[Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health (Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi Jpn J Publ Health)


Journal Impact: 0.21*

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Journal impact history

2016 Journal impact Available summer 2017
2015 Journal impact 0.21
2014 Journal impact 0.24
2013 Journal impact 0.24
2012 Journal impact 0.21
2011 Journal impact 0.23
2010 Journal impact 0.13
2009 Journal impact 0.15
2008 Journal impact 0.27
2007 Journal impact 0.24
2006 Journal impact 0.18
2005 Journal impact 0.18
2004 Journal impact 0.12
2003 Journal impact 0.13
2002 Journal impact 0.12
2001 Journal impact 0.13
2000 Journal impact 0.05

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Article influence 0.00
Website Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi / Japanese Journal of Public Health website
ISSN 0546-1766

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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives?To improve disaster preparedness, we investigated the response of medical relief activities managed by Iwate Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center during the post-acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011. Methods?The study divided the post-disaster period into three approximate time segments: Period I (time of disaster through late March), Period II (mid-April), and Period III (end of May in Miyako City, early July in Yamada Town). We reviewed records on medical relief activities conducted by medical assistance teams (MATs) in Miyako City and Yamada Town. Results?Miyako Public Health Center had organized a meeting to coordinate medical relief activities from Period I to Period III. According to demand for medical services and recovery from the local medical institutions (LMIs) in the affected area, MATs were deployed and active on evacuation centers in each area assigned. The number of patients examined by MATs in Miyako rose to approximately 250 people per day in Period I and decreased to 100 in Period III. However, in Yamada, the number surged to 700 in Period I, fell to 100 in Period II, and decreased to 50 in Period III. This difference could be partly explained as follows. In Miyako, most evacuees had consulted LMIs which restarted medical services after disaster, and the number of LMIs restarted had already reached 29 (94% of the whole) in Period I. In Yamada, most evacuees who had consulted MATs in Period I had almost moved to LMIs restarted in Period II. During the same time, a division of roles and coordination on medical services provision was conducted, such as MATs mainly in charge of primary emergency triage, in response to the number of LMIs restarted which reached 1 (20%) in Period I and 3 (60%) in Period II. Following Period III, more than 80% of patients in Miyako had been a slight illness, such as need for health guidance, and the number of people who underwent emergency medical transport reached pre-disaster levels in both locations. These results suggest that demand for medical services of evacuees declined to a stable level in an early stage of Period III. ?Using the above findings, one might justify supporting local medical institutions' recovery earlier. Then, medical relief activities might be finished properly. Conclusion?This study shows useful perspectives in the response of medical relief activities during post-acute phase after disaster and the importance of establishing systems for information management that apply these perspectives.
    Article · Feb 2016 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives This study aimed to explore the factors associated with information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.Methods The survey targeted South American Spanish-speaking migrants aged 18 years and older currently residing in Aichi Prefecture who had lived in Japan for at least three months and who had previously seen a doctor in Japan. The questionnaire was written in Spanish and the survey was conducted from April to July, 2010. Wilson's information behavior model was used to study information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among 245 respondents who completed the questionnaires (response rate: 58.9%). Experience seeking medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area was set as the dependent variable and a chi-square test was conducted to examine relationships with language support needs, recognition of and access to medical institutions with Spanish language support, living situation in Japan, and Japanese language skills.Results Among the 245 respondents, 106 were male (43.3%) and 139 were female (56.7%). The average age was 39.6±11.2 years old and 84.5% were Peruvian. The average length of residency in Japan was 11.0±5.7 years, and 34.3% of respondents had lived in Aichi for 5-9 years. A total of 165 respondents (67.3%) had searched for medical institutions with Spanish language support, while 80 (32.7%) had not. Information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support was associated with having previously experienced a need for Spanish language support when seeing doctors in Japan, finding and attending medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area, length of residency in Japan, Japanese language skills, and the language used in daily life.Conclusion Experience in requiring Spanish support when sick or injured in Japan motivated respondents to seek medical institutions with Spanish language support. Communication difficulties in Japanese, speaking Spanish in daily life, and length of residency in Japan were relevant factors in their information-seeking behaviors. Respondents were likely to obtain information from family, friends, co-workers, and Spanish media, but not from public institutions that distribute Spanish material. Finding an effective way to disseminate health-related information was a fundamental health issue for South American Spanish-speaking migrants.
