaviour is occurring. Results show that if natural normative influence is occurring, its measurable effects are likely to be small and substantially masked by natural random variation. The effects themselves serve more to increase recycling frequency than to increase absolute levels of participation. Simulation studies, based on a new model of normative influence, show that increased overall weight recovery may be achieved, from a recycling scheme, through management interventions to stimulate normative influences. This is, however, at the expense of substantially more pick-ups being required to collect the extra weight. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that there needs to be a certain threshold level of participants within a locality before the normative influences are triggered.
The social context of Natural Resource Management (NRM) in Australia is now considered to be a major contributing factor behind the success or failure of landscape improvement programmes. This paper investigates NRM social issues via an alternative interpretative method, Causal Layered Analysis (CLA). CLA was utilised in nine focus groups, comprising landholders and staff from NRM regional bodies in central west New South Wales. A multitude of stakeholder concerns emerged, particularly regarding the concept of sustainability and confusion over roles and responsibilities. We propose that continued use of CLA by those in the local catchment community can help overcome complexity in the social landscape and lead to more engaged and empowered communities.
Land use policy can generate substantial conflict between pro-growth and slow-growth interests. Based on the collaborative planning model, one of the many roles of the professional planner is to mediate conflict and generate support among fragmented interests in policy aimed at mitigating the effects from sprawl. The analysis uses original data collected from cities and towns in the state of Massachusetts. This study empirically tests the effect a divergence between local interest groups in the support for planning efforts has on the adoption of smart growth policy. Methodologically, interaction terms are used to test the hypothesis that local planning capacity, in the form of professional planning staff and formal planning mechanisms, mediates this divergence. The results provide insight into how communities can overcome the challenges of interest group divergence in planning for ‘smarter’ growth and more sustainable environmental land use practices.
This paper explores, through a relevant survey, the factors affecting companies’ behaviour towards Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSR and CER) and how the fiscal crisis in Greece may change companies’ perceptions towards them. All responses were appropriately analysed using multivariate statistical techniques, and showed that companies’ attitude towards CSR/CER is mainly associated with the management systems applied. In addition, it is strongly related to financial results, which are influenced by the recession and the bank credit accessibility problems. Moreover, companies believe that issues such as a company's financial results, reputation/image, market-share/sales etc. are considered as significant incentives to implement CSR/CER actions.
Redeveloping industrial land may run across obstacles, even within the same land-use designation, because previous industrial activities jeopardised the quality of the site. Contamination of soil and water is an example. Using a hedonic price method, this paper explores the effect of contamination and alternative remediation schemes on the industrial real estate property market. We consider the case of Porto Marghera in the Lagoon of Venice, a large and complex contaminated site listed on the Italian National Priority List (NPL). Our results indicate that the industrial real estate market rewards properties with a complete and certified clean-up scheme, while proximity to properties remediated with the ‘permanent safety containment measures’ negatively affects the selling price of nearby industrial properties. Characteristics of the properties, such as size, location, accessibility and other relevant economic indicators, do matter in explaining price differentials.
Implementing agri-environmental schemes (AES) induces private and public transaction costs (TCs). To date, research has investigated TCs stemming from the relationship between (regional) administrations and farmers. However, implementing AES within the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) offers partial reimbursement of payments but implies an additional transaction and TCs. This paper investigates the effects of EU regulations on occurrence and composition of regional public TCs qualitatively by using Hesse, Germany, as a case study. Using insights from political science theories, I present results from interviews with administrative units: EU-required structural and procedural prerequisites shape the regional implementation and draw the focus towards expense of EU-based TCs. Moreover, there are spillovers onto farmers’ TCs. Thus, the CAP framework is an important influencing factor, and resulting TCs may reduce the budgetary benefit obtained from the reimbursement.
