IATSS Research

Publisher: Elsevier

RG Journal Impact: 1.00 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2017 RG Journal impactAvailable summer 2018
2015 / 2016 RG Journal impact1.00
2014 RG Journal impact1.16
2013 RG Journal impact1.47
2012 RG Journal impact0.73
2011 RG Journal impact0.39
2010 RG Journal impact0.10
2009 RG Journal impact0.30
2008 RG Journal impact0.40
2007 RG Journal impact0.17
2006 RG Journal impact0.13
2004 RG Journal impact0.12

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

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  • This study aims to determine spinal injury patterns and identify crash factors commonly associated with serious spinal injury as a result of motorcycle crashes. Data was retrospectively collected from motorcyclists sustaining spinal injuries from road crashes treated at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia, over the 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Each patient's injuries were analyzed by reviewing his or her medical records for radiographic imaging and computed tomography scans.A total of 151 patients were included in this study, of which, males accounted for over 87%. The first lower lumbar (L1) was the most commonly injured vertebral level, followed by the adjacent thoracic vertebra (T12). Fracture to the vertebral body without dislocation was found to be the most frequently observed spinal injury pattern. Injury severities for a majority of patients (65%) were measured at Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) of 2. Serious spinal injury was associated with thorax or upper-extremity injury.Prevalence of lumbar spinal injury in the study reflects a predominantly low-speed crash among the motorcyclist in the region. Motorcyclists are at greater odd to sustain severe spinal injury when directly striking an object compare to striking the ground during the crash event. © 2017 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences.
  • The term ‘scenario’ is used in the safety field to designate a prototype or a model of an accident process characterised by chains of facts, actions, causal relations and consequences in terms of damage to people and property. The prototypical scenarios, properly realized, provide a basis on which to consider the action to be taken, but also a concrete backup for accident information for use in information campaigns or training. The objective of this study is to define the prototypical accident scenarios for a particular configuration of road intersection: the skewed intersection. Limited sight distance at skewed intersections leads to safety issues. A non-skewed intersection provides the best operating conditions as drivers can easily sense the direction in which they are travelling, estimate the speeds of the opposing traffic and smoothly complete a maneuver in shorter time. In skewed intersections, instead, the ability of drivers to recognize any conflicting vehicles diminishes in comparison to right-angle intersections. The logical-deductive approach used in this paper for the determination of accident scenarios is based on an analysis of a large database of incidents, which occurred on several roads in eastern Sicily on 35 skewed intersections at three-legs. The skew angle of the minor leg of all the intersections studied is between 15° and 20°. This research allowed to develop accident scenarios related to particular configurations of intersections, compatible with the Italian rules. Prototypical scenarios are constructed using samples of accidents occurring on a particular type of study area, especially when they are based on files from in-depth investigations. The method used is an inductive approach, based on an examination of each case, grouping together similar cases and building a prototypical scenario using this case grouping. From the in-depth analysis of database accidents 9 prototypical accident scenarios have been identified for the skewed intersections.
  • This paper discusses the potential conflicts that can arise when trying to design a transport system to be sustainable, safe and accessible. The paper considers first the overarching vision that drives such an aim and how that determines choices for design and implementation of such schemes. Using the example of a shared space project, Exhibition Road in London, to illustrate how these issues come to arise and how research could help to resolve them, the paper then considers how science is able to support better design and implementation. This raises questions for scientific methods that could support better consideration of such issues, learning from the small-samples analysis of transport safety research to be amplified to include the detailed research that drives accessible design.
  • This study aims to develop a framework to estimate travel time variability caused by traffic incidents using integrated traffic, road geometry, incident, and weather data. We develop a series of robust regression models based on the data from a stretch in California's highway system during a two-year period. The models estimate highway clearance time and percent changes in speed for both downstream and upstream sections of the incident bottleneck. The results indicate that highway shoulder and lane width factor adversely impact downstream highway clearance time. Next, travel time variability is estimated based on the proposed speed change models. The results of the split-sample validation show the effectiveness of the proposed models in estimating the travel time variability. Application of the model is examined using a micro-simulation, which demonstrates that equipping travelers with the estimated travel time variability in case of an incident can improve the total travel time by almost 60%. The contribution of this research is to bring several datasets together, which can be advantageous to Traffic Incident Management.
