Pharmaceutical Research (PHARM RES-DORDR)

Publisher: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

Journal description

Pharmaceutical Research the official journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists publishes innovative basic research and reports of technological advances in the pharmaceutical-biomedical sciences. Research areas covered include: pharmaceutics and drug delivery pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics drug metabolism pharmacology and toxicology medicinal chemistry natural products chemistry analytical chemistry chemical kinetics and drug stability biotechnology pharmaceutical technology and clinical investigations. This monthly journal also presents articles on the social economic or management aspects of the pharmaceutical sciences. For more information including submission instructions and cumulative tables of contents please visit the Pharmaceutical Research Web page on the Web site for the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Current impact factor: 3.42

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.42
2013 Impact Factor 3.952
2012 Impact Factor 4.742
2011 Impact Factor 4.093
2010 Impact Factor 4.456
2009 Impact Factor 3.277
2008 Impact Factor 4.024
2007 Impact Factor 3.441
2006 Impact Factor 2.848
2005 Impact Factor 2.752
2004 Impact Factor 2.94
2003 Impact Factor 2.609
2002 Impact Factor 2.354
2001 Impact Factor 2.801
2000 Impact Factor 2.475
1999 Impact Factor 2.847
1998 Impact Factor 2.53
1997 Impact Factor 2.204

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.29
Cited half-life 9.50
Immediacy index 0.55
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.03
Website Pharmaceutical Research website
Other titles Pharmaceutical research (Online)
ISSN 0724-8741
OCLC 45690422
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Now published by Springer (1st Jan 2007)
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website
    • On institutional repository or funders designated website/repository after 12 months
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version: The original publication is available at
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors can deposit in PubMed Central for public release after 12 month embargo
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Mei Hu · Yu Zhang · Nanxi Xiang · Ying Zhong · Tao Gong · Zhi-Rong Zhang · Yao Fu
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study aimed to develop a sustained-release formulation of exenatide (EXT) for the long-term therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of type II diabetes. Methods: In this study, we present an injectable phospholipid gel by mixing biocompatible phospholipid S100, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) with 85% (w/w) ethanol. A systemic pre-formulation study has been carried out to improve the stability of EXT during formulation fabrication. With the optimized formulation, the pharmacokinetic profiles in rats were studied and two diabetic animal models were employed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of EXT phospholipid gel via a single subcutaneous injection versus repeated injections of normal saline and EXT solution. Results: With optimized formulation, sustained release of exenatide in vivo for over three consecutive weeks was observed after one single subcutaneous injection. Moreover, the pharmacodynamic study in two diabetic models justified that the gel formulation displayed a comparable hypoglycemic effect and controlled blood glucose level compared with exenatide solution treated group. Conclusions: EXT-loaded phospholipid gel represents a promising controlled release system for long-term therapy of type II diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Aiming to improve the dissolution rate of ezetimibe (EZE) and lovastatin (LOV) in a fixed dose combination (FDC), co-amorphous systems and ternary solid dispersions were prepared by quench cooling and spray drying, respectively. Methods: Formulations were characterized through X-ray diffraction, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction, and evaluated by 'in vitro' dissolution. Stability studies were conducted at different conditions during 30 days with the ternary solid dispersion composed of 75% of Soluplus® (ELS 1:1 75%). Results: Single phase co-amorphous systems made up of the pure drugs were not able to increase the dissolution rate of EZE and LOV. However, ternary solid dispersions achieved high dissolution for both compounds, especially when Soluplus® was used as carrier. The dissolution efficiency increased up to 18 (EZE) and 6 (LOV) times in ternary solid dispersions, compared to the crystalline drugs. ELS 1:1 75% preserved its amorphous state during 30 days, in different stability conditions. Conclusions: A spray dried ternary solid dispersion able to enhance the dissolution rate of two poorly soluble, therapeutically complementary drugs, is reported for the first time. These promising results open new perspectives for the development of more advanced FDCs.