    Article · Dec 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Responses and receptiveness to messages advocating health promotion are expected to vary according to differences in personal characteristics. To increase communication effectiveness, this study examined the differences in perceptions of the effectiveness of messages among Japanese adults by socioeconomic status and other characteristics. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was administered to residents aged 30-59 randomly selected in two cities (Yamaguchi and Iwakuni) of Yamaguchi prefecture. The questionnaire consisted of items on sociodemographic characteristics including sex, age, marital status, education, and household income; the perceived effectiveness of health messages; and other factors. The subjects were shown different messages on several themes (smoking cessation, cancer screening, weight gain) and asked to select those that they considered most effective. The associations between perception and subjects' sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed. Results A total of 445 subjects responded (response rate, 37.1%). The negative messages (health effects of risk behaviors) were generally perceived as the most effective. Sex, age, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the perceived effectiveness of health messages: higher income was significantly associated with secondhand smoke in the case of smoking cessation, lower income was associated with addiction in the case of drinking restraints, lower education and middle income were associated with affection, and lower income was associated with own expense in the case of cancer screening. Conclusion Despite some differences among the health themes, personal characteristics including age, sex, and marital and socioeconomic status were associated with the perceived effectiveness of health messages, and our results suggest that health communication may be made more effective by consideration of the sociodemographic characteristics of target populations and subjects.
    Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To create a "Health Promotion Checklist for Residents" to help promote healthy habits among local residents.Methods First, we investigated items for a health promotion checklist in the Health Japan 21 (2(nd) edition) and other references. Next, we conducted a questionnaire survey including these checklist items in August 2012. The study subjects were randomly selected Hatsukaichi city residents aged ≥20 years. Anonymous survey forms explaining this study were mailed to the investigated subjects and recovered in return envelopes. Data were compared by sex and age group.Results We created a checklist comprising a 23-item health promotion evaluation index with established scoring. There were 33 questions regarding health checkups; cancer screenings; dental checkups, blood pressure; glycated hemoglobin or blood glucose; dyslipidemia; body mass index; number of remaining teeth; breakfast, vegetable, fruit, and salt intake; nutrient balance; exercise; smoking; drinking; sleep; stress; and mental state. There were also questions on outings, community involvement, activities to improve health, and community connections. The questions were classified into six categories: health management, physical health, dietary and exercise habits, indulgences, mental health, and social activities. Of the 4,002 distributed survey forms, 1,719 valid responses were returned (recovery rate, 43.0%). The mean score by category was 1.69 (N=1,343) for health management, 6.52 (N=1,444) for physical health, 12.97 (N=1,511) for dietary and exercise habits, and 2.29 (N=1,518) for indulgences, all of which were higher for women, and 5.81 (N=1,469) for mental health, which was higher for men. The health management scores were higher among subjects in their 40s and 50s. The physical health score increased gradually with age from the 70 s and older to the 20 s, whereas the dietary and exercise habits increased gradually from the 20 s to the 70 s and older. The 20 s had high scores for indulgences, while mental health was low for the 20 s and 30 s and gradually increased from the 40 s to the 70 s and older. The social activities score (1.93; N=1,539) tended to be higher in the 40 s and older.Conclusion Here we created and attempted to validate a checklist that promotes healthy habits and found that subjects were able to use it to examine their living habits.
    Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Here we investigated the characteristics of users of an emergency system that tracks elderly people, known as the "elderly monitoring key ring." The relevance of a spreading policy or strategy and the user characteristics were investigated to develop programs conducted by local governments to manage unidentified elderly people with dementia.Methods A questionnaire was conducted in July 2013 in a district of the Ota Ward in Tokyo. The questionnaire was administered to residents >65 years of age (N=7,608), of which 5,166 (67.9%) responded. Fully completed responses (N=4,475) were analyzed with binomial logistic regression analysis using "monitoring key rings" as the dependent variable and simultaneously inputted sex, age, living arrangement, social isolation, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and complaints of memory loss as independent variables. Interviews were also conducted in August 2014 of the staff members (N=12) of six community comprehensive support centers in the Ota Ward.Results The logistic regression analysis results indicated that women used the monitoring key rings 1.64 times more often than men, late elderly used it 4.39 times more often than early elderly, elderly living alone used it 2.14 times more often than elderly not living alone, non-isolated people used it 1.36 times more often than isolated people, IADL non-independent people used it 1.50 times more often than independent people, and people with complaints of memory loss used it 1.37 times more often than those without such complaints. On the other hand, the results of interviews indicated that elderly people living alone, those with worries, and relatively young and healthy elderly people were targets. The main targets of community comprehensive support centers were elderly individuals living alone and early elderly individuals. The utilization rate of elderly people living alone was high; however, that of early elderly people was low. They recognized that people registered with the system tended to have high anxiety, be relatively young and highly independent, and register after learning about the system from their peers or through neighborhood associations.Conclusion Individuals who were female, late elderly, elderly living alone, non-isolated, IADL non-independent, or had complaints of memory loss were most likely to be registered with the key ring. The circumstance of registration which community comprehensive support centers recognize related to the low utilization rate of elderly people who are isolated. In the future, the system should be introduced to socially isolated as well as relatively young elderly people.
    Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives After bills to launch the Social Security and Tax Number System were enacted in 2013, health and political officials have considered the Healthcare Number System (the System). However, little is known about doctors' awareness and concerns about the System. This study aimed to measure how many doctors disagree with the System, examine the doctors' characteristics, and analyze the benefits and harms of the System that they identified.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted of doctors via the Internet. The participants were selected from a convenience sample of a panel of doctors based on stratified sampling including four groups: working at a hospital and <45 years; working at a hospital and ≥45 years; working at a clinic and <45 years; and working at a clinic and ≥45 years. The main outcome was how many doctors agreed or disagreed with the System. The prevalence was calculated for each group, and their characteristics were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The responses to open-ended questions concerning the Systems' benefits and harms were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results There were 562 respondents (68%). By group, 16/143 (11%), 25/138 (18%), 31/132 (23%), and 43/149 (29%) doctors, respectively, thought that the System was unnecessary. The variables that correlated with the main outcome were age (per 5 years; odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.14 [1.01-1.29]) and type of medical facility (working at a clinic; 1.99 [1.30-3.08]). The doctors identified that unifying information could decrease administrative duties, facilitate inter-facility collaboration, and prevent inappropriate medical consultations. This could result in decreased healthcare costs and personalized healthcare. However, the doctors also identified that integrating information and dealing with big data could increase information leakage and information management, cause over-monitoring of doctors, and enable the inappropriate use of integrated information. This could result in deteriorating healthcare. Since some information should not be integrated, the System raises ethical considerations about privacy.Conclusion Among the doctors surveyed here, 10-30% thought the System was unnecessary. These respondents tended to be older and work at a clinic. The System could decrease the cost of healthcare and enable personalized healthcare but could also increase information leakage and information management, cause over-monitoring of doctors, and enable the inappropriate use of integrated information. Prior to System introduction, we should facilitate consensus-building about protecting and utilizing personal information as well as consider the related ethical issues, and doctors' characteristics and concerns.
    Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives In order to promote high-quality healthcare activities, public health professionals such as public health nurses must improve their ability to systematically show health needs based on evidence and to lead decision making of superior officers and facility inhabitants for improved planning. This study developed and investigated its reliability and validity of an action scale to show the necessity of healthcare activities (SNH).Methods The items in the SNH were originally selected based on previous studies and refined by researchers; they were subsequently adjusted after a pilot survey. The subjects were full-time public health nurses (PHNs) working at prefectural public health centers or randomly chosen municipal health centers. Questionnaires were distributed by mail. We explained the ethical considerations in writing and those who returned completed questionnaire forms were considered to have given their consent to participate in the study. The study plan was approved by the university Domestic Ethics Committee.Results Among 1,615 questionnaire recipients, 1,088 (67.4%) responded; of these, 1,035 (64.1%) responses were valid. Nineteen of 20 items were selected based on results of item analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the SNH consisted of four factors: show existence of health needs, show evidence for the necessity of addressing health needs, show actual conditions requiring solution, and show priority for resolution. Cronbach's alpha, an SNH reliability coefficient, was 0.948, and individual factor scores were over 0.85, supporting the internal consistency of SNH. The correlation coefficient between SNH and the three other scales including related concepts was 0.6-0.8, with significant differences between scales, supporting the criterion-related validity of SNH. The score increased with increasing PHN experience and job seniority, which were used as the known-group, with significant differences between the lowest group and the top two groups.Conclusion The results confirmed that SNH is a reliable and valid scale to show the necessity of healthcare activities.