  • In Japan, the number of people with intellectual disabilities has been increasing and efforts are being made to improve their access to public facilities and transport. Although the Japanese government has published a guidebook on effective communication with people with intellectual disabilities and a list of accessibility-related recommendations for property developers, the fact is there has been insufficient research on problems with this population's mobility and the inadequate coordination among stakeholders. As a result, the treatment they receive is not always acceptable. In this study, we explore the public transport needs of people with intellectual disabilities and the need for children with such disabilities to commute to special needs schools. This presented an opportunity to look at providing them with training in the use of public transport. To that end, we examined two progressive initiatives from overseas—one in Curitiba, Brazil and the other in Nordhorn, Germany—to consider whether their ideas could be adapted for use in Japan. Curitiba uses a special needs school bussing system that prioritizes transport efficiency over convenience by making students change buses at a central transfer station. Our study showed that while a support system is needed to help students change buses, compared to the current situation in Japan, there may be the potential for reduced travel time. Also, we could expect a significant educational effect from students engaging in group behaviors related to interacting with a variety of people while changing buses within a prescribed time. Further, it showed that implementing such a system would require consensus building among the schools that would use it and the acquisition or construction of a central transfer terminal. Nordhorn employs a public transport operator-led training program to teach students how to commute to school on public buses. In this study, we conducted a proof-of-concept training program based on a field study of Nordhorn's practices. The results showed that an educational effect was derived from the participation of the bus company in the training—one that could not have been obtained through the participation of teachers and parents only. We also found that there were several issues to address regarding the program's implementation, such as the need for the roles of the school and bus company to be clearly defined. Overall, our findings suggested that to actually implement mobility support in school commuting environments in a way that will improve the mobility of intellectually disabled people requires not only the cooperation of schools, but also contributions from transport operators, road administrators, and traffic administrators. Because the contributions of these entities are essential, awareness-raising activities and a system for promoting common understanding among them are vital.
  • In some circumstances on streets equipped with new bike facilities, cyclists are not interested in using them. Instead, they continue to use shared spaces with pedestrians or motor vehicles. Thus, simply adding a bike facility does not guarantee that cyclists will switch to using it. Owing to the considerable development of bike facilities, the investigation of facility preference, particularly focusing on facility choice forecast, has become increasingly important. This study developed a model for predicting the facility choice of cyclists between on-street facilities (curb, traffic lane, and bike lane (BL)) and off-street facilities (sidewalks). Initially, the optimal model was selected using Bayesian Model Averaging method. Then, it was validated by both internal and external validations. Apart from the aforementioned factors, several other exogenous variables were also found to be significant predictors of bike facility choice, including the width of traffic lanes, existence of real-time stopping vehicle, type of bike, bus stop existence, and in-group cycling. Analysis of the relative importance of predictors indicated that bus stop existence, effective sidewalk width, and type of bike were the potential predictors. A framework for predicting BL usage, if it is present, was also developed. A test for the predictive performance of the application at a real site was carried out. By comparing predicted and actual BL usage figures, the analysis showed good predictive performance. The results of this study can help developers, planners, and designers to adopt reasonable investment decisions as well as better designs in developing new bike facilities.
  • For people with visual impairments who face difficulties when crossing the road, in urban areas of Japan the infrastructure designed to provide an indication of crossing direction and the curbstones at sidewalk-roadway boundaries often varies in reliability from one crossing to another. If anything, this promotes stress for users and is an issue for which improvement is urgently needed. The authors have proposed new orientation blocks to be installed at crosswalk entrances as a means of more accurately indicating to people with visual impairments the trajectory to follow when crossing the road, and in prior research have derived desirable specifications for the profile of these blocks and their position relative to tactile walking surface indicators (TWSI). For this paper, in order to examine in greater detail the desirable position of orientation blocks relative to TWSI, the authors conducted an experiment using totally blind subjects to evaluate conditions on a 10 m walk that simulated an actual crossing. The results, based on observations of the trajectories walked by participants in the experiment and interviews eliciting their subjective evaluations, showed that separating orientation blocks and blister tactile blocks by about 8–12 cm is effective in constraining lateral deviation at a point 5 m from the start of crossing and that an 8 cm separation was desirable in order to maintain an effective reduction of mental stress while crossing.
  • The objective of this research is to identify factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Crash data was collected from 2011 to 2013 for the State of North Carolina in the United States. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze crash data because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable (overcorrection or oversteering). The crash involvement due to overcorrection or oversteering of a vehicle decreased as the age of the driver increased. Drivers are 2.22 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when ill, 3.44 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when under fatigue, and 1.61 times more likely to overcorrect or oversteer when fallen asleep compared to normal physical conditions. Overall, driver characteristics and speed limit tend to play a major role in overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles. Programs to reduce impaired driving might help in the reduction of overcorrection or oversteering related crash fatalities or injuries. Additionally, training and driver education programs focusing on identified factors associated with crashes due to overcorrection or oversteering of vehicles will benefit drivers on how to respond during emergency or panic situations.
