Strabismus (Strabismus)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Strabismus is a quarterly, serving strabismologists worldwide. The journal publishes articles on strabismus and related fields such as neuro-physiology.

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Strabismus website
Other titles Strabismus (Online)
ISSN 0927-3972
OCLC 42208084
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) with the fornix approach in horizontal strabismus operations. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients aged ≤12 years who underwent symmetrical surgery of the medial or lateral recti over a 1-year period. MISS was performed in one eye, and fornix opening was performed in the contralateral. We compared pre- and postoperative visual acuity (VA), conjunctival hyperemia, swelling after surgery, and operating time. The techniques were performed by 2 surgeons after a 4-year training period. Results: The sample comprised 16 patients, with a mean age of 6.75 ± 3.02 years. The medial rectus was operated on in 9, the lateral rectus in 7 cases. Recession was performed in 14 muscles (mean dose, 5 mm) and plication in 2 (5.5 mm and 7 mm, respectively). MISS was performed in 12 right eyes and 4 left eyes. Preoperative VA was 0.77 in MISS and 0.80 in the control group. VA was 0.83 in MISS and 0.76 in the control group 1 day after surgery. No significant differences were found for conjunctival hyperemia between the MISS and fornix groups 1 day or 1 week after surgery. Nevertheless, moderate/severe conjunctival hyperemia was less frequent in the MISS group (31.3% versus 62.5%). No significant differences were found for operating time (14.43 minutes [MISS] vs 12.37 minutes [control]). Conclusion: The MISS technique was similar to the fornix approach in the early postoperative period with respect to VA, conjunctival inflammation, and operating time in pediatric horizontal strabismus surgery.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Accommodative esotropia with a high accommodative element has been typically treated with bifocal lenses. This study assessed the age-dependent efficacy of progressive-addition lenses (PAL) for a high accommodative element in improving motor and sensory performance. Methods: We evaluated PAL as an initial treatment modality or after initiating treatment with bifocals at various ages. Thirty-two patients, who did not undergo eye muscle surgery, were included in this retrospective study. Subjects were divided into 2 subgroups: 7 subjects who received PAL treatment only (median age 4.5 years), and 25 children treated with bifocals (median age 4.5 years) and then switched to PAL at the mean age of 9 years. Measurement of the deviation was performed by the alternate prism cover test. The Stereo fly test and Randot stereo test were used to assess stereoacuity. The mean follow-up periods for the subgroups were 57 and 46 months, respectively. Results: The deviation at near decreased in the PAL-only group from an average of 28 prism diopters (PD) without correction at diagnosis to zero PD with correction. Stereopsis in the PAL first group improved from an average of 113" to 54" and in the bifocals first group improved from 541" to 141". Conclusion: PAL treatment for accommodative esotropia with a high accommodative achieved good sensory and motor results. PAL and bifocals were equally beneficial as the initial treatment of young children with convergence excess esotropia.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of effective surgical therapy for strabismus was one of the outstanding triumphs of the first half of 19th-century ophthalmology, just prior to the invention of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. Although priority for the development of strabismus surgery belongs to Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach of Germany, who first reported his surgical results in 1839, 4 cases of tenotomy of the medial rectus muscle had been performed in the United States by William Gibson in 1818 but never published. By 1840, the reports of surgery in Europe had rapidly spread to America where surgeons immediately began using these procedures. The first American surgeon to perform eye muscle surgery and publish his results was John Dix of Boston, and other surgeons were soon reporting their cases as well. We discuss 8 American pioneers in this field during the time (1840-1845) of the first burst of enthusiasm for this surgery. Although these surgeons were active in performing a large number of cases and carefully reporting their experiences and results, they did not make any major advances in the field.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To present clinical findings and eye movement recordings of two children who had clinically apparent monocular nystagmus.Methods: Full orthoptic and ophthalmological examination and eye movement recordings.Results: An 8-year-old girl (patient 1) and a 13-month-old girl (patient 2) presented with right monocular nystagmus and right esotropia. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain obtained previously had been unremarkable for patient 2. Patient 1 had right amblyopia with visual acuity (VA) reduced to 20/400. Both patients had left abduction deficit and left palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction indicative of Duanes retraction syndrome. Patient 2 also had mild enophthalmos. Both patients had constant horizontal nystagmus in the right eye and very fine nystagmus in the left eye, which could only be detected on video and eye movement recordings.Conclusion: The existence of Duanes syndrome in both patients was masking the presence of nystagmus in the left eye, highlighting that detailed examination in this case can eliminate the need for neuroimaging. Interestingly, the dominant eye of both patients was on the side which was affected by Duanes syndrome, as there was less nystagmus in this eye.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Compared with the general population, patients with hydrocephalus are more likely to have strabismus. This study was undertaken to examine characteristics and outcomes of children with esotropia and ventricular-peritoneal shunt placement due to hydrocephalus.Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients with esotropia and a history of ventricular-peritoneal shunt placement seen by our pediatric ophthalmology service between January 2000 and December 2010.Results: Sixteen patients between the age of 3 months and 5.6 years met study criteria. Nine were premature and all but one of the patients had developmental delay. Although all patients had a ventricular-peritoneal shunt, the diagnosis leading to shunt placement was intraventricular hemorrhage or congenital hydrocephalus in 75% of the patients. In all but 3 patients the hydrocephalus was diagnosed before the esotropia. Ten children had congenital esotropia and 6 had acquired esotropia. Eleven of the 16 children required glasses: 5 had a myopic prescription and 6 had a hyperopic prescription. Treatment of the esotropia resulted in 9 patients (56%) with successful ocular alignment (<10 prism diopters) on their last visit: 7 underwent strabismus surgery and 2 were treated with glasses only. Of the 9 patients who had strabismus surgery, 6 had congenital esotropia and 3 had acquired esotropia. Among patients who underwent strabismus surgery, 78% had successful ocular alignment at their last visit.Conclusions: While acquired accommodative esotropia is more common in the general population, children with ventricular-peritoneal shunts may be more likely to have congenital esotropia. Although developmental delay is very frequent, successful ocular alignment may be possible in this patient population.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Since an interaction between binocular disparity and the vergence system takes place in order to reduce retinal disparity, it is likely that vergence control, as measured with the near point of convergence (NPC), will be better if the target used for measurement has 3-dimensional (3-D) features in its most central parts. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate if the NPC would give a better result using a fixation target with centrally placed 3-D features when compared with a two-dimensional (2-D) target.Methods: Twenty-three asymptomatic subjects (2 men, 21 women; average age 30.0 years ±7.36 SD) who experienced diplopia when a fixation target was brought close to the eyes had their break point NPC measured using a modified RAF-ruler. A metal cube and a printed image of the cube were used as a 3-D and 2-D stimuli. The measurements were repeated 3 times in each subject for each test condition, for a total of 6 randomized NPC measurements.Results: On average a significant difference in NPC (p = 0.0172) was found for break point NPC with a 3-D stimuli (mean: 7.27 cm ± 2.37 SD), giving the better result as compared with a 2-D stimuli (mean: 8.02 cm ± 2.82 SD). Comparing the most remote recorded NPC values of the 3 repeated measurements under each stimulus condition, a significant difference was found (p = 0.0159, t = 2.612) with 3-D stimuli giving the better result.Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the influence of binocular disparity stimuli on the vergence control as NPC was better if the target used for measurement had 3-D features in its most central parts.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Children diagnosed with some forms of strabismus were recently found to have an increased risk of developing mental illness by early adulthood. The purpose of this case-controlled study was to determine if adults with non-paralytic forms of strabismus are similarly at an elevated risk for developing mental illness.Methods: The medical records of all patients diagnosed as adults (≥19 years of age) with convergence insufficiency (CI) (n = 118), divergence insufficiency (DI) (n = 80), and small angle hypertropia (HT (n = 99) from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Each case was compared with a sex-and birth date-matched non-strabismic control. The medical records were reviewed for mental health diagnoses, including inpatient and outpatient encounters, psychiatric ER visits, and medication use.Results: Mental health disorders were diagnosed in 65 (55.1%) patients with CI compared to 54 (45.8%) controls (p = 0.15), in 51 (63.8%) patients with DI compared to 42 (52.5%) controls (p = 0.15), and in 63 (63.6%) patients with HT compared to 57 (57.6%) controls (p = 0.38). CI patients were not more likely to have mental health disorders than their controls (p = 0.15). Mental health hospitalizations (p = 0.02), psychiatric medication use (p = 0.04), and unspecified anxiety disorders (p = 0.03) were higher in DI patients compared to controls. HT patients were found to have more generalized anxiety disorders (p = 0.003) than controls.Conclusions: Adults with some forms of strabismus (DI and HT) appear to have an increased risk of mental illness and its comorbidities, compared to age-and gender-matched non-strabismic controls.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Investigate the frequency and type of visual symptoms following stroke. Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study (Vision in Stroke [VIS]) in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. Methods: Standardized referral/investigation protocol with detailed assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment/motility, visual field and visual perception, plus quality of life score. Results: A total of 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69.18 years (standard deviation 14.19). Reported symptoms included diplopia, blurred vision, reading difficulty, field loss, perceptual difficulty, and oscillopsia. Sixteen percent (149) had no visual symptoms: 22 patients had normal eye examinations by orthoptic assessment and 127 had diagnoses of central/peripheral visual loss, ocular motility or perceptual abnormalities. Eighty-four percent had visual symptoms, but 50 patients had normal eye examinations. There was no significant difference in type of symptom and quality of life score. Treatment included refraction, prisms, occlusion, orthoptic exercises, low vision aids, and advice. Conclusions: Of those with no visual symptoms, 85% had objectively measured visual impairment. Conversely, 6.5% of those with visual symptoms had normal orthoptic examinations. Thus the presence or absence of visual symptoms does not infer absence or presence of visual impairment and may relate to recovery of visual impairment, cognitive, or communication impairment.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Strabismus

