Journal of Ethnopharmacology (J ETHNOPHARMACOL)

Publisher: International Society of Ethnopharmacology, Elsevier

Journal description

The Journal of Ethnopharmacology is dedicated to the exchange of information and understandings about people's use of plants, fungi, animals, microorganisms and minerals and their biological and pharmacological effects based on the principles established through international conventions. Early people confronted with illness and disease, discovered a wealth of useful therapeutic agents in the plant and animal kingdoms. The empirical knowledge of these medicinal substances and their toxic potential was passed on by oral tradition and sometimes recorded in herbals and other texts on materia medica. Many valuable drugs of today (e.g., atropine, ephedrine, tubocurarine, digoxin, reserpine) came into use through the study of indigenous remedies. Chemists continue to use plant-derived drugs (e.g., morphine, taxol, physostigmine, quinidine, emetine) as prototypes in their attempts to develop more effective and less toxic medicinals. In recent years the preservation of local knowledge, the promotion of indigenous medical systems in primary health care, and the conservation of biodiversity have become even more of a concern to all scientists working at the interface of social and natural sciences but especially to ethnopharmacologists. Recognizing the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources, ethnopharmacologists are particularly concerned with local people's rights to further use and develop their autochthonous resources. Accordingly, today's ethnopharmacological research embraces the multidisciplinary effort in the: ? documentation of indigenous medical knowledge, ? scientific study of indigenous medicines in order to contribute in the long-run to improved health care in the regions of study, as well as ? search for pharmacologically unique principles from existing indigenous remedies. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology publishes original articles concerned with the observation and experimental investigation of the biological activities of plant and animal substances used in the traditional medicine of past and present cultures. The journal will particularly welcome interdisciplinary papers with an ethnopharmacological, an ethnobotanical or an ethnochemical approach to the study of indigenous drugs. Reports of anthropological and ethnobotanical field studies fall within the journal's scope. Studies involving pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action are especially welcome. Clinical studies on efficacy will be considered if contributing to the understanding of specific ethnopharmacological problems. The journal also welcomes review articles in the above mentioned fields especially on novel methodologies relevant to disease states.

RG Journal Impact: 2.69 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2019Available summer 2020
20152.69
20142.90
20132.25
20122.59
20112.25
20103.59
20093.23
20083.13
20072.65
20062.12
20051.93
20041.63
20031.54
20021.59
20011.19
20000.66

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

Additional details

Cited half-life7.20
Immediacy index0.50
Eigenfactor0.03
Article influence0.58
Websitehttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03788741
Website descriptionJournal of Ethnopharmacology website
Other titlesJournal of ethnopharmacology (Online)
ISSN0378-8741
OCLC38993891
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

