IATSS Research

Publisher: Elsevier

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ISSN 0386-1112

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Elsevier

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Japan has experienced an enormous increase of traffic accidents as a result of the country's rapid economic growth from the late 1950s to the year 1970. Observers in the early 1960s called the proliferation of traffic accidents the “Traffic War” as the annual traffic-accident fatalities exceeded the average annual fatalities during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895; the total eventually peaked at 16,765 in 1970. Annual fatalities then declined during 1970s and fell to 8719 in 1981 thanks to the Japanese national government's comprehensive, intensive efforts to reduce the number of fatalities. This paper summarizes these initiatives, which include road facility measures, regulations and law enforcement, education, vehicle safety standards, and emergency medical care.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to quantify the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by passenger vehicles over the long term through the introduction of compact cities. We determined the correlation between population distribution and passenger car CO2 emissions from 1980 to 2005 and simulated passenger car CO2 emissions in 2030 under both compact and dispersed scenarios. We conducted correlation analysis and scenario analysis with the data sets of municipal CO2 emissions of passenger cars, national population census figures, and future population distribution scenarios. Then, we estimated the annual CO2 emissions of passenger cars per capita by mesh cell density category. The results show that the difference in emissions per capita between the compact and dispersed scenarios is roughly 5% in Japanese municipalities as a whole.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, the provision of public transport is considered to be government's responsibility. Due to resource and capacity constraints in developing countries, however, government-provided public transport is often inadequate; it is the privately operated public transport modes like shared auto-rickshaws, Vikrams, mini-buses, and Tata Magics, etc., that cater to the mobility needs of the population. This sector, however, is not sufficiently acknowledged for the important contribution that it makes toward mobility supply, in terms of both policymaking and city planning exercises. In addition, government authorities typically perceive these modes as unsafe, highly-polluting and a cause of traffic congestion as there is a complete absence of research and knowledge on these modes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n=142). All these accidents have previously been investigated in detail by Road Accident Investigation Teams.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the intensity of road use. In the current situation, Russian motorists have no incentive for fighting corruption: constantly growing fines and penalties for traffic offences increase the attractiveness of paying bribes compared to individual and/or collective protests. A vicious circle emerges as a result: corruption becomes self-sustainable. The official statistical data and results of a nationally representative sociological survey provide the data for the analysis. An instrumental variables analysis and multiple regression modelling are used in this study.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: In order to respond to new challenges in transportation and traffic problems, it is essential to enhance statistics in this field that provides the basis for policy researches. Many of the statistics in this field in Japan consist of “official statistics” created by the government. This paper gives a review of the current status of transportation and traffic statistics (hereinafter called “transportation statistics” in short) in Japan. Furthermore, the paper discusses challenges in such statistics in the new environment and the direction that statistics that should take in the future. For Japan’s transportation statistics to play vital roles in more sophisticated analyses, it is necessary to improve the environment that facilitates the use of microdata for analysis. It is also necessary to establish an environment where big data can be more easily used for compilation of official statistics and performing policy researches. To achieve this end, close cooperation among the government, academia, and businesses will be essential.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to discuss the use of city- and transportation-related statistics in the formulation of transportation policies, focusing primarily on ensuring the healthy growth of cities and providing support for smooth economic activity in developing countries. For governments in developing and newly industrialized Asian countries, alleviating road traffic congestion represents one of the most pressing transportation policy needs. In Indonesia, for example, measures aimed at combating road traffic congestion in Jakarta were a key issue in last year's presidential elections. After detailing the close relationship between cities and transportation, this paper uses several case studies to explain the different statistical standards in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. The paper then discusses the statistics and analysis methods that play roles in proposing and evaluating policies and looks at the optimal performance indicators and statistics for policies, using case studies to offer concrete examples.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study focused on the mechanism of attracting funds to finance projects in the field of highway infrastructure construction through Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The basis and principles for development of the financial strategy of a project company were defined in this paper. The proposed financial strategy was developed on the basis of diversification of sources of funds and financing instruments with regard to the stages of the project life cycle. The parameters for development of the financial strategy were defined to improve the mechanisms of attraction of the capital for the project and increase the capacity of the project company to pay debts. The proposed financial strategy can be taken as a basis for development of the financial strategy for any project implemented through PPP. The capital market is not stable; therefore, in addition, an algorithm was proposed for more precise selection of sources of financial resources.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: For this study, we performed a variety of analyses using the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis' Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records. The database integrates driver management data and road traffic accident statistics data, making it possible to explore the relationships among driver attributes and road traffic accident characteristics in considerable detail.By controlling our compilation conditions and refining our sets of driver attributes, our analysis showed that drivers who experience accidents drive more carefully immediately after an accident, revealed high accident rates among drivers who have experienced certain violations, and produced other findings that could constitute a foundation for developing individual driver-targeted measures. Our analysis of large age groups, meanwhile, showed that drivers with a history of numerous accidents or apprehensions/violations are more likely to cause accidents.The Integrated Driver Database with traffic accident and violation records boasts an expansive scope, covering all of the 81. million licensed drivers in Japan, and features 200 variables pertaining to driver attributes, accidents, and violations. In addition to letting users refine their focuses by driver age, sex, and place of residence, the database also enables analyses that account for lifestyle-related variables like when drivers received their licenses and whether drivers have moved to new addresses. The sheer diversity of driver attributes in the database makes it a promising resource for formulating driver-targeted measures.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · IATSS Research
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    ABSTRACT: With societal changes in recent years, issues related to child safety in public places have become more diverse and more complex. Every age has its hardships, and an environment in which children develop into people who overcome such hardships is necessarily one that is not completely free of danger. Nevertheless, there is tendency toward an excessive emphasis on safety. The children of today have been driven indoors, deprived of spaces for group play and of natural environments that encourage a diversity of experience. The development of IT media has further reinforced this tendency. These conditions can be said to produce bullying, abuse, isolation, and a lack of ambition. It is critical that children's living environments, especially public spaces for playing and learning, have a porous structure with numerous routes of escape.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · IATSS Research