International Journal of Anthropology (Int J Anthropol)

Publisher: European Anthropological Association, Springer Verlag

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Other titles International journal of anthropology
ISSN 0393-9383
OCLC 15161412
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are 705 tribes in India located in five major tribal belts across the country. Jhargram is the main tribal area. However, there are no studies on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection in these areas. Therefore, the present study was conducted to report the prevalence of HIV infection among the people of the tribal dominated areas of West Bengal. Overall, in the present study, 9.9% of the people were found to be infected with HIV. It was observed that the prevalence of HIV infection was significantly higher among tribal people (16.3%) than among the higher hereditary castes (general cast 3.9%). More impor- tantly, the prevalence of HIV infection was identical in Other Backward Class (OBC) (10.0 %) and Scheduled Castes (SC) (10.0%). Furthermore, the rate of HIV infection rose with social class (x2=13.801, p<0.001). Moreover, tribal peoples were 4.8 (odds ratio (OR)= 4.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91– 12.55) times more likely of contracting the HIV virus than the general castes. And have a 1.75 (OR (OBC) = 1.75, 95% CI: 0.76 – 4.09; OR (SC) = 1.75 95% CI: 0.71 – 4.44) times greater risk of contracting the HIV virus than the OBC and SC, respectively (in the present study among the population of West Bengal, India). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) play a fundamental role in educating these groups and raising awareness. However, more AIDS awareness education in tribal languages is urgently needed.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Anthropology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Anthropology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of 410 (210 men and 200 women) older (≥55years) Bengalee Hindus of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to determine which measure of abdominal adiposity best relates with body mass index (BMI), an indicator of overall adiposity. Three measures of abdominal adiposity were studied: waist circumference (WC), waist–hip ratio (WHR), and conicity index (CI). Results revealed that, in both sexes, WC had the strongest partial (age controlled) correlations with BMI (men = 0.56, women = 0.80). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that BMI had the strongest significant impact on WC in both sexes. BMI alone accounted for 28.2 and 61.8% variation in WC in men and women, respectively. This strongest significant impact remained even after controlling for age. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that WC can be preferred over WHR and CI in studies dealing with BMI among older Bengalee Hindus. In particular, BMI and WC can be useful in studies dealing with aging and anthropometric characteristics among older Bengalees.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study of 191 adult (>18years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency (CED). Results revealed that the mean height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were 162.2cm, 54.0kg, and 20.5kg/m2, respectively. The overall frequency of CED (BMI < 18.5kg/m2) was 33.5%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of CED among this population was high (20–39%) and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income (MFI) was significantly positively correlated (r = 0.18, p < 0.05) with BMI. Linear regression analyses showed that MFI had significant impact (p < 0.05) on BMI. The percent variation in BMI explained by MFI was 2.6%. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group (FIG) had the lowest mean BMI (19.5kg/m2) and the highest rate of CED (46.6%) while those in the highest FIG had the largest mean BMI (21.4kg/m2) and lowest rate of CED (23.1%). There was a significant FIG difference (F = 2.965, p < 0.05) in mean BMI. Moreover, there existed FIG differences (χ 2 = 7.54, p < 0.06) in CED rates. In conclusion, this study provided strong evidence that FIG was significantly associated with BMI and the presence of CED. The rate of CED was high, indicating a serious situation. These findings may have severe public health implications. It is recommended that immediate nutritional intervention programs be initiated among this population along with serious efforts to increase their family income.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: Due to forced population movements from southeastern Europe to the neighboring countries, for many refugees or displaced persons there have been problems in various domains of life, including health problems. The aim of this study is to focus on the general health and psychological stress of youths and to investigate the elements producing the health problems linked to the mental and psychological disorders of youths in six countries. The target population is composed of adolescents who were between 15 and 18years of age in 2003 and who immigrated into a new country between 1990 and 2000. From this analysis, a profile emerges of an adolescent who, independently of immigrant or native status, reveals an unexpected fragility. This is manifested through a nonoptimal perception of his/her state of health that is not confirmed by recognized pathologies. This discrepancy between perceived and objective state of health is a psychological state that is produced by a wide variety of factors, and results in reduced self-esteem and dissatisfaction with life. It is manifested in a difficulty in accepting one’s self-image. This produces the difficulty the youths experience in accepting a self-image that has been deformed by reality, with consequent pathologies involving the alimentary disorders which have become a phenomenon of the new forms of society.