  • In this paper, a proposed car-following driver model taking into account some features of both the compensatory and anticipatory model representing the human pedal operation has been verified by driving simulator experiments with several real drivers. The comparison between computer simulations performed by determined model parameters with the experimental results confirm the correctness of this mathematical driver model and identified model parameters. Then the driver model is joined to a hybrid vehicle dynamics model and the moderate car following maneuver simulations with various driver parameters are conducted to investigate influences of driver parameters on vehicle dynamics response and fuel economy. Finally, major driver parameters involved in the longitudinal control of drivers are clarified.
  • Air travel has grown steadily in the region of 5–6% every year since 1970 meaning that in the UK alone, around 750,000 people use flying as a means of transport every day. Disability rates are also increasing in the UK, with over 13 million people having at least one. Air travel for the mobility impaired has been relatively unexplored, but with increasing rates of disability and passenger numbers, it is crucial to know what the most severely disabled people think of the current process. This study used qualitative interviews of a semi-structured nature with eight wheelchair-using participants who were invited to discuss their experiences of air travel as well as offering opinions. Key findings showed notable issues when wheelchair users interact with the aircraft. The manual handling, the equipment used, seating, communication and accessing the toilet on the aircraft led to physical pain and discomfort and in turn emotional distress. Recommendations include developing consistency, further disability training and a review of the equipment involved.
  • Urbanization and aging population has become a significant issue in many global cities. It is necessary that the design of built environment to be supportive and provide adequate access to essential urban and social resources, e.g. employment, education, medical, social welfare and recreation etc., for all, including individuals with disabilities. Safe, efficient and accessible transportation is a key component of community integration. This study attempts to review the current practices and guidelines for accessible design of transportation, both access to and within transport facilities, based on the information from the United States, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. Besides, the effects of accessible design of transportation on perceived level of service, accessibility, safety and travel behavior would be examined. Therefore, good practices of accessible design that could address the needs for all, especially the elderly and individuals with different types of disability including visual impairment, hearing difficulty and reduced mobility, could be recommended. Hence, quality of life of vulnerable group can be enhanced, and community integration will be achieved in the long run.
  • Wrong way driving (WWD) research and mitigation measures have primarily focused on limited access facilities. This is most likely due to the higher incidence of fatal WWD crashes with dramatic consequences on freeways, media attention, and a call for innovative solutions to address the problem. While public agencies and published literature address WWD incidence on freeway systems, the crash analyses on non-limited access facilities, i.e., arterial corridors, remains untouched. This research extends previous works and attempts to provide many new perspectives on arterial WWD incidence. In particular, one work showed that while WWD fatalities are more likely to occur on freeways, the likelihood of these crashes is higher on arterials. Hence this work with univariate and multivariate analyses of WWD and non-WWD crashes, and fatal and non-fatal WWD incidents. Results show the impressive negative impacts of alcohol use, driver defect, nighttime and weekend incidence, poor street lighting, low traffic volumes, rural geography, and median and shoulder widths. The objective here is to highlight the need for paying greater attention to WWD crashes on arterial corridors as is done with fatal WWD incidents on freeway systems. It suffices to say that while engineering countermeasures should evolve from the traditional signing and pavement markings to connected vehicle technology applications, there is a clear and compelling need to focus on educational campaigns specifically targeting drunken driving, and enforcement initiatives with an objective to mitigate WWD in the most efficient manner possible.
  • This study aims to find the factors affecting residents near transit stations within 1000m, who are referred to as transit-oriented development (TOD) residents, to reduce motorcycle taxi use and encourage walking to stations. These two modes of commuting are the most popular among over 85% of residents. However, motorcycle taxis are the main pedestrian barriers that hinder easy access and walkability in TODs of Bangkok, because they ride, stop, and provide services on sidewalks. From 2013 to 2015, these problems substantially increased the number of motorcycle taxis that are not willing and able to follow the rules. The increasing number of pedestrian accidents on sidewalks is related to the increase in the number of motorcycle taxis. According to a survey on pedestrian safety with 249 respondents, over 25% of walkers feel unsafe to walk, while 40% of motorcycle-taxi users riding to stations do not walk because they are afraid of accidents. In modal split, the share of walking reduces from 76% for areas <00m, to 25% for areas between 500 and 1000m from transit stations, respectively. Hence, the number of motorcycle taxis in the 500–1000m range is twice as high compared to that within the 500m area. If motorcycle taxi users would accept a longer walking distance to station by 36m or would be willing to walk to the station within 9.15min, 54% of them may switch to walking to stations. Moreover, based on the estimation results of the logistic regression models, middle-adult aged residents, office employees, residents owning a car, and people living far from stations are less likely to walk. Average income households and commuters during non-peak hours tend to use motorcycle taxis more. On the other hand, residents living far from stations tend to use motorcycle taxis less, because most of the motorcycle taxi services are located near transit stations.
  • For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi² (25 km²) network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS) information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016.