This paper reports the pros and cons of co-management (i.e. concerted actions towards climate change and air quality management) through local sustainability initiatives using three case studies, each encompassing the planning and management issues at local government levels. Case study I is policy-based and reports the outcome of a consultation exercise while case studies II and III have greater scientific bearing. These case studies pave the way for development of a more integrated Climate Change Strategy Action Plan at local scales, specifically regarding policies on emissions sources from transportation and decentralised energy. They highlight the merits and the trade-offs of implementing local scale co-management practices, using a more integrated planning framework than what is currently under offer. We recognise that delivery of such ambitious, cross-cutting agenda may be impeded, primarily owing to limited expertise in assessing the synergies and the expected outcomes from cross-fertility between these two arenas. This calls for a step-change through more cohesive, cross-disciplinary policy frameworks, going beyond the local administrative spheres to maximise the co-management potentials while mitigating the wider environmental impacts.
The process of calculating market clearing prices for cap and trade environmental pollution policies dealing with both air and water pollution remains problematic. The permit trading processes are designed to mimic the cost minimisation outcome. In the paper we design the market process for allocating permits to achieve the same type of behaviour we observe for each decision maker in the overall cost minimisation model. We aim to develop a modelling system that would be easy and efficient to operate. We use the method which is known as a computer-assisted ‘smart market’ and has been used in a number of electric energy pricing situations. This approach has also been proposed and applied to some types of environmental quality and resource management policies. In the paper the theoretical structure of the ‘smart market’ model is provided. After the review of different models that have been used to represent permit trading situations, the smart market model structure based on the shadow prices is developed.
This paper estimates the marginal willingness to pay for climate amenity in the US using hedonic pricing and wage models. Research identifies that higher January temperatures are an amenity and households are willing to pay approximately US$5.90 ($2004) per month for a 1°F increase in the January temperature. Unlike the January temperature, higher July temperatures and precipitation are both disamenities, and households seek compensation of approximately US$5.46 ($2004) per month for a 1°F increase in July temperatures and approximately US$4.50 ($2004) per month for a 1-inch increase in precipitation.
The concept of a substantive integrator is introduced as a method for integrated resource and environmental management as a means to assimilate different resource values at the operational or field level. A substantive integrator is a strategic management tool for integrating multiple uses into coprorate management regimes that traditionally manage for single values. Wildlife habitat management is presented as a substantive integrator for managing vegetation on electric utility power line corridors. A case study from northern British Columbia provides an example of wildlife habitat management as a means to integrate other resource values such as aesthetics, access and subsistence along British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's transmission rights-of-way.
Sense of place is an important concept for understanding how people construct relations with their surroundings. A thorough analysis of place meanings needs to consider (1) natural and anthropogenic features that are the sources of place formation; (2) scales over which these features occur; (3) the range of potential responses to these features; and (4) functional and emotional forms of place attachment. However, previous approaches to assessing sense of place have not encompassed all these elements. Using case studies of two Tasmanian protected areas, we demonstrate a mixed-method approach that enabled comprehensive assessment of stakeholders’ senses of place.
Stakeholder participation has become a popular management approach and its significance has been widely recognised. There is a lack of studies regarding evaluation of stakeholder participation, especially in environmental management by defence sectors. This paper examines how the Australian Defence Force (ADF) involves stakeholders in environmental management and its effectiveness, using Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, as a case study. Based on the combination of field observations, extensive interviews, a public questionnaire survey and relevant analyses, this study concluded that, overall, stakeholder participation was considered by respondents to be marginally effective. Recommendations were finally provided to improve the ADF's stakeholder participation in the future.
A campus may impact the surrounding area in various ways, such as by the noise emissions. We analysed the campus noise emissions from the viewpoint of total activity volume and measured the noise levels within a new university campus, and at selected points in a neighbouring village, over a 10-year period. The results of the analysis confirm that the long-term evolution of noise emissions was correlated with the volume of activity on the campus. This study can provide guidance on how to conduct an environmental impact assessment for a campus, or assist in determining the most suitable location for a campus.