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal distortions that occur in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic vision. Twelve subjects with strabismic (n = 4), anisometropic (n = 4), mixed amblyopia (n = 3) and bilateral refractive amblyopia (n = 1) were asked to describe and sketch their subjective percept of different geometrical patterns, as seen with their amblyopic eye. Based on their descriptions, computer-animated patterns were generated, which were then validated by the subjects. Both spatial distortions and temporal instability were perceived mainly by strabismic and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopes. Temporal instability occurred mainly at high spatial frequencies. Our data suggest that strabismus, in addition to amblyopia, is needed to elicit significant spatial and temporal distortions. The occurrence of these distortions may be related to the early history of each subject.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the predictors for motor outcome and response to surgical treatment of primary exotropia. Taunton and Somerset Hospital, Somerset, United Kingdom. Retrospective analysis of the surgical treatment of primary exotropia performed in our department over a period of 12 years from April 1991 to May 2003. Case-notes of the patients who had surgical treatment for primary exotropia for the specified period were identified by a hospital computer database (MDI coding). All case-notes were reviewed and the following data were recorded and used for statistical analysis: age at the time of surgery, type and severity of exotropia, presence of amblyopia, AV pattern and vertical deviation, the level of stereopsis, type of surgery, and motor and cosmetic results. The surgical outcome was determined as good motor outcome if tropia was within 10 PD of orthotropia. The response to surgery was derived from the difference between the preoperative and postoperative angle of deviation for distance per amount of muscle surgery in millimetres. A total of 124 cases were included in the study. Good motor outcome was achieved in 83 (67%) cases. There was a positive correlation between the preoperative angle of deviation at distance and dose response to surgery (r = 0.6 and p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between average corrected visual acuity and response (r = -0.21 and p = 0.025). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between preoperative stereopsis and response to surgery (p = 0.02). Surgical treatment for exotropia is effective and the dose response is correlated to the preoperative angle of deviation and average visual acuity. Poor or no preoperative stereopsis was associated with better response to surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the correlation between the degree of anisometropia with depth of amblyopia and presence of stereopsis. A retrospective chart review of 119 patients treated during 1995-2004 was carried out. All patients had undergone a full ophthalmological examination. Inclusion criteria were: anisometropia >1 diopter (spherical and/or cylindrical), age at first examination between 2 and 8 years, no previous optical correction, absence of ocular and neurological disorders, absence of ocular motility disorders, and minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean 7.9 +/- 4.3). Optical correction was prescribed at first visit and, at a second visit, the need for patching or penalization was evaluated. The results show a correlation between the degree of anisometropia and visual acuity at first visit (p < 0.001). There were, however, several subjects with good levels of visual acuity despite considerable anisometropia, and also subjects where mild or moderate anisometropia was sufficient to induce a severe amblyopia. Compared to other types of anisometropia, anisomyopic patients appeared to have a higher degree of binocular vision recovery when corrected optically. First evaluation with the presence of good stereoacuity seems to be a prognostic indicator for amblyopic recovery. This study demonstrates the difficulty of developing a guideline for screening and treatment of anisometropia. Even though there seems to be a correlation between type and degree of anisometropia in a majority of patients, there is also a significant number of cases that do not follow this pattern. Another important observation is the presence of binocular vision at the first evaluation as a good prognostic indicator for visual recovery with optical correction alone, even without penalization therapy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate heterotropia, heterophoria, head posture, nystagmus, stereo acuity, ocular motility and near point of convergence (NPC) in children with hydrocephalus treated surgically before 1 year of age. In addition, the effects of being born with hydrocephalus, the effect of the etiology of hydrocephalus, number of shunt revisions and the size of the ventricles on these variables were studied. A population-based study was performed in 75 children and the results were compared with the results of an age- and sex-matched group (comp group) (n = 140). Heterotropia 68.9% (comp group 3.6%; p < 0.001), abnormal head posture 41.3% (comp group 0; p < 0.001), nystagmus 44.0% (comp group 0; p < 0.001), stereo acuity < or =60'' 33.8% (comp group 97.1%; p < 0.001) and ocular motility defects 69.7% (comp group 0.7%; p < 0.001) were more common among children with hydrocephalus than in the comparison group. Children with overt hydrocephalus at birth had significantly more heterotropia (p = 0.0006), esotropia (p = 0.002), abnormal head posture (p = 0.02) and motility defects (p = 0.003) compared to those with hydrocephalus developing during the first year of life. The etiology, number of shunt revisions and the size of the ventricles had no significant effect on any of the investigated variables. Children with hydrocephalus surgically treated before the age of one year commonly present orthoptic abnormalities. The etiology of hydrocephalus, number of shunt revisions and ventricle size seem to be of minor importance compared with the age of onset of hydrocephalus with regard to the risk for orthoptic abnormalities.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Strabismus