Gynecological Endocrinology (GYNECOL ENDOCRINOL)
Gynecological Endocrinology, the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology, covers all the experimental, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this increasingly new discipline. It includes papers relating to the control and function of the different endocrine glands in females, the effects of reproductive events on the endocrine system, and the consequences of endocrine disorders on reproduction.
Current impact factor: 1.33
Impact Factor Rankings
|2016 Impact Factor||Available summer 2017|
|2014 / 2015 Impact Factor||1.333|
|2013 Impact Factor||1.136|
|2012 Impact Factor||1.303|
|2011 Impact Factor||1.581|
|2010 Impact Factor||1.461|
|2009 Impact Factor||1.36|
|2008 Impact Factor||1.359|
|2007 Impact Factor||1.169|
|2006 Impact Factor||0.995|
|2005 Impact Factor||0.852|
|2004 Impact Factor||1.242|
|2003 Impact Factor||0.87|
|2002 Impact Factor||0.899|
|2001 Impact Factor||0.878|
|2000 Impact Factor||1.107|
|1999 Impact Factor||1.035|
|1998 Impact Factor||1.061|
|1997 Impact Factor||0.752|
|1996 Impact Factor||0.744|
|1995 Impact Factor||0.538|
|1994 Impact Factor||0.588|
|1993 Impact Factor||0.47|
|1992 Impact Factor||0.815|
Impact factor over time
|Website||Gynecological Endocrinology website|
|Other titles||Gynecological endocrinology (Online)|
|Material type||Document, Periodical, Internet resource|
|Document type||Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper|
- Author can archive a pre-print version
- Author cannot archive a post-print version
- 12 months embargo
- On author's personal website or institution website
- Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
- Must link to publisher version
- Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
- NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
- Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case–control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7 years and 12.8 years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of black cohosh (BC) extract on the proliferation and apoptosis of Ishikawa cells. Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells were treated with or without BC (1, 5, 10 and 25 μM) and cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry analysis. Additionally, Ishikawa cells were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), E2 + progesterone and E2 + BC (5 and 10 μM) and the effect of BC and progesterone on E2-induced cell proliferation was analyzed. BC decreased the proliferation of Ishikawa cells at a dose-dependent rate compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The proliferation of Ishikawa cells increased in the presence of E2, whereas the subsequent addition of progesterone or BC decreased proliferation to the level of the control group (p < 0.05). The inhibitory effect of BC on E2-induced cell proliferation was greater than the inhibitory effect of progesterone. In conclusion, BC induces apoptosis in Ishikawa cells and suppresses E2-induced cell proliferation in Ishikawa cells. BC could be considered a candidate co-treatment agent of estrogen-dependent tumors, especially those involving endometrial cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Thrombophilia is considered one of the causes of infertility, especially after repeated failures of IVF techniques. The aim of this work is to evaluate the incidence of thrombophilia in women who underwent IVF cycles and assess the outcome of the techniques. Methods: In vivo study. The study sample was composed of 262 women undergoing a fresh cycle of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle of Intracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection (ICSI) from July 2012 to December 2014 in the Center of Physiopathology of Human Reproduction. Amongst these patients, we have selected 96 patients with indication for thrombophilia screening. Results: Thrombophilia screening detects that only 8% (n = 8) of the patients was negative to all the studied mutations, while the remaining 92% (n = 88) was positive to at least one mutation. The most common mutations were MTHFR gene (C677T) (91,84%), ACE gene (54,88%) and PAI-1 gene (69,44%). Conclusion: Our results showed an increased frequency of genetic nucleotide polymorphisms in women reporting failures in IVF techniques. Differently from scientific literature data, in our work, the most frequent mutation affects the enzyme gene MTHFR, particularly the C667T mutation; on the other side, mutations of factor V and II are less common.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of pathways inhibition and the combined effect of Everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) and Verapamil (CYP3A inhibitor) in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) need to be tested. Therefore, the impact of a leucotriene receptor antagonist, an anticoagulant, a GnRH antagonist as well as Everolimus plus Verapamil (at various doses and days of administration) on an OHSS rat model was tested. Sixty three female Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups. The control group received saline, while the OHSS group received rec-FSH for four consecutive days. The other five groups received rec-FSH for four days and Montelukast daily, Heparin daily, GnRH antagonist daily, Everolimus plus Verapamil in the last two days (half days group) and Everolimus plus Verapamil (half dose group) daily, respectively. All groups received also hCG at the fifth day. Significantly reduced ovarian weight was observed in the Everolimus plus Verapamil groups (half days and half-dose groups) and the Montelukast group compared to the OHSS group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The vascular permeability was significantly reduced in the Everolimus plus Verapamil group (half dose group) and the GnRH antagonist group compared to the OHSS group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). However, estradiol and progesterone levels did not differ significantly between the groups. Studying the inhibition of different pathways, we concluded that the co-administration of Everolimus and Verapamil (at half dose) is beneficial for reducing ovarian weight and vascular permeability in an OHSS animal model.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the short term effect over menopausal symptoms and quality of life (QoL) of monthly parenteral formulations of 17β-estradiol (E)/progesterone (P) non-polymeric microspheres.Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized, single-blinded study that included peri- and post-menopausal symptomatic women assigned to receive a monthly intramuscular injection of 0.5 mg E + 15 mg P (Group A, n = 34), 1 mg E + 20 mg P (Group B, n = 24), or 1 mg E + 30 mg P (Group C, n = 26) for 6 months. Intensity of menopausal symptoms was assessed before and after treatment with the Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and QoL with the Utian Quality of Life Scale (UQoLS).Results: Menopausal symptoms improved for all groups at six months evidenced by lower cluster/sub-cluster GCS scores. Equally, there was an overall trend for QoL improvement for all groups evidenced by higher domain UQoLS scores at six months; but only significant for the emotional (Groups A and B) and occupational domains (Groups A and C).Conclusion: The three low-dose continuous sequential intramuscular monthly formulations of E/P microspheres exerted a positive effect over menopausal symptoms and QoL. Long-term research is warranted with these formulations.Clinical trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers NCT 00775242.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Close relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn much attention in recent years, while the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we aim to detect BPA concentration in the follicular fluid and investigate its effect on estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells from PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected from women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. BPA concentration in the follicular fluid from PCOS patients (440.50 ± 63.70 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that from non-PCOS patients (338.00 ± 57.88 pg/ml). Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis in cultured granulosa cells was examined after treatment with BPA from 0.01 to 1 μM for 24 h. Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis was downregulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner in PCOS, but no effect was observed in granulosa cells from non-PCOS patients. These findings provide evidence that increased BPA concentration in the follicular fluid of PCOS patients may play an important role in its pathogenesis by attenuating the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the possible relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and the response to clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: One hundred and ninety-six women with PCOS were divided into two groups: (1) the SCH group with 92 patients; (2) the euthyroid (EU) group with 104 patients. Physical characteristics and metabolic parameters as well as the reaction to CC stimulating test were compared between these two groups. Results: (1) In the SCH group, significantly higher body mass index, Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum triglyceride, insulin and glucose of oral glucose tolerance test, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in comparison with those in the EU group (p < 0.05). (2) The prevalence of CC resistance (30.4%), IR (43.5%) and MS (34.8%) in the SCH group was significantly higher than that in the EU group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: SCH was found associated with IR, MS and CC resistance in women with PCOS. PCOS patients with SCH may have a poorer treatment response to ovulation induction with CC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the effects of atosiban, given before transfer of frozen-thawed embryo to women with different number of embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Atosiban treatment significantly increased implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate in the third and more than three ET groups. However, there were no significant increases in the above parameters in the first and second ET groups. Our study showed that patients those who underwent the third or more than three ET cycles were inclined to higher uterine contractions and serum oxytocin level, thus atosiban treatment starting from the third ET cycle may be effective in improving embryo implantation. This is the first study to evaluate the optimal atosiban treatment window corresponding to the number of ET cycles of the patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea is common among women of reproductive age. This study aim was to investigate the effect of vitamin D (vit D) supplementation in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with vit D deficiency. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 women with primary dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency referred to our clinic at Arash Women's Hospital from September 2013 to December 2014. Eligible women were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups (30 in each group). Individuals in the treatment group received 50 000 IU oral vit D and the control group received placebo weekly for eight weeks. After two months of treatment, there was a significant difference in serum vit D concentration between the two groups (p < 0.001). Pain severity decreased significantly in treatment group after eight weeks of treatment. There was a significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups after eight weeks of treatment and one month after the end of treatment (p < 0.001 for both). A weekly high dose (50 000 IU) oral vit D supplementation for eight weeks in patients with primary dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency could improve pain intensity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess metabolic changes in overweight and obese women above 35 years using ethinylestradiol/drosperinone combined contraceptive pills for 36 cycles. Methods: A prospective case-control study over 3 years recruiting 202 overweight and obese women above the age of 35 years who were divided into two groups, study group (n = 90) who received Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone for 36 cycles, and control group (n = 112) to whom intrauterine device was inserted. Recording of the body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and fasting blood lipids including triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol before starting the method and repeated at 12, 24 and 36 cycles of use. Results: No significant change was observed in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose between the two groups (p > 0.05).There was a significant reduction in triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol with elevation in HDL cholesterol in the study group after 24 and 36 cycles of use (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone combined contraceptive pills do not alter blood pressure or affect the body weight, with favorable effects on blood lipids in overweight and obese women above the age of 35 years when used for 24-36 cycles.