This study evaluates the Canadian Voluntary Climate and Challenge Registry (VCR), an important policy in Canada's approach to climate change during the 1990s. First, we relate the set of practices prescribed under the VCR to the well-established Plan-Do-Check-Act framework of environmental management systems (EMSs). We then examine VCR adoption and find that firms with past experience with management systems and firms in provinces with different legal, economic and institutional factors were more likely to adopt VCR. We do not find, however, EMS adopters under the VCR had significantly different GHG releases than non-adopters in the immediate years after the VCR programme ended.
This study considers the establishment of parks and protected areas in relation to local governance in Indonesia through the example of the Togean Islands National Park in Central Sulawesi. Effective management of the park requires collaborative processes that engage local resource users. Co-management provides an important model for sustainable governance, but creating a co-management system is complicated and time consuming. The authors examine the initial stages of planning and establishing the park and outline four successful social developments within these processes that can aid in the creation of a co-management system.
Through a qualitative case study, this paper describes the everyday experience of conflict as a serious impact of noxious facilities. It describes intra-community conflict over two existing waste facilities (a regional landfill and a low-level hazardous waste facility) in Ryley, Alberta, Canada. Twenty-seven in-depth face-to-face interviews and one focus group reveal deep conflict presented as frustration, anger, social isolation and strained social relations between locals who 'support' the facilities as a means of bolstering the local economy and those who do not (mainly long-time resident farmers). Although the type of hazard exposure (i.e. existing facilities) is important for explaining why conflict developed and became entrenched, it is argued that the nature of community, and in particular differences in ways of life, are also critical determinants. The findings are compared to theory and other case studies concerning why social conflict develops over technological hazards. Implications for environmental impact assessment and environmental appeals are discussed, as well as compensation as one avenue for equitably reducing conflict.
This paper explores the utility of site analysis as one factor in determining the feasibility of a proposed development in relation to organisational objectives. Feasibility analysis models frequently include site analysis as one factor in the broader study. However, site analysis for site planning and design is generally presented under the assumptions of a more advanced stage of planning than can be admitted by the constraints imposed by a feasibility analysis in the pre-start up phase of a proposed development. Site analysis in the context of feasibility analysis requires a model that emphasises its capacity for making a ‘go/no go’ decision on a proposed development programme based on uncertainty, limited resources and multiple stakeholder interests. From the multiple criteria decision-making literature a method is developed and applied to determine the fitness of a site for supporting a proposed tourism development. Moreover, the proposed site analysis matrix and coding scheme provides practitioners with parameters that can inform subsequent site planning actions. While application of the concept bears limitations in quantitative measurement and spatial representation, the results suggest the proposed method for site analysis is beneficial and useful in the context of feasibility analysis.
We identify four choice dimensions that determine the configuration and evolution of governance: formal-informal institutions, network-central steering, local-scientific knowledge and representation-participation. Choices on one dimension affect choices on the other dimensions, which naturally leads to historical dependency. We integrate these insights in a model of governance evolution that revolves around actor/institution configurations and power/knowledge configurations. In a case study of ice fishing villages on Minnesota's Lake Mille Lacs, we investigate one specific set of couplings between the choice dimensions. As we can study the local ice fishing tradition from its very beginning, the evolutionary paths of technology and institutions provide insights into how choices were made along the different dimensions and how they interacted. The case study illustrates how to apply the model, but also contributes to its further development as it draws attention to possible extensions: concepts of scale and identity.
Proper design and quality of soil play an important role in the functioning of soil-based septic systems. Septic systems with traditional leach fields are not suitable for treatment of domestic wastewater in Ohio due to shallow soils. Along with other adverse health effects, untreated or partially treated wastewater could lead to a loss of property valuation. The assessed value of 549 randomly selected properties in Licking County, Ohio was analyzed using hedonic pricing method to isolate the effect of poor site selection on the value of the properties. Results indicate that properties sited on soils that are deemed optimal for wastewater treatment are valued 6.2% to 6.8% higher than those sited on sub-optimal soils. The results from this study would not only help the property owners in making better private decisions regarding installation of septic systems, but would also guide policy decisions that affect public health and common waters.