Panax notoginseng is used as a therapeutic agent to stop haemorrhages and a tonic to promote health in Chinese medicine. Currently saponins of P. notoginseng (PNS) are especially given attentions for their hemorheological properties. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the main PNS are still not accurately investigated. Therefore, our preliminary aim is to elucidate the pharmacokinetic features of ginsenoside Rb(1) (Rb(1)) and ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)), two of the main PNS in rats. Firstly, quantitive analysis of Rb(1) and Rg(1) in saponins of P. notoginseng was studied and the most suitable assay method by HPLC for blood sample were established. Then Rb(1) and Rg(1) in the same serum were determined after administering PNS to rats. The decline of Rb(1) in serum could be described by a two-compartment model. The half-life of alpha phase was 23.40 min and that of beta phase was 17.96 h. Rb(1) was absorbed from the digestive tract and the bioavailability via P.O. was 4.35%. The pharmacokinetics of Rg(1) in rats also could be described by a two-compartment model. The half-lives of Rg(1) were 24.23 min for alpha phase and 14.13 h for beta phase. Rg(1) could be absorbed in the digestive tract and the oral bioavailability was 18.40%. Both of the low oral bioavailability of Rb(1) and rapid reduction of Rg(1) in blood indicated that formula modification is necessary.
The biochemical effect of coriander seeds on lipid parameters in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer in rats were studied. The study shows that the concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol to phospholipid ratio decreased while the level of phospholipid increased significantly in the DMH control group compared to the spice administered group. Fecal dry weight, fecal neutral sterols and bile acids showed a sharp increase in the coriander-fed group compared with the DMH administered group. Thus, coriander plays a protective role against the deleterious effects in lipid metabolism in experimental colon cancer.
Although many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular consequences of ultraviolet irradiation, little is known about the effect of natural products. Ultraviolet irradiation is widely considered to be an environmental stress. Here we investigated the effect of erythrodiol-3-acetate on the expressions of MMP-1,2 in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Erythrodiol-3-acetate was isolated from the stems of Styrax japonica (Styracaceae). Erythrodiol-3-acetate reduced the expression of MMP-1 but not MMP-2, at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner by ultraviolet irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that erythrodiol-3-acetate an important role in the reduction of MMP-1 induction by ultraviolet irradiation.
Prunus persica L. BATSCH seed-water extract (PPE) has been used in the treatment of the degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, in Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea. In this study, the effects of oral administration of PPE on the extracellular acetylcholine concentration in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated, and compared to that of tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride), a well-known and centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, which had been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We measured the inhibition of brain AChE. PPE at 2.5g/kg and tacrine at 5mg/kg showed significant effects for more than 6h. At these doses, the maximum increases were observed at about 1.5h after administration of PPE, and at about 2h with tacrine, and were 454 and 412% of the pre-level, respectively. The results suggest that oral administration of PPE and tacrine increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft of the hippocampus mostly through AChE inhibition, and that PPE has a potent and long-lasting effect on the central cholinergic system.
Korean ginseng tea (KGT), prepared from the roots of Panax ginseng, is widely used by Korean people for antistress, antifatigue, and endurance promoting effects. In the present study we evaluated neuroprotective/cerebroprotective actions of KGT in stroke, using rat global and focal models of ischemia. Varied biochemical/enzymatic alterations, produced subsequent to the application of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) followed by reperfusion viz. increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were markedly reversed and restored to near normal levels in the groups pre-treated with KGT (350 mg/kg given orally for 10 days). It is concluded that the protective action, exhibited by KGT against hypoperfusion/reperfusion induced brain injury, suggests its therapeutic potential in cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) including stroke. These findings are important because: (a) the present treatment strategies for CVD are far from adequate and (b) KGT with wide usage is known to be a safe natural product.
The aqueous extract obtained from Stichaster striatus Müller & Troschel (Asteroidea, Stichasteridae) has been shown to possess activity as an alcohol appetite inhibitor after oral administration in a rat model with a genetically established excessive appetite for alcohol (Wistar rats, lineage UChB). A significant decrease in the consumption of ethanol was observed (unrelated to a possible disulfiram effect) without a change in the normal food or water intake during the experimentation period. A bio-guided fractionation of the extract was carried out in order to identify the most active fraction, in which the presence of a group of natural endogenous polyamines in undetermined proportions is suspected. Our hypothesis was to relate the activity obtained for the original ME-3451-106 extract with the presence of these polyamines in the extract in question. The activity shown by a series of commercially available polyamines (putrescine (Pu), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SP)) in inhibiting voluntary ethanol intake lends support to our hypothesis. The extract was selected on the basis of oral tradition, which claimed that the consumption of a "soup" obtained by boiling starfish, later identified as Stichaster striatus, prevented the appearance of alcoholism in laborers on properties entrusted to the Jesuit order during the middle period of the Spanish conquest of America (17-18th century).