  • Almost all researches about dynamic lane assignment were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of applying this technique at signalized intersections. However, little attention was given to the method of identifying quickly the optimum lane group. This research suggests a quick method to find the optimum lane group for 3-lane and 4-lane approaches at junctions where each approach has green by itself in turn using the percentage of turning movements. MATLAB environment was used to build an optimization model to find the optimal lane groups at all intersection approaches for hypothetical massive traffic demand combinations using an objective function of minimizing intersection delay. This finding represents a plausible quick method to predict the optimum lane group in the field instantaneously using the percentage of turning movements at the approach without conducting massive calculations.
  • This paper examines the current institutional arrangements for the management of road safety in Malaysia in a systematic manner. It focuses on road safety funding and seeks to provide an insight into how funding factors may affect both the effectiveness and the efficiency or road safety management. The study follows an exploratory approach based on semi-structured interviews targeting key stakeholders in road safety management such as policy makers from various government agencies, private sector representatives and academia. The information collected is subsequently analysed using a template analysis technique based on a set of criteria defined by the World Bank. The analysis reveals that the efficiency and effectiveness of the road safety management system in Malaysia may be sustainably improved by addressing the current dependence of funding solely on government sources, the fragmentation of the decision making process of this de facto multi-disciplinary area, the road safety legislative framework, public awareness, local needs and institutional capacity. An institutional model based on 2nd generation road funds is tentative suggested to this effect.
  • The output of the models devised for bus-based evacuations often only provides the time required to complete the evacuation with known input resources along with the routes for each bus trip. The different techniques used to minimize the evacuation time aim to improve either the demand or the supply side of the mechanism. Great care must be exercised to avoid negative impacts of such improvement efforts. In this study, two important factors, variation in demand and evacuation route flexibility, are discussed with respect to their effects on the optimality of bus-based evacuation planning. The model of short-notice bus-based evacuation under dynamic demand conditions (SBED model) was used to highlight the importance of these factors in evacuation planning through a case study of Kawajma Town. The model was run to simulate different evacuee demand and bus route scenarios, and the results were analyzed. In terms of the number of evacuees, better results were observed in the fixed-demand case than in the continuous-demand case. In addition, the results indicate that introducing evacuation route flexibility into the model reduces resource use but necessitates more model run-time.
  • Highly automated and fully autonomous vehicles are much more likely to be accepted if they react in the same way as human drivers do, especially in a hybrid traffic situation, which allows autonomous vehicles and human-driven vehicles to share the same road. This paper proposes a human-like motion planning model to represent how human drivers assess environments and operate vehicles in signalized intersections. The developed model consists of a pedestrian intention detection model, gap detection model, and vehicle control model. These three submodels are individually responsible for situation assessment, decision making, and action, and also depend on each other in the process of motion planning. In addition, these submodels are constructed and learned on the basis of human drivers' data collected from real traffic environments. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed motion planning model, we compared the proposed model with actual human driver and pedestrian data. The experimental results showed that our proposed model and actual human driver behaviors are highly similar with respect to gap acceptance in intersections.
  • Speed and speed variation are widely believed to be key issues in the understanding of traffic accidents. However, there has not been a substantial amount of research that focuses on the interaction between the mean speed and the change in the mean speeds. In this paper we use a five-minute continuous monitoring data of the mean speed on an expressway in Japan. Applying a two dimensional additive Poisson model, we show that not only mean speeds but also changes in mean speeds affect per vehicle-kilometer traffic accident rates. The highest probability of an accident occurs when speed reduces from 110 to 85 km/h. Another area of high accident probability occurs when the average speed increases from 65 to 90 km/h. In addition, we found that accident rates are higher when there is sunny weather, rather than when it is cloudy.
  • Understanding the commuting patterns of long-duration commuters and the possible changes in these patterns can help policymakers adopt the more reasonable land use and transportation policies. With Kunming in China as a case study, the determinants of long-duration commuting trips were identified based on logistic regression model. The results indicated that age, education level, number of workers, presence of retirees, and residential location have a significant impact on the occurrence of long-duration commuting trips. The ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of long-duration commuters were also investigated. The statistical results revealed the distributions of ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of both short- and long-duration commuters. The average tolerance threshold of commuting time and the average ideal commuting time of long-duration commuters were greater than those of short-duration commuters. For 97.2% of the long-duration commuters, their actual commuting time was longer than the ideal commuting time; this finding indicates that most long-duration commuters are dissatisfied with their commuting time. The actual commuting time of 40.1% long-duration commuters exceeded their tolerance thresholds; these commuters are eager to reduce their commuting time.
  • Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions), human factors have the strongest influence—and figs. on a world-wide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.