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Nanoparticle (NP) attachment to biocompatible secondary carriers such as red blood cell (RBC) can prolong blood residence time of drug molecules and help create next-generation nanotherapeutics. However, little is known about the impact of RBC-targeted NPs on erythrocyte function. Methods The objectives of this study were to develop and characterize in vitro a novel poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer-based NP containing fluorescent-tagged bovine serum albumin (BSA), and conjugated with ERY1, a 12 amino acid peptide with high affinity for the RBC membrane protein glycophorin A (ENP). Results Confocal and flow cytometry data suggest that ENPs efficiently and irreversibly bind to RBC, with approximately 70% of erythrocytes bound after 24 h in a physiologic flow loop model compared to 10% binding of NPs without ERY1. Under these conditions, synthesized ENPs were not toxic to the RBCs. The rheological parameters at the applied shear. (0–15 Pa) were not influenced by ENP attachment to the RBCs. However, at high concentration, the strong affinity of ENPs to the glycophorin-A reduced the deformability of the RBC. Conclusions ENPs can be efficiently attached to the RBCs without adversely affecting cellular function, and this may potentially enhance circulatory half-life of drug molecules.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The use of “Trojan Horse” nanocarriers for antibiotics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against susceptible and resistant bacteria is investigated. Methods Antibiotic carriers (CD-MAN and CD-GLU) are prepared from β-cyclodextrin grafted with sugar molecules (D-mannose and D-glucose, respectively) via azide-alkyne click reaction. The sugar molecules serve as a chemoattractant enticing the bacteria to take in higher amounts of the antibiotic, resulting in rapid killing of the bacteria. Results Three types of hydrophobic antibiotics, erythromycin, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, are used as model drugs and loaded into the carriers. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotics in the CD-MAN-antibiotic and CD-GLU-antibiotic complexes for Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains, and a number of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains, including the methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA), are reduced by a factor ranging from 3 to >100. The CD-MAN-antibiotic complex is also able to prolong the stability of the loaded antibiotic and inhibit development of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in the bacteria. Conclusions These non-cytotoxic sugar-modfied nanocarriers can potentiate the activity of existing antibiotics, especially against multidrug-resistant bacteria, which is highly advantageous in view of the paucity of new antibiotics in the pipeline.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Methods: A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration of a range of gabapentin doses (oral and intravenous). Results: The plasma/brain ECF concentration-time profiles of gabapentin were adequately described with a two-compartment plasma model with saturable intestinal absorption rate (K m = 44.1 mg/kg, V max = 41.9 mg/h∙kg) and dose-dependent oral bioavailability linked to brain ECF concentration through a transit compartment. Brain ECF concentration was directly linked to a sigmoid E max function describing reversal of hyperalgesia (EC 50, plasma = 16.7 μg/mL, EC 50, brain = 3.3 μg/mL). Conclusions: The proposed semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model provides further knowledge into the understanding of gabapentin's non-linear pharmacokinetics and the link between plasma/brain disposition and anti-hyperalgesic effects. The model suggests that intestinal absorption is the primary source of non-linearity and that the investigated rat model provides reasonable predictions of clinically effective plasma concentrations for gabapentin.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship between exposure of morphine and subsequent morphine consumption and to develop simulation tools for model validation. Methods: Dose, formulation and time of morphine administration was available from a published study in 63 patients receiving intravenous, oral immediate release or oral controlled release morphine on request after hip surgery. The PK-PD relationship between predicted exposure of morphine and morphine consumption was modeled using repeated time to event (RTTE) modeling in NONMEM. To validate the RTTE model, a visual predictive check method was developed with simulated morphine consumption given the exposure of preceding morphine administration. Results: The probability of requesting morphine was found to be significantly related to the exposure of morphine as well as night/day. Oral controlled release morphine was more effective than intravenous and oral immediate release formulations at equivalent average concentrations. Maximum effect was obtained for 8 h by oral controlled release doses ≥ 15 mg, where probability of requesting a new dose was reduced to 20% for a typical patient. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the first quantitative link between exposure of morphine and subsequent morphine consumption and introduces an efficient visual predictive check approach with simulation of adaptive dosing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop thermal methods to identify cocrystal systems with stoichiometric diversity. Methods: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM) have been applied to study the stoichiometric diversity phenomenon on cocrystal systems of the model compound salicylic acid (SA) with different coformers (CCFs). The DSC method was particularly useful in the identification of cocrystal re-crystallization, especially to improve the temperature resolution using a slower heating rate. HSM was implemented as a complementary protocol to confirm the DSC results. The crystal structures were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD). Results: Two new cocrystal systems consisting of salicylic acid-benzamide (SA-BZD, 1:1, 1:2) and salicylic acid-isonicotinamide (SA-ISN, 1:1, 2:1) have been identified in the present work. The chemical structures of the newly discovered cocrystals SA-BZD (1:2) and SA-ISN (2:1) have been elucidated using X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction methods. Conclusions: The developed thermal methods could rapidly identify cocrystal systems with stoichiometric diversity, with the potential to discover new pharmaceutical cocrystals in the future.