Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (J IRRIG DRAIN E-ASCE)

Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers; American Society of Civil Engineers. Irrigation and Drainage Division; American Society of Civil Engineers. Water Resources Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers

Journal description

Provides a timely international compilation of peer-reviewed research papers on all phases of engineering hydrology, irrigation, drainage, and related water management subjects, such as watershed management, weather modification, water quality, ground water, and surface water. Papers review new developments and case studies detailing the analysis and design of trickle-irrigation laterals, geochemical factors affecting trace element mobility, canal system hydraulic modeling, unique problems in modeling irrigation canals, potential pitfalls of canal models, and more.

RG Journal Impact: 1.02 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2018Available summer 2019
20151.02
20141.36
20131.12
20121.16
20110.97
20101.31
20091.68
20081.04
20070.86
20061.03
20050.70
20040.76
20030.54
20020.46
20010.53
20000.44

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

Additional details

Cited half-life0.00
Immediacy index0.27
Eigenfactor0.00
Article influence0.36
Websitehttp://www.pubs.asce.org/journals/irrigation/
Website descriptionJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering website
Other titlesJournal of irrigation and drainage engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers irrigation and drainage engineering, Irrigation and drainage engineering, ASCE irrigation and drainage engineering, ASCE journal of irrigation and drainage engineering
ISSN0733-9437
OCLC8672531
Material typePeriodical, Internet resource
Document typeJournal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