  • To assess the safety impact of auxiliary lanes at downstream locations of U-turns, the Traffic Conflict Technique was used. On the basis of the installed components at those locations, four types of U-turns were identified: those without any auxiliary lane, those with an acceleration lane, those with outer widening, and those with both an acceleration lane and outer widening. The available crash data is unreliable, therefore to assess the level of road safety, Conflict Indexes were formulated to put more emphasis on severe crashes than on slight ones by using two types of weighting coefficients. The first coefficient was based on the subjective assessment of the seriousness of the conflict situation and the second was based on the relative speed and angle between conflicting streams. A comparatively higher Conflict Index value represents a lower level of road safety. According to the results, a lower level of road safety occurs if two components apply or if a location is without any auxiliary lane. The highest level of road safety occurs if the layout includes only a single component, either an acceleration lane or outer widening.
  • This paper discusses the appropriateness of the "3-stage urban transport policy development cycle" hypothesis proposed by Professor Peter Jones and the importance of both local development context and motorization transport culture in transport policy. It then makes some observations on the future prospects for sustainable cities and transport through major technological innovations in connected and autonomous vehicles, that is, in "Auto Sapiens" as next generation vehicles. © 2016 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences.
  • In this volume, Jones has made a persuasive case for considering recently observed reductions in car use (and sometimes car ownership) in a number of major northern cities as part of an evolutionary process, rather than the consequence of transient conditions such as the economic downturn of 2008 and its relatively slow recovery. In an era bringing new service models for mobility and communications that have important implications for safety, security, the environment and well-being, he points to the role of public attitudes and sentiments that may underlie changing policy priorities and an associated culture change with respect to transport in cities and the reclamation of street space. This paper briefly explores the role of public sentiments and reflects on the apparent emergence of a popular subculture that favours living, if possible, without owning or using cars, in contrast to older subcultures embracing more extreme sentiments that are either Car-centred or emphatically Anti-car.
  • This paper presents the historical and cultural background relating to road improvement and road safety characteristics in Kenya, a developing country in East Africa. Some who come from low-developed areas of developing countries often take time to comprehend the modern transportation infrastructure, especially roads, and have difficulty assimilating and customizing the same to their culturally tailored modes. This paper discusses two case studies: one on the socio-economic impact following improvements to a 50-km, high-class, high-traffic-volume road and the other on the monitoring and evaluation of road safety aspects along the Northern Corridor in Kenya also following major road improvements. The road improvements to the Nairobi-Thika Highway (a trunk road) have attracted many investors along the highway corridor. The high-speed road has also brought with it the unfortunate consequence of speeding vehicles colliding with pedestrians crossing the road at undesignated locations. The Northern Corridor, the transportation corridor that links the Great Lakes Countries of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda from the port of Mombasa in Kenya, has had high accident rates for a considerable amount of time. The results of monitoring and evaluation exercises on the Northern Corridor have shown that drivers are the major contributors in causing accidents, with a component ratio of 49.4%; pedestrians are next at 21.7%. Data also shows that 24% of the accidents along the Northern Corridor are fatal, which is of major concern. The study additionally indicated that the majority of road users have not been exposed to education or training on road safety. This paper presents a number of recommendations arising from the road safety study regarding possible improvements in aspects of road safety along the corridor and potential applications of those changes to other roads in general. For example, there are recommendations related to the geometric design of the road, driver training and behavior, vehicle maintenance, and the need to enhance road safety through the utilization of road safety parks where road users can undergo training and drills on road safety aspects. In conclusion, we argue that the rehabilitation of the Northern Corridor from Mombasa on the Kenyan coast to the border with Uganda has led to significant road safety improvement.
  • This study reports the results of fatal road traffic fatal crash data from six mid-sized cities in India: Agra, Amritsar, Bhopal, Ludhiana, Vadodara, and Vishakhapatnam. Relative to total road fatalities, the percentage of vulnerable road user deaths in all six cities range between 84% and 93%, car occupant fatalities between 2% and 4%, and TST occupants less than 5%. The largest proportion of fatalities for all road user categories (especially vulnerable road users) are associated with collisions with buses and trucks, followed by collisions with cars; however, the proportion of pedestrian fatalities associated with MTW collisions ranges from 8% to 25% of the total. The data indicate that the 0–14 age group is underrepresented in proportion to its share of the population, including children riding motorcycles. Occupant fatality rates per 100,000 vehicles for MTW and TST occupants are 2–3 and 3–5 times higher, respectively, than for cars. However, estimates of association with fatal crashes show that MTWs and cars pose a similar risk to society, with TSTs representing a slightly smaller risk. Confirming some of these results will require data with a higher level of detail.