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the risk factors for glucose intolerance (GI) during the postpartum period in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: This prospective cohort study included 72 Japanese women with GDM who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at 12 weeks after delivery. These women were divided into the GI group and the normal group based on postpartum OGTT. Risk factors for GI, including levels of blood glucose (BG), area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, AUC insulin, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA-β, insulinogenic index (II) and the oral disposition index (DI) in antepartum OGTT, were analyzed by logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 72 women, 60 (83.3%) were normal and 12 (16.7%) had GI. By univariate logistic regression analyses, fasting BG, AUC glucose, HOMA-β, II and oral DI were selected as risk factors for GI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the level of II in antepartum OGTT was a significant factor that predicted GI after delivery (odds ratio, 0.008; 95% CI, 0.0001-0.9; p < 0.05). Conclusions: II measured by OGTT during pregnancy might be a useful predictor of GI within the early postpartum period in women with GDM.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is required in order to screen and diagnose embryos of patients at risk of having a genetically affected offspring. A biopsy to diagnose the genetic profile of the embryo may be performed either before or after cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to determine which biopsy timing yields higher embryo survival rates. Study design: Retrospective cohort study of all PGD patients in a public IVF unit between 2010 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were patients with good-quality embryos available for cryopreservation by the slow freezing method. Embryos were divided into two groups: biopsy before and biopsy after cryopreservation. The primary outcome was embryo survival rates post thawing. Results: Sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. 145 embryos were biopsied before cryopreservation and 228 embryos were cryopreserved and biopsied after thawing. Embryo survival was significantly greater in the latter group (77% vs. 68%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cryopreservation preceding biopsy results in better embryo survival compared to biopsy before cryopreservation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study is to compare the oocyte yield in breast cancer patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) using letrozole and gonadotropins with patients undergoing COS with standard gonadotropins for elective cryopreservation of oocytes. Odds ratios (OR) for the number of mature oocytes were estimated. Pregnancy outcomes for breast cancer patients undergoing frozen-thawed 2-PN embryo transfers (FETs) after oncologic treatment were also noted. 220 and 451 cycles were identified in the breast cancer and the elective cryopreservation groups, respectively. Patients in the former group had lower peak estradiol levels [464.5 (315.5-673.8) pg/mL] compared to the latter [1696 (1058-2393) pg/mL; p < 0.01]. More oocytes were retrieved in the breast cancer group (12.3 ± 3.99) compared to the elective cryopreservation group (10.9 ± 3.86; p < 0.01). The odds for mature oocytes with letrozole and gonadotropins was 2.71 (95% CI 1.29-5.72; p = 0.01). Fifty-six FETs occurred in the breast cancer group. The clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per FET cycle were 39.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. Our findings suggest that COS with letrozole and gonadotropins yield more mature oocytes at lower estradiol levels compared to COS with gonadotropins alone. Breast cancer patients undergoing FET after oncologic treatment have live birth rates comparable to age-matched counterparts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aims to evaluate the change in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery for weight loss. Material and methods: In this prospective observational study, 75 patients of reproductive age (20-35 years) undergoing bariatric surgery for morbid obesity were followed up after six months to determine the changes in weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), menstrual pattern and serum AMH. The results were further studied on basis of pre operative classification of patients in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS group. Result: The serum AMH levels were statistically higher in patients of PCOS group pre operatively and at the end of six months in comparison to non-PCOS patients. The AMH values reduced post operatively in both groups significantly so much in the values though not significant statistically. Non-PCOS patients had lower AMH values pre operatively and showed a trend towards reducing ovarian reserve after six months. The overall change in AMH values in both groups was statistically significant as was the normalization of menstrual irregularity. Conclusion: Morbidly obese patients with PCOS appear to benefit from bariatric surgery both in terms of regularization of menstrual function and normalization of serum AMH values.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neonatal and/or prepubertal androgen milieu affects sexual maturation and reproductive function in adulthood. However, the effects of chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment on reproductive functions have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the reproductive phenotypes and parameters of rats that had been subjected to chronic DHEA treatment were evaluated in this study. The chronic DHEA-treated (from postnatal day 23-12 weeks of age) rats exhibited earlier vaginal opening, indicating that DHEA treatment promotes sexual maturation. In addition, the estrus phase lasted longer in the DHEA-treated rats, suggesting that their estrous cycles had been disrupted. As the DHEA-treated rats' serum luteinizing hormone levels and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA expression levels were decreased and their uterine weight was increased, DHEA and/or estrogen might directly affect reproductive phenotypes. While DHEA treatment caused changes in body weight and body composition in chronic testosterone-treated models in previous studies, no such changes were seen in the present study.