This work aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the n-BuOH subfraction (PL) prepared from fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus. PL induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) of the RAW264.7 macrophages in concentration- and time-dependent manner. It suppressed induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO) through down-regulation of iNOS promoter activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Zn(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a specific inhibitor of HO-1, partly blocked suppression by PL on iNOS promoter activity and NO production, which were elevated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. LPS was able to enhance NO production via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun induction. ZnPP prevented PL from down-regulating ROS generation and JNK activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, PL shows its anti-inflammatory activity via mediation of HO-1 in an in vitro inflammation model.
Fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus were extracted with 70% ethanol at room temperature. The Phellinus linteus extract (PL) showed strong anti-angiogenic activity, which was detected using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The in vitro antioxidant activities of PL were evaluated using two different bioassays. PL was comparable to Vitamin C in scavenging the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyrazyl (DPPH). It also inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that antioxidant and anti-angiogenic activities of Phellinus linteus would be partly responsible for its anti-tumor effect.
Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the antiapoptotic effect of UDN glycoprotein in glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO)-induced BNL CL.2 cells. To evaluate the antiapoptotic effect of UDN glycoprotein, experiments were carried out using Western blot analysis for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We also examined nitric oxide (NO) production and nuclear staining. When BNL CL.2 cells were treated with G/GO (50 mU/ml), viability of the cells was 54.1%. However, the number of living cells after the addition of UDN glycoprotein in the presence of G/GO increased. UDN glycoprotein protected from cell damage caused by G/GO. Interestingly, UDN glycoprotein decreased NF-kappaB activation and stimulated NO production in G/GO-induced BNL CL.2 cells. In apoptotic parameters, UDN glycoprotein inhibited activations of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in G/GO-induced BNL CL.2 cells. The results of nuclear staining indicated that UDN glycoprotein (50 microg/ml) has a protective ability from apoptotic cell death caused G/GO (50 mU/ml). In conclusion, UDN glycoprotein has a protective effect on apoptosis induced by G/GO through the inhibition of NF-kappaB, caspase-3, and PARP activity, and the stimulation of NO production in BNL CL.2 cells.
In the present study, an aqueous extract from Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers was evaluated for its hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic activities using Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipemic rats as experimental model. Hyperlipideamia was developed by intraperitonial injection of Triton (200mg/kg body weight). The animals were divided into control (CG), hyperlipidaemic (HG), hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract (HG+EmE) and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate (HG+FF) treated groups. Intragastric administration of Erica multiflora extract (0.25 g/100g body weight) to the rats caused a significant decrease on their plasma lipid levels (quantified using enzymatic kits). At 7h after treatment, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were decreased by 47%, 95% and 67%, respectively, but the change of HDL-cholesterol level was not significant. However, the hypolipidaemic effect of fenofibrate was limited to triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, which were lowered by about 92% and 41%, respectively. At 24h after treatment, Erica multiflora extract reduced plasma total cholesterol by 68.5% and triglycerides by 91%. HDL-cholesterol was not significantly increased and LDL-cholesterol was lowered by 80.5%. In fenofibrate treated rats, only plasma triglyceride concentrations were lowered by 82%, while the other lipid parameters were not significantly changed indicating that this aqueous herb extract may contain products that lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipideamia.
Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with biological effects consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula Retz. produced hepatic lesions which included central vein abnormalities while Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera (L.) dunal produced marked renal lesions.
16 alpha-Hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid was isolated from Montanoa hibiscifolia. The effects of this acid and its methyl ester on the contractile activity of rat and guinea pig uterine horns were studied. Both inhibited spontaneous, oxytocin-induced and potassium-induced contractile activities. The inhibitory effect produced by the methyl ester was greater than that observed with the acid. The methyl ester was 2-5 times more potent than the acid upon spontaneous and potassium-induced contractions and 11-15 times more potent than the acid upon the contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle induced by oxytocin. Such effects were observed using bath concentrations of 6, 15, 30 and 60 microM of each compound.
A complex prescription (CP) used traditionally for the treatment of vitiligo was prepared from water extract of eight plant materials. To study the mechanism of this preparation its effect on gene expression of B-16 murine melanoma cells was estimated using differential display method (DDRT-PCR). The results showed that the complex prescription was effective in activating the mitochondrial ATP synthase-6 (ATPase-6) gene expression in B-16 murine melanoma cells. This activity may play an important role in its treatment of vitiligo.
Jaceosidin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',6-dimethoxyflavone) was isolated from Artemisia argyi as a putative oncogene inhibitor. Jaceosidin inhibited binding between oncoprotein E6 of the human papillomavirus and the p53 tumor suppressor protein. In addition, jaceosidin inhibited binding between the E7 oncoprotein and the Rb tumor suppressor protein, and also inhibited the function of HPV-16 harboring cervical cancer cells, including SiHa and CaSki. Collectively, jaceosidin inhibited the functions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins of the human papillomavirus, suggesting that this compound might be used as a potential drug for the treatment of cervical cancers associated with the human papillomavirus.