  • This paper reviews aspects of traffic safety and behavior of drivers in road tunnels based on several case studies of traffic accidents along the traffic zones of tunnel alignment (entrance: zone 2; transition zone: zone 3; and inner zone: zone 4). This paper commences with engineering and design aspects that differentiate between road tunnel and open highways and, afterward, reviews certain issues related to tunnel safety and crashes such as driver behavior, highway alignment, tunnel length, and longitudinal friction. This paper additionally discusses the severity of crashes in road tunnels, specifically severe crashes in road tunnels, including fire incidents and their relationship with vehicle crashes. Finally, additional risk measures and classifications of tunnel safety are introduced. The risk of a crash in a tunnel is reduced compared with crashes on the open road (approximately half); however, tunnel crash severity is higher. The catastrophe potential related to a tunnel fire is higher than in a vehicle crash, even though fire crashes are less frequent than traffic crashes. Drivers in road tunnels generally reduce their speed and increase their lateral position from the right tunnel wall while driving. In shorter tunnels, with reduced driving speed, driver vigilance may be more robust without being hindered by dull driving, which is more common in longer tunnels. Still, in spite of driver alertness, crash rates in tunnels occur due to the tunnel's unusual driving environment. Crash rates are lower in the tunnel inner zone due to driver alertness, especially after passing the transition zone and acclimating to the tunnel environment. The number of crashes, however, is higher along zone 4 (tunnel inner zone, which is the principal zone), as it covers longer driving distance. According to most studies, short tunnels were found to exhibit higher crash rates than long tunnels because the entrance zones incorporate higher crash rates, compared with the midzones; nonetheless, longer unidirectional (freeway and multilane) tunnels with higher design speed, entail lower driver alertness and diminished concentration due to relatively monotonous driving in spite of a tunnel's closed environment.
  • Japan has experienced an enormous increase of traffic accidents as a result of the country's rapid economic growth from the late 1950s to the year 1970. Observers in the early 1960s called the proliferation of traffic accidents the “Traffic War” as the annual traffic-accident fatalities exceeded the average annual fatalities during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895; the total eventually peaked at 16,765 in 1970. Annual fatalities then declined during 1970s and fell to 8719 in 1981, thanks to the Japanese national government's comprehensive, intensive efforts to reduce the number of fatalities. This paper summarizes these initiatives, which include road facility measures, regulations and law enforcement, education, vehicle safety standards, and emergency medical care. Because the levels of car ownership and vehicle-kilometers traveled continued to increase even as organizations worked to reduce traffic safety risks, annual fatalities again trended upward starting in 1981 and reached 11,452 in 1992. Before 1992, the trend in annual fatalities always followed that of annual traffic accidents in general. After 1992, however, the annual fatality dropped while the annual number of traffic accidents actually rose. This unique pattern has roots in passive safety technology, the international enhancement of vehicle safety standards, and innovation in the emergency medical care, which have all helped save lives. This paper compares Japanese annual trends with those of other developed countries to show that Japan has recently become risen to the top level of traffic safety. In hopes of achieving an even safer traffic society in Japan, the paper summarizes the key factors for consideration.
  • The aim of this study is to quantify the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by passenger vehicles over the long term through the introduction of compact cities. We determined the correlation between population distribution and passenger car CO2 emissions from 1980 to 2005 and simulated passenger car CO2 emissions in 2030 under both compact and dispersed scenarios. We conducted correlation analysis and scenario analysis with the data sets of municipal CO2 emissions of passenger cars, national population census figures, and future population distribution scenarios. Then, we estimated the annual CO2 emissions of passenger cars per capita by mesh cell density category. The results show that the difference in emissions per capita between the compact and dispersed scenarios is roughly 5% in Japanese municipalities as a whole.
  • Traditionally, the provision of public transport is considered to be government's responsibility. Due to resource and capacity constraints in developing countries, however, government-provided public transport is often inadequate; it is the privately operated public transport modes like shared auto-rickshaws, Vikrams, mini-buses, and Tata Magics, etc., that cater to the mobility needs of the population. This sector, however, is not sufficiently acknowledged for the important contribution that it makes toward mobility supply, in terms of both policymaking and city planning exercises. In addition, government authorities typically perceive these modes as unsafe, highly-polluting and a cause of traffic congestion as there is a complete absence of research and knowledge on these modes. To address this knowledge gap, an empirical study on informal public transport modes was undertaken in five cities/city regions of India. This paper presents the results of this research study, which provides a stronger understanding of the operational characteristics, roles, and contributions of these systems in meeting the mobility needs of the people. The paper also discusses commonly held perceptions of how these modes relate to safety and pollution. The paper highlights that these systems bridge a large transport supply gap and play an important role in Indian cities. The modes may follow some illegitimate practices, but they do it to become profitable, which in turn helps them provide the much-needed mobility services. The study also shows that these systems are not as unsafe and polluting as people often perceive them to be. However, there is significant room for improvements in terms of vehicle efficiency and compliance with regulatory provisions related to public transport.