Interviews with UK manufacturing SMEs (small and medium enterprises) confirm, in aggregate, that traditional regulation drives environmental behaviour. Yet, beneath this aggregate picture, there are groups of firms that respond to regulation differently. Furthermore, within the aggregate and group levels there exist further differences across firms. SME responses can thus be understood as groups and subgroups of firms that at the same time are distinct. These identifiable differences result from firms’ capacities and orientations, which are factors that determine receptiveness to regulation. The findings provide a more sophisticated account of SME behaviour than existed previously, and help us understand why and how regulatory measures may underperform.
The purpose of this paper is to measure the environmental costs of overhead power transmission lines (PTLs) in Korea by using a choice experiment (CE) approach. To this end, a mixed logit model is employed to explicitly incorporate preference heterogeneity and avoid the assumption of independence from irrelevant alternatives that is required in conditional logit models. For selecting a preferred alternative, we consider the trade-offs between price and the attributes of environmental impacts from overhead PTLs such as visual disamenity, land use and electric and magnetic fields (EMFs). The results reveal that unlike visual disamenity and land use, EMFs are not statistically significant. This can be interpreted as implying that many respondents are more interested in land use related to property rights than EMFs. This study provides useful information to policy makers for the development and implementation of more appropriate policies to deal with the environmental damage that is caused by overhead PTLs. Undergrounding PTLs without considering the construction cost can lead to an increase in electricity rates. Therefore, we may take into account a cost-effective option in future policies for social optimality.
Sustainable forest management (SFM) or ecosystem management is now the stated goal of forest managers in most countries. SFM takes a longer-term, broader perspective on forest values than timber production or the narrow multiple use regimes of the past. As a result of international activities including the International Tropical Timber Organization, the Ministerial Council on Protection of Forests in Europe and the Montreal Process for temperate and boreal forests outside Europe, there are now sufficiently specific and agreed principles, criteria and indicators (C&I) to guide policy makers towards SFM. To achieve SFM requires holistic assessments of forest management systems in terms of these C&I to ensure the delivery of sustainable outcomes across forest regions. This paper focuses on the implementation of SFM as defined by the C&I, and, in particular, how to identify needed reforms in forest management systems. The paper explains and evaluates the International Standards Organization's (ISO's) environmental management systems (EMS) ISO14000/EMS approach adopted for this purpose in Australia to assess the adequacy of forest management systems. The approach was applied as a key element in the regional forest agreements prepared to meet the Australian National Forest Policy Statement. The ISO14000/EMS, in conjunction with the SFM criteria, provides a systematic approach to assessing forest management systems to reveal the adequacy of the legislative, planning, implementation, monitoring and review of all-tenure forest management as required by SFM.
Domestic gardens have been found to contribute between 16–36% of the total urban area in different cities. They play a prominent role in ecosystem services including water retention and local climate regulation. We developed a tool that evaluates the rainwater retention efficiency of parcels (REP). This tool took inspiration from the Biotope Area Factor (BAF), which uses intuitive weighting parameters. Quantitative runoff values obtained from scientific literature form the base of REP, which was incorporated in a GIS to simplify the input. REP and BAF values were compared for a sample of detached, semi-detached and terraced houses.
This paper explores the spatial distribution of soil sealing in a compact and mono-centric urban region of southern Europe through multivariate statistics and spatial analysis. The study demonstrates how simple indicators developed at the local scale can provide insight in the analysis of urbanisation-driven soil sealing. Based on a high-resolution land-use map, a ‘sealing profile’ was determined for each municipality of the Athens’ urban region, by analysing the distribution of land occupied by 22 classes of imperviousness using a Principal Components Analysis. Four indicators of soil sealing have been developed (percentage of pervious land, per capita sealed land, soil sealing intensity and diversity in soil sealing intensity) and the investigated municipalities classified accordingly. All indicators were found correlated to the distance from the city centre of Athens. Three groups of municipalities (strictly urban, suburban and rural municipalities) have been identified based on the four sealing indicators and the distance from the inner city. Results suggest that the spatial distribution of soil sealing in Athens reflects the transition from a mono-centric and compact urban form to a polycentric and dispersed agglomeration, with implications for urban containment policies.