For the last three decades, research focused on steep stepped chutes. Few studies considered flat-slope stepped geometries such as stepped storm waterways or culverts. In this study, experiments were conducted in a large, flat stepped chute (~3.4 degrees) based upon a Froude similitude. Three basic flow regimes were observed: nappe flow without hydraulic jump, transition flow, and skimming flow. Detailed air-water flow measurements were conducted. The results allow a complete characterization of the air concentration and bubble count rate distributions, as well as an accurate estimate of the rate of energy dissipation. The flow resistance, expressed in terms of a modified friction slope, was found to be about 2.5 times greater than in smooth-chute flow. A comparison between smooth- and stepped-invert flows shows that greater aeration and larger residence times take place in the latter geometry. The result confirms the air-water mass transfer potential of stepped cascades, even for flat slopes (<5 degrees).
This journal article was published in the journal, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering [© ASCE]. The definitive version is available at: http://cedb.asce.org On irrigation schemes with rotational irrigation systems in semiarid tropics, the existing rules for water allocation are based on applying a fixed depth of water with every irrigation irrespective of the crops, their growth stages and soils on which these crops are grown. However when water resources are scarce, it is necessary to allocate water optimally to different crops grown in the irrigation scheme taking account of different soils in the command area. Allocating water optimally may lead to applying less water to crops than is needed to obtain the maximum yield. In this paper, a three stage approach is proposed for allocating water from a reservoir optimally based on a deficit irrigation approach, using a simulation-optimization model. The allocation results with a deficit irrigation approach are compared for a single crop (wheat) in an irrigation scheme in India, firstly with full irrigation (irrigation to fill the root zone to field capacity) and secondly with the existing rule. The full irrigation with a small irrigation interval was equivalent to adequate irrigation (no stress to the crop). It is found that practising deficit irrigation enables the irrigated area and the total crop production in the irrigation scheme used for the case study to be increased by about 30- 45% and 20-40%, respectively over the existing rule and by 50% and 45%, respectively over the adequate irrigation. Allocation of resources also varied with soil types.
The determination of aquifer parameters is fundamental to groundwater resources assessment. This important topic has received much attention in the literature over many years. Singh (2008) presented a method for determination of parameters for an ideal confined aquifer, based on early drawdown data. The Theis well function (Theis 1935), the topic of interest here, arises as a core part of the analysis. It is, of course, essential that approximations to the Theis well function be robust and accurate so that reliable estimates of aquifer parameters are obtained. Two approximations for the Theis well function were presented by Singh (2008). The purposes of this discussion were (1) to examine these two approximations, in particular their relative error as reported by the author, and (2) to alert readers to an existing, easy-to-calculate approximation to the Theis well function.
The effect of the October 1983 floods in southeastern Arizona, on a previously established generalized envelope for floods expected once in 100 years (gioo). is studied. The design envelope is found to produce more conservative estimates of gioo than individual data sets find. The design envelope for gioo is revised to correct for some longer periods of record now available, and to be consistent with floods on a wider range of drainage area than previously considered. Additional design envelopes for floods expected once in 2 years (Qz) and once in 10 years (Qio) are prepared, and the three envelopes are used to provide conservative estimates of flood frequencies on ungaged watersheds in southeastern Arizona with drainage areas between 0.01 km2and 10,000 km2. A procedure is presented for developing regional flood frequency estimates that could be used in geographically and climatically homogeneous areas.
A method for assessing the impacts on streamflow resulting from withdrawing water from the stream channel or from shallow wells adjacent to the stream for irrigation is presented. Assessment is based on a detailed study at a base station on the stream. Monthly irrigation demands are estimated and added to measured streamflow to determine the natural streamflow. The natural streamflow is correlated with flow on a nearby watershed to develop an extensive series of monthly flows. The procedure produces probability distributions for average monthly flow for each month of the growing season, for different levels of irrigation usage. The flow distributions include the original variation and the additional variation produced by the irrigation withdrawal. The streamflow information developed can be combined with biological or water quality models to assess the impacts of reduced flow on instream biology, water quality, and treatment requirements of waste discharged to streams.
The temporal distribution of an irrigation water delivery and demand ratio was used to analyze the performance of an irrigation water delivery system in the Bhakra Canal Command in India. A high degree of mismatch was found to exist between water demand and supply. Based on historical canal deliveries, agroclimatic data, and crop production with dated inputs, yields of wheat, a major irrigated crop of the region, were simulated over a period of 20 years. It was found that crop production was constrained by 34% (20-year average) due to unfavorable water delivery characteristics. An evaluation was made of introducing auxiliary storage at the farm outlet level to modify the water delivery schedule. Based on the increase in crop yield due to improved distribution of water supply delivery and the cost of auxiliary storage (including the cost of pumping), it was found that auxiliary storage could be used to considerable economic advantage.