  • The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previously been investigated in detail by Road Accident Investigation Teams. Most of the accidents took place at passive level crossings. Compared to active level crossings, and related to the number of fatal accidents, passive level crossings have become proportionally more risky during the study period. Almost all the immediate risk factors in the accidents were of the human error type. Observation errors on the part of the road user were typical at passive level crossings, and risk taking at active level crossings. The environment did not support safe crossing in most of the accidents at passive level crossings. The speed limits of both the road and rail were high, visibility was insufficient, and the level crossing was often situated uphill. Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.
  • Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the intensity of road use. In the current situation, Russian motorists have no incentive for fighting corruption: constantly growing fines and penalties for traffic offences increase the attractiveness of paying bribes compared to individual and/or collective protests. A vicious circle emerges as a result: corruption becomes self-sustainable. The official statistical data and results of a nationally representative sociological survey provide the data for the analysis. An instrumental variables analysis and multiple regression modelling are used in this study.
  • In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short) in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.
  • This paper aims to discuss the use of city- and transportation-related statistics in the formulation of transportation policies, focusing primarily on ensuring the healthy growth of cities and providing support for smooth economic activity in developing countries. For governments in developing and newly industrialized Asian countries, alleviating road traffic congestion represents one of the most pressing transportation policy needs. In Indonesia, for example, measures aimed at combating road traffic congestion in Jakarta were a key issue in last year's presidential elections. After detailing the close relationship between cities and transportation, this paper uses several case studies to explain the different statistical standards in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. The paper then discusses the statistics and analysis methods that play roles in proposing and evaluating policies and looks at the optimal performance indicators and statistics for policies, using case studies to offer concrete examples.
  • This study focused on the mechanism of attracting funds to finance projects in the field of highway infrastructure construction through Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The basis and principles for development of the financial strategy of a project company were defined in this paper. The proposed financial strategy was developed on the basis of diversification of sources of funds and financing instruments with regard to the stages of the project life cycle. The parameters for development of the financial strategy were defined to improve the mechanisms of attraction of the capital for the project and increase the capacity of the project company to pay debts. The proposed financial strategy can be taken as a basis for development of the financial strategy for any project implemented through PPP. The capital market is not stable; therefore, in addition, an algorithm was proposed for more precise selection of sources of financial resources.
  • For this study, we performed a variety of analyses using the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis' Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records. The database integrates driver management data and road traffic accident statistics data, making it possible to explore the relationships among driver attributes and road traffic accident characteristics in considerable detail. By controlling our compilation conditions and refining our sets of driver attributes, our analysis showed that drivers who experience accidents drive more carefully immediately after an accident, revealed high accident rates among drivers who have experienced certain violations, and produced other findings that could constitute a foundation for developing individual driver-targeted measures. Our analysis of large age groups, meanwhile, showed that drivers with a history of numerous accidents or apprehensions/violations are more likely to cause accidents. The Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records boasts an expansive scope, covering all of the 81 million licensed drivers in Japan, and features 200 variables pertaining to driver attributes, accidents, and violations. In addition to letting users refine their focuses by driver age, sex, and place of residence, the database also enables analyses that account for lifestyle-related variables like when drivers received their licenses and whether drivers have moved to new addresses. The sheer diversity of driver attributes in the database makes it a promising resource for formulating driver-targeted measures.
  • With societal changes in recent years, issues related to child safety in public places have become more diverse and more complex. Every age has its hardships, and an environment in which children develop into people who overcome such hardships is necessarily one that is not completely free of danger. Nevertheless, there is tendency toward an excessive emphasis on safety. The children of today have been driven indoors, deprived of spaces for group play and of natural environments that encourage a diversity of experience. The development of IT media has further reinforced this tendency. These conditions can be said to produce bullying, abuse, isolation, and a lack of ambition. It is critical that children's living environments, especially public spaces for playing and learning, have a porous structure with numerous routes of escape.
  • School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children) are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.
  • This paper introduces a method of factor decomposition analysis for analyzing the importance of the factors that affect the volume of transportation energy consumption. In choosing the influencing factors from the many possibilities, the paper introduces an indicator analysis to evaluate and select the most important affecting factors. Based on the decomposition results, the paper helps interpret the underlying causes of transportation energy consumption. At the same time, the paper also suggests corresponding policy implications for the improvement of transportation energy efficiency.