The towns and cities of Saudi Arabia have been subjected to sustained growth pressures since the transformation of the country's economy following the discovery of oil in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom. the rapid growth which has been experienced has created major problems for the central and local government agencies responsible for planning and managing urban growth. the experience of Jeddah, one of the major cities in Saudi Arabia, is described and the problems of planning and managing its growth are analysed. Weaknesses relating to the structure of the planning system are identified, as are major difficulties in relation to the quality and quantity of professional staff. Recent attempts to improve the operation of the planning system are described and evaluated.
The increasing popularity of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) warrants an exploration of the capacity of such initiatives to co-ordinate and implement successful conservation efforts. We used reconstructivist methods – specifically, focus groups with nominal group techniques – to determine 10 key capacity indicators for successful CBNRM. The list comprises motivation, leadership, respect, mutual interest/shared values, outreach/education, marketing, communication, planning, funding and equipment/supplies. Our results can be used by CBNRM groups for capacity-building and self-assessment activities, by bridging organisations to increase the capacity of such initiatives, or by researchers interested in measuring the capacity of community-based groups to achieve their conservation goals.
In this research we sought to understand how actors in urban transportation adopt climate change considerations into their work, including the techniques they use to address it, such as planning, design, analysis and advocacy in project planning and implementation. Through interviews with transportation practitioners at the World Bank, working in Latin America, we found that efforts to include climate change mitigation in the urban transportation policy agenda encountered major challenges such as lack of support for interventions that slow motorisation. In response, these transportation practitioners used relationships, expertise, advocacy and analysis to modify their practices to climate change concerns.
Through a qualitative case study, this paper describes the everyday experience of conflict as a serious impact of noxious facilities. It describes intra-community conflict over two existing waste facilities (a regional landfill and a low-level hazardous waste facility) in Ryley, Alberta, Canada. Twenty-seven in-depth face-to-face interviews and one focus group reveal deep conflict presented as frustration, anger, social isolation and strained social relations between locals who 'support' the facilities as a means of bolstering the local economy and those who do not (mainly long-time resident farmers). Although the type of hazard exposure (i.e. existing facilities) is important for explaining why conflict developed and became entrenched, it is argued that the nature of community, and in particular differences in ways of life, are also critical determinants. The findings are compared to theory and other case studies concerning why social conflict develops over technological hazards. Implications for environmental impact assessment and environmental appeals are discussed, as well as compensation as one avenue for equitably reducing conflict.
This paper explores the utility of site analysis as one factor in determining the feasibility of a proposed development in relation to organisational objectives. Feasibility analysis models frequently include site analysis as one factor in the broader study. However, site analysis for site planning and design is generally presented under the assumptions of a more advanced stage of planning than can be admitted by the constraints imposed by a feasibility analysis in the pre-start up phase of a proposed development. Site analysis in the context of feasibility analysis requires a model that emphasises its capacity for making a ‘go/no go’ decision on a proposed development programme based on uncertainty, limited resources and multiple stakeholder interests. From the multiple criteria decision-making literature a method is developed and applied to determine the fitness of a site for supporting a proposed tourism development. Moreover, the proposed site analysis matrix and coding scheme provides practitioners with parameters that can inform subsequent site planning actions. While application of the concept bears limitations in quantitative measurement and spatial representation, the results suggest the proposed method for site analysis is beneficial and useful in the context of feasibility analysis.