    Article · Aug 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives This study investigated 1) the incidence of bicycle-related accidents and subsequent injuries and 2) the number of injuries (accidents) reported to the police (i.e., examining the number of potential accidents) among community-dwelling Japanese older adults, after examining the percentage of those who were regular cyclists. Methods Based on local resident registration, we mailed questionnaires to 7083 community-dwelling older adults. The questionnaire included questions about the incidence of bicycle-related accidents and subsequent injury within a year, the degree of injury and presence or absence of reporting that injury (bicycle-related accident) to the police. For the bicycle-related accident, we asked regarding both riding and pedestrian accidents (i.e., accidents caused by a bicycle when walking). Results Excluding the blank responses (n=3539, 50.0%), the targets for analysis were 3098 older adults in riding accidents and 2861 older adults in pedestrian accidents. The results showed that 63.0% of older adults (n=1953) routinely rode a bicycle. Among them, 9.4% (n=184) experienced riding accidents, and 3.4% (n=98) experienced pedestrian accidents caused by a bicycle. For the riding accidents, 76.1% (n=140) had some injuries, and for the pedestrian accidents, 55.1% (n=54) had some injuries. Furthermore, in 70.2% (n=59) and 76.9% (n=20) of riding and pedestrian accidents, respectively, those who went to the hospital for treatment of their injury (i.e., injury requiring treatment) did not report the accident to the police. Conclusion The present study revealed that there are many potential bicycle-related accidents in older adults. This suggests that there may be a large gap in the national survey data between reported bicycle-related accidents and the actual number of incidents in older adults.
    Article · Jul 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: "Quitline" is a telephone helpline that advises smokers who are contemplating quitting. Many countries, including East Asian countries, have been conducting nationwide quitline services; however, this has not been conducted in Japan. The aim of this study was to characterize quitline services abroad and review their efficacy in helping smokers quit, in order to determine an appropriate scheme for Japan. Methods: We investigated the present condition of quitline in Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States, and the United Kingdom, focusing on its modalities. Subsequently, we searched "Medline"and "Cochrane Database of Systematic Review"using free text terms of "hotlines"and "smoking cessation"to review the efficacy of the modalities used by the quitline services. Relevant articles from the reference lists were also identified. Results: In Asia Pacific countries, various tools were used by the quitline services, including a quit booklet, website, mobile phone service, and e-mail. Some of these countries conducted proactive counseling by a quitline counselor. There have been several meta-analyses and randomized-control trials showing the efficacy of individually tailored materials in quitline services. To introduce an effective quitline service in Japan, it is desirable to provide individually tailored materials. In addition, as Japanese smokers can easily access smoking cessation advice in hospitals, health check-up settings, and pharmacies, quitline services should be connected with this infrastructure. Conclusion: To introduce an effective nationwide quitline service in Japan, it is necessary to provide various individually tailored materials that complement the smoking cessation infrastructure.
    Article · Jul 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: An outbreak of autochthonous dengue fever was reported in August 2014, with cases suspected mainly from Yoyogi Park in Tokyo. This is the first epidemic of dengue fever in Japan since 1945. Methods: From August to October 2014, the following measures were taken to control the outbreak: 1) risk communication and information sharing; 2) active case finding; 3) vector surveillance in affected sites; and 4) laboratory testing. We also reviewed the surveillance data as reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases during the 44 epidemiological weeks. results: An official dengue fever call center was set up temporarily for the general public and 3,005 calls were received. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government issued 39 press releases regarding patients and nine related to dengue virus (DENV) detection and vector control activities for the media. Confirmed autochthonous dengue fever cases were reported between the 35th and 44th epidemiological weeks. Out of 160 cases of outbreak, 108 (67.5%) confirmed cases were reported in Tokyo. The estimated illness onset dates were between August 9 and October 7, and estimated dates of infections were between August 3 and October 3, 2014. The data suggest that the infective mosquitoes had already been present in Yoyogi Park at the end of July 2014. During the weekly vector surveillance at Yoyogi Park, a total of 1,152 adult mosquitoes, of which 856 (73.3%) were Aedes mosquitoes, were collected over 11 weeks by a light trap with dry ice. DENV was detected from adult Aedes mosquito samples collected on the 2nd, 9th, and 16th of September, 2014. Serum samples from 240 suspected cases were examined at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, and 78 were positive for the DENV NS1 antigen, DENV-specific IgM antibody, or DENV nucleic acid with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (NS1: 66 cases; IgM: 50 cases; PCR: 57 cases). Genetic analysis of DENV-positive serum and mosquito samples found all to be categorized as DENV-serotype 1 (gene type I). Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from patients and mosquitoes in Tokyo revealed more than 99% similarity with each other and with the strain from the first outbreak-associated patient in Saitama. Conclusion: Measures important for control of infectious disease epidemic were learned during this recent indigenous dengue outbreak in Tokyo. It also highlighted the importance of preparedness for epidemics of indigenous or imported infectious diseases, especially in light of the fact that Tokyo is in preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020.