One basic principle of fluid mechanics used to resolve practical problems in hydraulic engineering is the Bernoulli theorem along a streamline, deduced from the work-energy form of the Euler equation along a streamline. Some confusion exists about the applicability of the Bernoulli theorem and its generalization to open-channel hydraulics. In the present work, a detailed analysis of the Bernoulli theorem and its extension to flow in open channels are developed. The generalized depth-averaged Bernoulli theorem is proposed and it has been proved that the depth-averaged specific energy reaches a minimum in converging accelerating free surface flow over weirs and flumes. Further, in general, a channel control with minimum specific energy in curvilinear flow is not isolated from water waves, as customary state in open-channel hydraulics.
Thirty well-established 240L bioretention mesocosms were used to investigate retention of dissolved nutrients by bioretention systems. Ten mesocosms were comprised of 80 cm sandy loam, ten of 80 cm loamy sand, and ten of pea gravel with 20 cm of loamy sand. Half were vegetated with shrubs/grasses, while the other half had no vegetation (barren). In the first part of our study, the loam and sand mesocosms were dosed with synthetic storm water comprising 0.8 mg L−1 total phosphorus (TP) and 4.8 mg L−1 total nitrogen (TN). TP retention in the vegetated loam was 91% compared to 73% in the barren, and TN retention was 81% compared to 41% in the barren loam. TP retention was 86–88% in the sand treatments, while TN retention in the vegetated sand was 64%, compared to 30% in the barren. In the second part of our study, all 30 mesocosms were loaded weekly with 45 cm of tertiary effluent with high nutrient loads (22.3 m year−1 hydraulic load at a flow-weighted average of 4.5 mg L−1 TP and 4.8 mg L−1 TN, or 1,012 kg ha−1 year−1 TP and 1,073 kg ha−1 year−1 TN). After 50 weeks of loading, cumulative TP retention was 92% in the vegetated loam, 67% in the sand, and 44% in the vegetated gravel. However, TP retention by barren media was 56% in the loam, 39% in the sand, and 14% in the gravel. Cumulative TN retention was 76% in the vegetated loam, 51% in the sand, and 40% in the vegetated gravel. In contrast, maximum TN removal by barren media was 18% in the loam. The increase in TP retention by vegetated systems substantially exceeds phosphorus uptake rates for plants, suggesting that other processes are involved. The increase in TN retention by vegetated systems also exceeds nitrogen uptake rates for plants, suggesting that denitrification is involved. Yes Yes
The flow features over the broad‐crested weir with vertical upstream wall and sharp‐crested corner are analyzed experimentally. Only the long‐crested weir is considered, for which the discharge coefficient remains practically constant. For a relative overflow depth between 10% and 40%, the surface profile, the bottom pressure profile, the boundary separation profile, and the velocity profiles close to the upper corner are self‐similar, provided effects of scale may be dropped. For extremely long‐crested weirs, undular flow occurs. The first wave profile is shown to be identical with the solitary wave profile. The main properties of the undular hydraulic jump are explored. The broad‐crested weir is characterized by insensitivity to tailwater submergence. The modular limit is found practically constant at 75% of the tailwater level, independent of the relative head on the weir. The discharge‐head relation for submerged flow is analyzed under a novel approach. Finally, recommendations are specified under which a broad‐crested weir may be used as a discharge measurement structure.
The hydraulics of broad-crested weirs is influenced by the weir inflow design. It is highlighted herein that the inflow geometry including the rounding of the weir upstream edge has a marked effect on the flow pattern and discharge coefficient. In the case of an upstream vertical wall, the optimum design includes a rounded upstream corner (Harrison 1967, Bos 1976, Montes 1998). An upstream side slope may provide an alternative design for embankment structure although with a lower discharge coefficient (Sargison and Percy 2009).
In this paper, two internal model control (IMC) controllers using gain-scheduling techniques are proposed and compared for open-channel systems that allow to deal with large operating conditions. In particular, in one side, a linear parameter varying (LPV) model for an open-flow channel system based on a second-order delay Hayami model is proposed. This model will allow one to design a classic gain-scheduling strategy for the IMC controller. On the other side, the LPV model is discretized in a set of linear time invariant (LTI) models corresponding to different operating points. For each LTI model a LTI IMC controller is designed off-line. Then, a supervised gain-scheduler detects on-line which is the LTI model that represents better the open-flow channel system at the current operating point and decides which is the LTI controller that should be used. Finally, both approaches will be applied to a simulated open canal: the Lunax gallery located at Gascogne, France.
In open channels, the relationship between the specific energy and the flow depth exhibits a minimum, and the corresponding flow conditions are called critical flow conditions. Herein they are re-analysed on the basis of the depth-averaged Bernoulli equation. At critical flow, there is only one possible flow depth, and a new analytical expression of that characteristic depth is developed for idealfluid flow situations with non-hydrostatic pressure distribution and non-uniform velocity distribution. The results are applied to relevant critical flow conditions : e.g., at the crest of a spillway. The finding may be applied to predict more accurately the discharge on weir and spillway crests.