We identify four choice dimensions that determine the configuration and evolution of governance: formal-informal institutions, network-central steering, local-scientific knowledge and representation-participation. Choices on one dimension affect choices on the other dimensions, which naturally leads to historical dependency. We integrate these insights in a model of governance evolution that revolves around actor/institution configurations and power/knowledge configurations. In a case study of ice fishing villages on Minnesota's Lake Mille Lacs, we investigate one specific set of couplings between the choice dimensions. As we can study the local ice fishing tradition from its very beginning, the evolutionary paths of technology and institutions provide insights into how choices were made along the different dimensions and how they interacted. The case study illustrates how to apply the model, but also contributes to its further development as it draws attention to possible extensions: concepts of scale and identity.
Proper design and quality of soil play an important role in the functioning of soil-based septic systems. Septic systems with traditional leach fields are not suitable for treatment of domestic wastewater in Ohio due to shallow soils. Along with other adverse health effects, untreated or partially treated wastewater could lead to a loss of property valuation. The assessed value of 549 randomly selected properties in Licking County, Ohio was analyzed using hedonic pricing method to isolate the effect of poor site selection on the value of the properties. Results indicate that properties sited on soils that are deemed optimal for wastewater treatment are valued 6.2% to 6.8% higher than those sited on sub-optimal soils. The results from this study would not only help the property owners in making better private decisions regarding installation of septic systems, but would also guide policy decisions that affect public health and common waters.
The purpose of this paper is to measure the environmental costs of overhead power transmission lines (PTLs) in Korea by using a choice experiment (CE) approach. To this end, a mixed logit model is employed to explicitly incorporate preference heterogeneity and avoid the assumption of independence from irrelevant alternatives that is required in conditional logit models. For selecting a preferred alternative, we consider the trade-offs between price and the attributes of environmental impacts from overhead PTLs such as visual disamenity, land use and electric and magnetic fields (EMFs). The results reveal that unlike visual disamenity and land use, EMFs are not statistically significant. This can be interpreted as implying that many respondents are more interested in land use related to property rights than EMFs. This study provides useful information to policy makers for the development and implementation of more appropriate policies to deal with the environmental damage that is caused by overhead PTLs. Undergrounding PTLs without considering the construction cost can lead to an increase in electricity rates. Therefore, we may take into account a cost-effective option in future policies for social optimality.
Interviews with UK manufacturing SMEs (small and medium enterprises) confirm, in aggregate, that traditional regulation drives environmental behaviour. Yet, beneath this aggregate picture, there are groups of firms that respond to regulation differently. Furthermore, within the aggregate and group levels there exist further differences across firms. SME responses can thus be understood as groups and subgroups of firms that at the same time are distinct. These identifiable differences result from firms’ capacities and orientations, which are factors that determine receptiveness to regulation. The findings provide a more sophisticated account of SME behaviour than existed previously, and help us understand why and how regulatory measures may underperform.
Sustainable forest management (SFM) or ecosystem management is now the stated goal of forest managers in most countries. SFM takes a longer-term, broader perspective on forest values than timber production or the narrow multiple use regimes of the past. As a result of international activities including the International Tropical Timber Organization, the Ministerial Council on Protection of Forests in Europe and the Montreal Process for temperate and boreal forests outside Europe, there are now sufficiently specific and agreed principles, criteria and indicators (C&I) to guide policy makers towards SFM. To achieve SFM requires holistic assessments of forest management systems in terms of these C&I to ensure the delivery of sustainable outcomes across forest regions. This paper focuses on the implementation of SFM as defined by the C&I, and, in particular, how to identify needed reforms in forest management systems. The paper explains and evaluates the International Standards Organization's (ISO's) environmental management systems (EMS) ISO14000/EMS approach adopted for this purpose in Australia to assess the adequacy of forest management systems. The approach was applied as a key element in the regional forest agreements prepared to meet the Australian National Forest Policy Statement. The ISO14000/EMS, in conjunction with the SFM criteria, provides a systematic approach to assessing forest management systems to reveal the adequacy of the legislative, planning, implementation, monitoring and review of all-tenure forest management as required by SFM.