    Article · Jun 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare the risk-recognition of avian influenza between poultry farmers and the general population. Methods: To obtain health-related data, including the participants' awareness of avian influenza, their recognition of potential infection, and their risk image, or their level of fear and understanding an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was administered. We measured the risk image on a 7-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 7 representing the highest risk image. Using their responses from 8 questions (4 per factor), We then calculated and averaged the scores to obtain the fear factor and unknown factor scores. Results: This questionnaire was completed by 310 of 1,000 (31.0%) members of the general population and 198 of 976 (20.3%) poultry farmers. The two groups differed significantly in terms of their overall awareness and understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome (odds ratio=0.49 P=.003), with the general population scoring significantly lower than the poultry farmers. The risk image scores showed significant differences in fear factor (β=-0.89, P<.001) and unknown factor (β=0.74, P<.001), with the risk image for the fear factor being lower and that of the unknown factor being higher in the general population when compared with the poultry famers. Conclusion: We found there to be a definite gap in the recognition of avian influenza between the two subject groups.
    Article · Jun 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To clarify the proportion of HIV patients who inform their physicians of the actual route of transmission and the factors related to non-disclosure in order to improve conditions to support open disclosure in healthcare settings. Methods: We conducted an anonymous self-completed online questionnaire between September and December 2010 of people with HIV. The data from 237 subjects living in Japan were analyzed. To identify factors causing patients to not be truthful to their physicians, odds ratios and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, with "discrepancy between the actual route of HIV transmission and the route reported to the physician' as a dependent variable, and sex, age, residential area, route of transmission, presence or absence of consent to undergo HIV testing, time since being diagnosed as infected with HIV, and favorability of physician responses as independent variables. Results: The proportions of patients who had informed their physicians of actual and false routes of HIV transmission were 75.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Among subjects reporting homosexual contact, 97.5% reported the actual route. On the other hand, among subjects reporting heterosexual contact, only 64.3% reported the actual route while 28.6% actually had homosexual contact. Furthermore, 47.4% of the subjects who reported their routes of HIV transmission as sexual contact, but did not disclose whether the contact had been homosexual or heterosexual, actually had homosexual contact. On comparing subjects who had evaluated responses from their physicians favorably and unfavorably, the proportion of those reporting a false route of transmission was significantly higher in the latter group, with the odds ratio being 2.51 (95% CI: 1.26-5.01). Conclusion: AIDS Surveillance Committee reports of HIV and AIDS cases attributed to a homosexual route of infection may be lower than actual numbers. The most common factor related to non-disclosure was the perception of unfavorable responses from physicians; improvements to support open disclosure are thus needed.
    Article · Jun 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The effects of a comprehensive intervention program for community-dwelling elderly on frailty and dietary habits were examined. Methods: We conducted randomized control trials to examine the efficacy of the intervention. To examine lasting changes, we made paired comparisons between pre- and post- intervention and at a three-month follow-up. The subjects were recruited in Hatoyama town, Saitama prefecture. The program was composed of exercise, nutritional education, and social participation and was held from October to December 2011. The exercise program aimed at fall prevention and took place twice per week for 60 min. The nutritional education aimed at prevention of malnutrition, and the social participation program aimed at prevention of "homeboundness"; both were held once per week for 30 min. Questionnaires inquired about frailty and dietary variety. A blood test was conducted to ascertain nutritional state, and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to estimate food and nutrient intake. To examine the efficacy of the intervention, 22 control subjects (CR) and 21 subjects in the intervention group (IV) were analyzed with intention to treat. To examine lasting changes, 16 subjects in IV who correctly completed surveys at each of the three time points were analyzed, using repeated ANOVA and a multiple comparison procedure. Results: 1. Men comprised 70-80% of subjects, and the average age was 75.7±5.4 and 74.7±5.4 years in IV and CR, respectively. 2. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-intervention changes between IV and CR in frailty, which was the main outcome of the study. 3. A significant difference in pre- and post-intervention values was noted in ① "homeboundness", one of the components of frailty (median [25-75%tile]): IV 0 [0-0] and CR 0 [0-1] (P=0.023); ② nutrient intake (mean±standard deviation [SD], energy ratio [%E]): protein, IV 2.3±0.7 and CR -0.3±2.0 (P=0.002); animal protein, IV 2.4±1.5 and CR -0.5±1.5 (P=0.002); and ③ food intake (mean±SD, g/1000 kcal): fish, IV 18.1±25.1 and CR -4.1±21.9 (P=0.004); egg, IV 5.0±11.2 and CR -2.1±11.3 (P=0.046). All variables improved in IV. 4. Lasting improvement was observed in "homeboundness" and protein intake [%E]. Conclusion: Although the intervention did not improve frailty, it may improve frailty and dietary habits by improving homeboundness and increasing protein intake.
    Article · Jun 2015 · [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health