In open channel flows, the relationship between specific energy and flow depth presents a singularity at critical flow conditions. Although the concept of critical flow was first introduced as a singularity of the backwater equation (Bélanger 1828), it was associated with the idea of minimum specific energy by Bakhmeteff (1912). This approach is now commonly used (Henderson 1966, Chanson 2004) including herein. Numerous solutions of the critical flow conditions were proposed for flat channels with hydrostatic pressure distributions. Herein solutions for non-hydrostatic pressure distribution flow situations are developed, and compared with experimental measurements.
This paper is devoted to the improvement of the measuring range of inverted V-notch (IVN) weir, a practical linear sharp-crested weir, designed earlier by the writers. The range of linearity of IVN can be considerably enhanced (by more than 200%) by the addition of a retangular weir of width 0.265W (W = half crest width) at a depth of 0.735d (d = altitude of IVN), above the crest of the weir, which is equivalent to providing at this depth two vertical straight lines to the IVN, resulting in a chimney-shaped profile; hence, the modified weir is named chimney weir. The design parameters of the weir, that is, the linearity range, base flow depth, and datum constant, which fixes the reference plane of the weir, are estimated by solving the nonlinear programming problem using a numerical optimization procedure. For flows through this weir above a depth of 0.22d, the discharges are proportional to the depth of flow measured above a reference plane situated at 0.08d above the weir crest for all heads in the range 0.22d <= h <= 2.43d, within a maximum percentage deviation of ±1.5 from the theoretical discharge. A significant result of the analysis is that the same linear head-discharge relationship governing the flow through the IVN is also valid for the extended chimney weir. Experiments with three different chimney weirs show excellent agreement with the theory by giving a constant average coefficient of discharge for each weir.
The most common types of weirs are the broad-crested weir, the sharp-crested weir, the circular-crested weir and nowadays the ogee crest weir. Advantages of the cylindrical weir shape include the stable overflow pattern, the ease to pass floating debris, the simplicity of design compared to ogee crest design and the associated lower costs. In this study, the authors describe new experiments of circular weir overflows, with eight cylinder sizes, for several weir heights and for five types of inflow conditions : partially-developed inflow, fully-developed inflow, upstream ramp, upstream undular hydraulic jump and upstream (breaking) hydraulic jump. Within the range of the experiments, the cylinder size, the weir height D/R and the presence of an upstream ramp had no effect on the discharge coefficient, flow depth at crest and energy dissipation. But the inflow conditions had substantial effects on the discharge characteristics and flow properties at the crest. Practically the results indicate that discharge measurements with circular weirs are significantly affected by the upstream flow conditions.
An approach for draining water from unsaturated soil is presented that utilizes a sloping system of a fine sand overlying a coarser sand or gravel. In this configuration, referred to as an unsaturated drainage layer, the sand laterally drains water that accumulates above the capillary break provided by the coarse material. Drainage capacity is maximized when the sand layer has sufficient moisture to be relatively conductive, yet remains unsaturated so as to prevent failure of the capillary break. Results from field tests indicate substantial downward infiltrating water can be laterally diverted with an unsaturated drainage layer. Numerical simulations are presented that illustrate the potential effectiveness of unsaturated drainage layers to divert sufficient infiltrating water and prevent the development of positive pore water pressures.
A dropshaft is an energy dissipator connecting two channels with a drop in invert elevation. The hydraulics of vertical rectangular shafts was systematically investigated in seven configurations. A particular emphasis was on the effects of shaft pool, outflow direction and drop height, while geometrically-similar shafts (scale 3.1:1) were studied using a Froude similitude. The results demonstrate that rectangular dropshafts with 90 degree outflow are the most efficient energy dissipators. The shaft pool and drop height have little effect on the rate of energy dissipation. Recirculation time results exhibited marked differences between flow regimes and the longest dimensionless residence times were observed at low flow rates. Although basic flow characteristics were similar between model and prototype, observations of dimensionless bubble penetration depths and recirculation times showed some discrepancy highlighting limitations of the Froude similitude for studies of air entrainment and residence times in dropshafts.
This is a journal article. The published version is at ASCE Civil Engineering Database (http://oedb.asce.org) Some irrigation schemes with limited water supply in Central and Southern India follow the area proportionate water distribution based on assumed uniform characteristics of the command area (planned schedule). However in most cases, this planned schedule is overridden by the practice in which users at head draw more than their share of water (actual schedule) due to human factors and technical limitations of the planned schedule. This practice is highly inequitable as users at tail end do not get any water. This paper considers alternative schedules based on full irrigation or deficit irrigation within the framework of area proportionate water distribution in such irrigation schemes and presents the simulation-optimisation technique to develop the corresponding land area and water allocation plan for different allocation units by considering the heterogeneity of the irrigation scheme. This paper further demonstrates the utility of proposed alternative schedules by comparing the productivity and equity of these schedules with planned and actual schedules for one irrigation scheme in Central India. The results show that the actual schedule reduces both productivity and equity greatly and the productivity and equity with the alternative schedules are higher than with the planned schedule. The results also show that deficit irrigation has great potential to increase both productivity and equity of irrigation schemes.