Domestic gardens have been found to contribute between 16–36% of the total urban area in different cities. They play a prominent role in ecosystem services including water retention and local climate regulation. We developed a tool that evaluates the rainwater retention efficiency of parcels (REP). This tool took inspiration from the Biotope Area Factor (BAF), which uses intuitive weighting parameters. Quantitative runoff values obtained from scientific literature form the base of REP, which was incorporated in a GIS to simplify the input. REP and BAF values were compared for a sample of detached, semi-detached and terraced houses.
This paper explores the spatial distribution of soil sealing in a compact and mono-centric urban region of southern Europe through multivariate statistics and spatial analysis. The study demonstrates how simple indicators developed at the local scale can provide insight in the analysis of urbanisation-driven soil sealing. Based on a high-resolution land-use map, a ‘sealing profile’ was determined for each municipality of the Athens’ urban region, by analysing the distribution of land occupied by 22 classes of imperviousness using a Principal Components Analysis. Four indicators of soil sealing have been developed (percentage of pervious land, per capita sealed land, soil sealing intensity and diversity in soil sealing intensity) and the investigated municipalities classified accordingly. All indicators were found correlated to the distance from the city centre of Athens. Three groups of municipalities (strictly urban, suburban and rural municipalities) have been identified based on the four sealing indicators and the distance from the inner city. Results suggest that the spatial distribution of soil sealing in Athens reflects the transition from a mono-centric and compact urban form to a polycentric and dispersed agglomeration, with implications for urban containment policies.
The towns and cities of Saudi Arabia have been subjected to sustained growth pressures since the transformation of the country's economy following the discovery of oil in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom. the rapid growth which has been experienced has created major problems for the central and local government agencies responsible for planning and managing urban growth. the experience of Jeddah, one of the major cities in Saudi Arabia, is described and the problems of planning and managing its growth are analysed. Weaknesses relating to the structure of the planning system are identified, as are major difficulties in relation to the quality and quantity of professional staff. Recent attempts to improve the operation of the planning system are described and evaluated.
The increasing popularity of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) warrants an exploration of the capacity of such initiatives to co-ordinate and implement successful conservation efforts. We used reconstructivist methods – specifically, focus groups with nominal group techniques – to determine 10 key capacity indicators for successful CBNRM. The list comprises motivation, leadership, respect, mutual interest/shared values, outreach/education, marketing, communication, planning, funding and equipment/supplies. Our results can be used by CBNRM groups for capacity-building and self-assessment activities, by bridging organisations to increase the capacity of such initiatives, or by researchers interested in measuring the capacity of community-based groups to achieve their conservation goals.
In this research we sought to understand how actors in urban transportation adopt climate change considerations into their work, including the techniques they use to address it, such as planning, design, analysis and advocacy in project planning and implementation. Through interviews with transportation practitioners at the World Bank, working in Latin America, we found that efforts to include climate change mitigation in the urban transportation policy agenda encountered major challenges such as lack of support for interventions that slow motorisation. In response, these transportation practitioners used relationships, expertise, advocacy and analysis to modify their practices to climate change concerns.
A pilot Nitrate Sensitive Areas Scheme was established in 1990 in order to reduce nitrate pollution in heavily polluted areas of the UK through changes in land management. A regression model is derived from field observations which predicts the quantity of nitrate leaching into the groundwater as a function of land use, drainage conditions and fertilizer usage. It is used to explore the cost effectiveness of different land management options for which incentives were provided within the scheme. The most cost effective measures in terms of net exchequer cost per kilogram reduction in nitrogen leached were conversion to grassland with limited restriction on nitrogen fertilization, or conversion to woodland. A basic option involving minor changes to fertilizer practice on arable land was also cost effective but failed to achieve the target nitrate level in groundwater of 50 mg/l. Conversion to grassland with severe restrictions on fertilizer use was less cost effective because higher payments were necessary to encourage uptake by farmers.

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