  • This study uses Swedish accident data for the years 2004-2008 to analyze the relationship between injury severity for pedestrians struck by a vehicle and the speed environment at accident locations. It also makes use of a Multinomial Logit Model and other statistical methods. Speed measurements have been performed at accident sites, and the results show that there was a relationship between the (1) mean travel speed and (2) the age of the pedestrian struck and the injury severity and risk of fatality. The data also shows that even though fatal accidents (excluding run-over accidents) are rare in speed environments where the mean travel speed is below 40 km/h and severe injuries are rare below 25 km/h, over 30% of severe injury accidents occur in speed environments below 35 km/h. This indicates that 30 km/h speed limits might not be as safe as previously believed. The current speed policy needs to address this issue. To the author’s best knowledge this is the first study that analyzes the relation between mean travel speed and injury severity for pedestrians struck by vehicles.
  • This paper discusses the concept of mobility in twenty-first-century cities. Although the issues with which cities now grapple are vastly different from the problems that they confronted in the twentieth century, we continue to live on a foundation that was laid over the years of the past. From that perspective, we need to understand that the destructive reform—“innovation”—so crucial to the mobility on which urban activity depends cannot necessarily ignore the cumulative knowledge we have heretofore amassed. The author defined the idea of “mobility design” in the scope of urban transportation and explored the concept of connected mobility through case studies that the author has been involved in or researched. Although many important connections in and approaches to urban transportation have come to light, the process of actually working on such projects has uncovered many issues to address such as sharing and social capital. The ability to design mobility as a connected entity and pursue our research topics from that perspective will be vital to overcoming the issues highlighted above and helping the concept of connected mobility flourish.
  • In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short) in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.
  • This paper aims to discuss the use of city- and transportation-related statistics in the formulation of transportation policies, focusing primarily on ensuring the healthy growth of cities and providing support for smooth economic activity in developing countries. For governments in developing and newly industrialized Asian countries, alleviating road traffic congestion represents one of the most pressing transportation policy needs. In Indonesia, for example, measures aimed at combating road traffic congestion in Jakarta were a key issue in last year's presidential elections. After detailing the close relationship between cities and transportation, this paper uses several case studies to explain the different statistical standards in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. The paper then discusses the statistics and analysis methods that play roles in proposing and evaluating policies and looks at the optimal performance indicators and statistics for policies, using case studies to offer concrete examples.
  • This study focused on the mechanism of attracting funds to finance projects in the field of highway infrastructure construction through Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The basis and principles for development of the financial strategy of a project company were defined in this paper. The proposed financial strategy was developed on the basis of diversification of sources of funds and financing instruments with regard to the stages of the project life cycle. The parameters for development of the financial strategy were defined to improve the mechanisms of attraction of the capital for the project and increase the capacity of the project company to pay debts. The proposed financial strategy can be taken as a basis for development of the financial strategy for any project implemented through PPP. The capital market is not stable; therefore, in addition, an algorithm was proposed for more precise selection of sources of financial resources.
  • For this study, we performed a variety of analyses using the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis' Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records. The database integrates driver management data and road traffic accident statistics data, making it possible to explore the relationships among driver attributes and road traffic accident characteristics in considerable detail. By controlling our compilation conditions and refining our sets of driver attributes, our analysis showed that drivers who experience accidents drive more carefully immediately after an accident, revealed high accident rates among drivers who have experienced certain violations, and produced other findings that could constitute a foundation for developing individual driver-targeted measures. Our analysis of large age groups, meanwhile, showed that drivers with a history of numerous accidents or apprehensions/violations are more likely to cause accidents. The Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records boasts an expansive scope, covering all of the 81 million licensed drivers in Japan, and features 200 variables pertaining to driver attributes, accidents, and violations. In addition to letting users refine their focuses by driver age, sex, and place of residence, the database also enables analyses that account for lifestyle-related variables like when drivers received their licenses and whether drivers have moved to new addresses. The sheer diversity of driver attributes in the database makes it a promising resource for formulating driver-targeted measures.
  • With societal changes in recent years, issues related to child safety in public places have become more diverse and more complex. Every age has its hardships, and an environment in which children develop into people who overcome such hardships is necessarily one that is not completely free of danger. Nevertheless, there is tendency toward an excessive emphasis on safety. The children of today have been driven indoors, deprived of spaces for group play and of natural environments that encourage a diversity of experience. The development of IT media has further reinforced this tendency. These conditions can be said to produce bullying, abuse, isolation, and a lack of ambition. It is critical that children's living environments, especially public spaces for playing and learning, have a porous structure with numerous routes of escape.
  • School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children) are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.
  • This paper introduces a method of factor decomposition analysis for analyzing the importance of the factors that affect the volume of transportation energy consumption. In choosing the influencing factors from the many possibilities, the paper introduces an indicator analysis to evaluate and select the most important affecting factors. Based on the decomposition results, the paper helps interpret the underlying causes of transportation energy consumption. At the same time, the paper also suggests corresponding policy implications for the improvement of transportation energy efficiency.

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