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In biopharmaceutical development, information regarding higher-order structure (HOS) is important to verify quality and characterize protein derivatives. In this study, we aimed to characterize the association between HOS and pharmacokinetic property of a stress-exposed monoclonal antibody (mAb). Methods: Purity, primary structure, thermal stability, and HOS were evaluated for mAbs exposed to heat, photo-irradiation, and chemical oxidation. To investigate conformation of stress-exposed mAbs, hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was utilized. Results: No distinct difference in secondary or tertiary structure between stress-exposed and non-stressed samples was found by conventional spectroscopic techniques. In binding activity with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), however, a marked decline was observed for force-oxidized mAb and a slight decline was observed for heat- and photodegraded mAbs. Using differential scanning calorimetry, a change in thermal stability was observed in the CH2 domain for all the stress-exposed samples. Using HDX-MS analyses, individual regions with altered conformation could be identified for heat-degraded and force-oxidized samples. Conclusions: These findings indicate that comprehensive study is important for detecting conformational changes and helpful for predicting biophysical property, and that the evaluation of HOS using several analytical techniques is indispensable for confirming biopharmaceutical quality.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The objective of this study was to use a recently developed nasal dissolution, absorption, and clearance (DAC) model to evaluate the extent to which suspended drug particle size influences nasal epithelial drug absorption for a spray product. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mucociliary clearance and drug dissolution were used to calculate total and microscale epithelial absorption of drug delivered with a nasal spray pump. Ranges of suspended particle sizes, drug solubilities, and partition coefficients were evaluated. Results: Considering mometasone furoate as an example, suspended drug particle sizes in the range of 1-5 μm did not affect the total nasal epithelial uptake. However, the microscale absorption of suspended drug particles with low solubilities was affected by particle size and this controlled the extent to which the drug penetrated into the distal nasal regions. Conclusions: The nasal-DAC model was demonstrated to be a useful tool in determining the nasal exposure of spray formulations with different drug particle sizes and solubilities. Furthermore, the model illustrated a new strategy for topical nasal drug delivery in which drug particle size is selected to increase the region of epithelial surface exposure using mucociliary clearance while minimizing the drug dose exiting the nasopharynx.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Starting biotech or pharmaceutical companies is traditionally thought to be based around a scientist, their technology platform or a clinical candidate spun out from another company. Between us we have taken a different approach and formed two small early stage companies after initially leveraging the perspective of a parent with a child with a life-threatening rare disease. Phoenix Nest ( ) was co-founded to work on treatments for Sanfilippo syndrome a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder. In the space of just over 3 years we have built up collaborations with leading scientists in academia and industry and been awarded multiple NIH small business grants. The second company, Collaborations Pharmaceuticals Inc. ( ) was founded to address some of the other 7000 or so rare diseases as well as neglected infectious diseases. The Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher is likely the most important incentive for companies working on rare diseases with very small populations. This may also be partially responsible for the recent acquisitions of rare disease companies with late stage candidates. Lessons learned in the process of starting our companies are that rare disease parents or patients can readily partner with a scientist and fund research through NIH grants rather than venture capital or angel investors initially. This process may be slow so patience and perseverance is key. We would encourage other pharmaceutical scientists to meet rare disease parents, patients or advocates and work with them to further the science on their diseases and create a source of future drugs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to prepare wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-modified liposomes encapsulating clarithromycin and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: Physicochemical parameters, minimum inhibitory concentrations, in vitro killing kinetic, cellular uptake, biofilm formation inhibition and pre-formed biofilm destruction, biodistribution, in vivo antibacterial efficacy against MRSA, and phagocytosis into macrophages for liposomes loading clarithromycin were determined. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and the time-kill curve for WGA-modified liposomal clarithromycin were better than those of free and nonmodified liposomal clarithromycin. Flow cytometry analysis displayed that liposomes could deliver more Coumarin 6, a fluorescent probe, into bacteria because of the conjugation of WGA. Besides, WGA-modified liposomal clarithromycin inhibited formation of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and MRSA biofiom, and prompted the biofilm disassembly at lower concentrations below MIC. Effective accumulation of liposomes was displayed in the enterocoelia of the mice because of WGA. The number of MRSA colony-forming units in the kidney and spleen in mice treated with WGA-modified liposomal clarithromycin was significantly lower than that treated with free and nonmodified clarithromycin (p < 0.05). Intracellular localization of MRSA occurred in a significantly higher proportion of macrophage exposed to WGA-modified liposomes compared to those exposed to nonmodified liposomes. Conclusions: Liposome modified by WGA is a promising formulation for bacteria targeted delivery and immunity defensive system through macrophage improving uptake of bacteria, biodistribution, in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy against MRSA.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Discoloration of protein therapeutics has drawn increased attention recently due to concerns of potential impact on quality and safety. Investigation of discoloration in protein therapeutics for comparability is particularly challenging primarily for two reasons. First, the description of color or discoloration is to certain extent a subjective characteristic rather than a quantitative attribute. Secondly, the species contributing to discoloration may arise from multiple sources and are typically present at trace levels. Our purpose is to development a systematic approach that allows effective identification of the color generating species in protein therapeutics. Methods: A yellow-brown discoloration event observed in a therapeutic protein was investigated by optical spectroscopy, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry (MS). Results: Majority of the color generating species were identified as oxidatively modified protein. The location of the oxidized amino acid residues were identified by MS/MS. In addition, the impact of process-related impurities co-purified from media on discoloration was also investigated. Finally a semi-quantitative scale to estimate the contribution of each color source is presented, which revealed oxidized peptides are the major contributors. Conclusions: A systematic approach was developed for identification of the color generating species in protein therapeutics and for estimation of the contribution of each color source.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that encapsulation of influenza vaccine in microneedle patches increases vaccine stability during storage at elevated temperature. Methods: Whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) was formulated into dissolving microneedle patches and vaccine stability was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays of antigenicity and immunogenicity after storage for up to 3 months at 4, 25, 37 and 45°C. Results: While liquid vaccine completely lost potency as determined by hemagglutination (HA) activity within 1-2 weeks outside of refrigeration, vaccine in microneedle patches lost 40-50% HA activity during or shortly after fabrication, but then had no significant additional loss of activity over 3 months of storage, independent of temperature. This level of stability required reduced humidity by packaging with desiccant, but was not affected by presence of oxygen. This finding was consistent with additional stability assays, including antigenicity of the vaccine measured by ELISA, virus particle morphological structure captured by transmission electron microscopy and protective immune responses by immunization of mice in vivo. Conclusions: These data show that inactivated influenza vaccine encapsulated in dissolving microneedle patches has enhanced stability during extended storage at elevated temperatures.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Therapeutic proteins have become an integral part of health care. However, their controlled delivery remains a challenge. Protein function depends on a delicate three dimensional structure, which can be damaged during the fabrication of controlled release systems. This study presents a microgel-based controlled release system capable of high loading efficiencies, prolonged release and retention of protein function. Methods: A new DMSO/Pluronic microemulsion served as a reaction template for the crosslinking of poly(acrylic acid) and oligo (ethylene glycol) to form microgels. Poly(acylic acid) molecular weights and microgel crosslinking densities were altered to make a series of microgels. Microgel capacity to capture and retain proteins of different sizes and isoelectric points, to control their release rate (over ~30 days) and to maintain the biofunctionality of the released proteins were evaluated. Results: Microgels of different sizes and morphologies were synthesized. Loading efficiencies of 100% were achieved with lysozyme in all formulations. The loading efficiency of all other proteins was formulation dependent. Release of lysozyme was achieved for up to 30 days and the released lysozyme retained over 90% of its activity. Conclusions: High loading efficiencies and prolonged release of different proteins was achieved. Furthermore, lysozyme's functionality remained uncompromised after encapsulation and release. This work begins to lay the foundation for a broad platform for the delivery of therapeutic proteins.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research