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: This article, part of a wider study on fertility dynamics in Kenya, attempts to synthetically reconstruct the evolution of the Kenyan population structure over the past 60 years, following the development of population policies adopted by the Kenyan government. It emphasizes the importance and the necessity of political participation in order to restrain the population growth that, in a country such as Kenya, aggravates the existing deficiencies in the field of nutrition and hygiene. The article also takes a brief look at the future prospects of Kenya.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: The Y chromosome of 523 Italian male subjects was examined for the 49a,f TaqI haplotype XII and for two microsatellites, YCAIIa and YCAIIb. Results were then compared to other populations living in the western Mediterranean basin whom we had previously studied: 419 French (including 328 Corsicans), 46 Italians from Milan, and 73 Tunisians. Haplotype XII is present in 127 out of the 1061 examined samples (11.9%), and most of the haplotype XII subjects are of the compound haplotype YCAIIa-21 and YCAIIb-11. Two peaks of haplotype XII frequencies occur in the north of Sardinia (35%) and in the central area of Corsica (17.4%).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: Increased mortality and morbidity including congenital malformations among the offspring of consanguineous marriages have been widely reported in human populations from different parts of the world. However, there are few studies on the effect of the intensity of inbreeding and different degrees of inbreeding on mortality and morbidity. The present study is an attempt to examine the effects of inbreeding on mortality and morbidity including congenital disorders in different levels of inbreeding among Telugu-speaking populations of Kharagpur, West Bengal, India, based on data collected through extensive pedigrees. The study reveals that the frequency of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths is higher in the offspring of consanguineous marriages than in that of non-consanguineous marriages. A similar effect is also observed in the infant mortality rate, which is known to have a genetic component, but is not seen in the mortality rate of children and juveniles. The rate of morbidity is consistently higher in the offspring of consanguineous marriages with a sex bias in favour of inbred females. The increased morbidity rates in inbred individuals tend to be inversely correlated with the increase in average autosomal inbreeding coefficient. This appears to strengthen Sanghvi’s hypothesis of a decline in the frequency of deleterious genes with intensification of inbreeding through generations. The present study also confirms an increase in genetic disorders with an increase in inbreeding in almost all populations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: While a large number of studies on secular trends have been performed on measures of stature, weight, trunk and limb dimensions, subcutaneous fatness and body composition, etc., less attention has been paid to cephalo-facial traits. This study reports on secular trends in five cephalo-facial traits (head length, head breadth, head circumference, bizygomatic breadth and morphological facial height) and two indices (cephalic index and facial index) in Bengalee Hindu boys between ages 7.0 and 16.0years. The data set comes from two cross-sectional growth surveys carried out among the students of one particular Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) boys school with an interval of about 20years (1982–1983 and 1999–2001). Identical protocol with respect to sampling, data collection, measuring technique and data analysis has been followed in both surveys. Except for morphological facial height (which showed negative secular trends), the other four cephalo-facial traits showed positive secular trends with varying magnitudes over the two decades. Cephalic index did not reveal any consistent pattern of change, while facial index showed a declining trend in the later survey.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of contributions on secular change in the growth pattern of Hungarian children and youth over the past 100years. We note how some absolute body dimensions have changed and what modifications are discernible in the rate of growth and comment on the effects these had on body shape. We also touch upon the inferences about the timing of the secondary sex characteristics and the age at menarche and oigarche. Under the assumption that growth and maturation patterns depend on the environment, we analyse and compare the growth data of subpopulations living under diverse socio-economic conditions. We also attempt to outline divergent trends in their physical development.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · International Journal of Anthropology