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method is widely used to estimate runoff from small- to medium-sized watersheds. The most critical assumption of the SCS method is that the ratio of the actual retention to the potential retention is the same as the ratio of actual runoff to potential runoff, but this assumption has not been theoretically nor empirically justified. This paper shows that the exact relationship between rainfall and runoff in the SCS method can be derived theoretically if two simple but reasonable assumptions are made: (1) The spatial variation of infiltration capacity has an exponential distribution; and (2) the temporal variation of rainfall rate also follows an exponential distribution. A theoretical basis for the SCS method allows an independent validation of the method by testing how rainfall intensity and infiltration capacity actually vary in time and space, respectively. Yes Yes
An approach for draining water from unsaturated soil is presented that utilizes a sloping system of a fine sand overlying a coarser sand or gravel. In this configuration, referred to as an unsaturated drainage layer, the sand laterally drains water that accumulates above the capillary break provided by the coarse material. Drainage capacity is maximized when the sand layer has sufficient moisture to be relatively conductive, yet remains unsaturated so as to prevent failure of the capillary break. Results from field tests indicate substantial downward infiltrating water can be laterally diverted with an unsaturated drainage layer. Numerical simulations are presented that illustrate the potential effectiveness of unsaturated drainage layers to divert sufficient infiltrating water and prevent the development of positive pore water pressures.
A dropshaft is an energy dissipator connecting two channels with a drop in invert elevation. The hydraulics of vertical rectangular shafts was systematically investigated in seven configurations. A particular emphasis was on the effects of shaft pool, outflow direction and drop height, while geometrically-similar shafts (scale 3.1:1) were studied using a Froude similitude. The results demonstrate that rectangular dropshafts with 90 degree outflow are the most efficient energy dissipators. The shaft pool and drop height have little effect on the rate of energy dissipation. Recirculation time results exhibited marked differences between flow regimes and the longest dimensionless residence times were observed at low flow rates. Although basic flow characteristics were similar between model and prototype, observations of dimensionless bubble penetration depths and recirculation times showed some discrepancy highlighting limitations of the Froude similitude for studies of air entrainment and residence times in dropshafts.
This is a journal article. The published version is at ASCE Civil Engineering Database (http://oedb.asce.org) Some irrigation schemes with limited water supply in Central and Southern India follow the area proportionate water distribution based on assumed uniform characteristics of the command area (planned schedule). However in most cases, this planned schedule is overridden by the practice in which users at head draw more than their share of water (actual schedule) due to human factors and technical limitations of the planned schedule. This practice is highly inequitable as users at tail end do not get any water. This paper considers alternative schedules based on full irrigation or deficit irrigation within the framework of area proportionate water distribution in such irrigation schemes and presents the simulation-optimisation technique to develop the corresponding land area and water allocation plan for different allocation units by considering the heterogeneity of the irrigation scheme. This paper further demonstrates the utility of proposed alternative schedules by comparing the productivity and equity of these schedules with planned and actual schedules for one irrigation scheme in Central India. The results show that the actual schedule reduces both productivity and equity greatly and the productivity and equity with the alternative schedules are higher than with the planned schedule. The results also show that deficit irrigation has great potential to increase both productivity and equity of irrigation schemes.
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method is widely used to estimate runoff from small- to medium-sized watersheds. The most critical assumption of the SCS method is that the ratio of the actual retention to the potential retention is the same as the ratio of actual runoff to potential runoff, but this assumption has not been theoretically nor empirically justified. This paper shows that the exact relationship between rainfall and runoff in the SCS method can be derived theoretically if two simple but reasonable assumptions are made: (1) The spatial variation of infiltration capacity has an exponential distribution; and (2) the temporal variation of rainfall rate also follows an exponential distribution. A theoretical basis for the SCS method allows an independent validation of the method by testing how rainfall intensity and infiltration capacity actually vary in time and space, respectively. Yes Yes
This paper presents a practical linear proportional weir of simple geometric shape in the form of an inverted V-notch or inward trapezium. The flow through this weir, of half-width w and altitude d, for depths above 0.22d is proportional to the depth of flow measured above a reference plane situated at 0.08d for all heads in the range 0.22d<=h<=0.94d, with a maximum percentage deviation of ±1.5 from the theoretical discharge. The linear relationship between head and discharge is based on numerical optimization procedures. Nearly 75% of the depth of inverted V-notch can be used effectively as the measuring range. Experiments with four weirs, with different vertex angles, show excellent agreement with the theory by giving an average coefficient of discharge for each weir varying from 0.61–0.62.

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