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess influence of obesity and hormone disturbances on sexuality in the menopause. Methods: The study included 73 menopausal women, who were divided into groups according to body mass index (BMI)�26.7 kg/m2. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08:00 for hormones. All the participants filled in McCoy Female Sexual Questionnaire for the assessment of sexual life. Statistics: Student’s t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were very significantly lower in obese compared to controls. E2 and systolic blood pressure were very significantly, while diastolic blood pressure significantly higher in obese compared to controls. Obese women had significantly decreased frequency of pain during sexual intercourse (3.48 ± 2.64 vs. 4.09 ± 2.81). Influence of age on frequency of sexual intercourse was very significant. Significant influence in interaction between BMI and age on frequency of sexual fantasies as well as significant influence of BMI on satisfaction with partner as lover is also found. Conclusion: Obesity has influence on different aspects of sexuality in the postmenopausal women. Our results suggest the need of awareness toward obesity and its impact on sexuality in the menopause.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Due to the complex relationship between kisspeptin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the study was planned to measure the kisspeptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to analyze the correlations between kisspeptin and PCOS-related reproductive, metabolic changes. Methods: The study was designed as a prospective study in Dokuz Eylul University between December 2011 and September 2013. A total of 285 PCOS cases and 162 controls were recruited. After the antropometric measeruments and physcial examination, blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Results: PCOS group's mean BMI was 24.32 ± 3.40 and for the control group, BMI value was 23.44 kg/m(2) ± 4.08 (p = 0.351). PCOS patients' FSH level was 5.10 ± 2.01 mIU/L, LH value was 7.75 ± 4.31 mIU/mL, LH/FSH ratio was 1.70 ± 1.28, DHEAS value was 221.84 ± 105.02 mg/dl, total testosterone value was 50.51 ± 27.93 ng/ml, free testosterone value was 2.52 ± 1.05 pg/ml, SHBG was 63.74 ± 45.62 nmol/L, LDL was 102.56 ± 23.45 mg/dL, HDL value was 51.36 ± 12.15 mg/dL, total cholesterol value was 214.85 ± 39.27 mg/dL, triglyceride value was 112.95 ± 46.88 mg/dL, Apo A1 value was 171.30 ± 35.35 mg/dL, Apo B value was 71.08 ± 19.07 mg/dL, Apo B/A1 ratio was 0.42 ± 0.14, free androgen index was 13.77 ± 14.15, fasting glucose value was 80.68 ± 13.80 mg/dL, fasting insulin levels was 14.13 ± 9.11 μiU/mL, HOMA-IR index was 2.76 ± 2.34, AMH value was 5.93 ± 3:33 in ng/ml, and found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001). Leptin value was 9.71 ± 5.54 pg/ml and kisspeptin value was 1.92 ± 1.29 ng/ml, respectively. Kisspeptin and leptin levels showed no statistically significant difference with control group and PCOS group. In all PCOS patients, kisspeptin showed positive correlations between LH and leptin levels. Conclusion: In this study, kisspeptin had a positive correlation with LH and leptin levels in PCOS. In fact, the serum levels of kisspeptin and leptin does not differ statistically between PCOS and healthy women. There are limited data in the literature with regard to changes in kisspeptin levels and its relation with metabolic and hormonal disturbances.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in each woman with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes based on the levels of androgen. Methods: Two groups of women with PCOS differing in their levels of androgens. The test group composed of 39 women with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria in their reproductive age. The hormonal levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), androstenedione, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Correlations analysis were performed calculating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of hormones with relation to TNF-α and IGF-I. Results: There was a medium positive correlation of IGF-1 with LH levels (p < 0.05) and negative medium correlation of TNF-α with of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-SO4 levels (p < 0.05) only in group of PCOS women with elevated androgens. Conclusion: Analysis of TNF-α showed that women with high testosterone negative correlation between level of TNF-α and the concentration of DHEA-SO4. Inflammatory state involving TNF-α in women with PCOS and high concentration of androgens is caused by intensified Δ4 (progesterone) pathway and omitted or limited Δ5 (dehydroepiandrosterone) pathway of testosterone biosynthesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrauterine adhesion (IUA), also known as Asherman’s syndrome, is a common disease for among women. The extent of adhesion and pre-surgery hormone therapy greatly affects the function of uterine cavity. This current study investigates the association of different doses of estrogen before transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) surgery and clinical outcome in serious IUA. About 120 newly diagnostic serious IUA patients who underwent TCRA were randomly divided into three study groups: Estradiol valerate (progynova) 3 or 9 mg per diet before surgery and the control group. Follow-up hysteroscopy checkups were taken in 1- and 3-month post-operation. The effective power of 9 mg group was significantly higher than other groups. The 9 mg group achieved the best menstrual recovery rate in all study groups compared with the other two groups in 6 months post-operatively (p < 0.05). Our results confirmed estradiol valerateas an alternative effective drug for the prevention of IUAs before and after hysteroscopic surgery.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.