This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has recently been incorporated emphasizing the cultural changes that this area is experiencing. Despite the use of different species of plants are crucial to their way of life, there is concern that these rich popular knowledge may disappear in the future as a result of a possible modernization of this area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
The earliest inhabitants of South Africa are believed to be the Khoi-Khoi and San peoples, whose knowledge of economic botany is extensive. Their ethnomedical practice, based on the plant species indigenous to the region, is an oral tradition and particularly susceptible to disruption. The culture of both peoples has during the past 350 years come under increasing threat of extinction, resulting in the likely loss to science of important ethnomedical knowledge. While written records of Khoi-San traditional medical practice are preserved in English, they mainly cover the period from 1800 onward. Earlier written records do exist, but do not appear to have been adequately screened. The present study was undertaken in order to complete the historical written record by critically examining all potential sources of Khoi and San ethnomedical information, for the years 1650-1800. These sources comprised journals of exploratory expeditions, herbarium specimens, published academic works and archival records associated with the activities of the former Dutch East India Company (VOC) at the Cape. The results of the search show that the VOC had a great interest in Khoi and San traditional medicines and attempted to record this knowledge. The VOC archives in particular represent a largely untapped source of ethnomedical information with potential application in health care, new drug development and intellectual property protection.
Methanolic extracts obtained from 13 plants were studied for their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria. Among them, the extract from Artocarpus heterophyllus showed the most intensive activity. Serial chromatographic purifications offered two active compounds which were identified as 6-(3-methyl-1-butenyl)-5,2',4'-trihydroxy-3-isoprenyl-7-methoxy flavone and 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-isoprenylflavone. Both isolates completely inhibited the growth of primary cariogenic bacteria at 3.13-12.5 micrograms/ml. They also exhibited the growth inhibitory effects on plaque-forming streptococci. These phytochemical isoprenylflavones would be potent compounds for the prevention of dental caries.
The effect of the crude saponins of Panax ginseng root on neurite extension of primary cultured neurons of the rat cerebral cortex was examined. Addition of the crude saponin extract to the culture medium showed a proliferative effect of neurite extension in 24-h and 48-h cultures. The looping phenomenon and disappearance of the growth cone due to the addition of cytochalasin-B to the culture medium were protected by the addition of the crude saponin. Addition of the crude saponin extract showed increases of about 1.5-fold in ganglioside content of cultured neurons. These results suggest that the crude saponin extract of the ginseng root has a promoting effect on neurite extension and also a protecting effect on distortion of neurites due to cytochalasin-B.
Sixty-six extracts of 18 plants commonly used by traditional healers in Congo Brazzaville for the treatment of malaria have been investigated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of 7 among the 18 studied plants were moderately active (10 microg/ml<IC(50)<50 microg/ml). These extracts concerned Cassia siamea (bark), Cogniauxia podolaena (root), Landolphia lanceolata (root and leaves), Millettia versicolor (leaves), Pseudospondias microcarpa (leaves), Uapaca paludosa (leaves) and Vernonia brazzavillensis (leaves). These results support their traditional use as antimalarial plants. The bark extract of Uapaca paludosa showed a good activity (<10 microg/ml) and the extracts from Quassia africana (root and leaves) even exhibited IC(50) values less than 1 microg/ml. Except for Quassia africana, for which the three solvents (water, ethanol and dichloromethane) present an effective extraction, no aqueous extract was highly active. The cytotoxicity of aqueous, DCM and ethanol extracts of Quassia africana was tested on KB cell lines.
Examination by microscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography alone and combined with mass spectrometry, and radioimmunoassay methods of materials from the tomb of the ancient Egyptian chief royal architect Kha, who is believed to have died about 1405 BC, has shown that there is no morphine--and hence no opium--present. This finding casts doubt on the results of an earlier analysis. Tropane alkaloids are likewise absent. The significance of the present findings for the history of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., in the eastern Mediterranean region is discussed. Evidence (chemical, botanical, artefactual, and linguistic) for the supposed presence of the opium poppy and opium in Egypt in the Late Bronze Age is briefly reviewed. These considerations and the negative outcome of the present analyses mean that the earlier reported finding can no longer be accepted as evidence.
Much has been learned concerning psychoactive snuffs in South America in the past 15 years since I delivered a review paper in the now famous symposium "Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs" held in San Francisco in 1967 (Efron et al., 1967; Schultes, 1967). There is still much to be investigated, but it seems that a recapitulation at this time may be warranted. The advances in our knowledge have come about as a result of field work as well as laboratory research and have been effected by investigators in several disciplines: archaeology, ethnobotany, ethnology and phytochemistry.
The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the herbal preparation ADD-199 were investigated in STZ-induced diabetic C(3)H mice and results were compared with two allopathic hypoglycaemic drugs, glibenclamide and metformin. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipids as well as liver glycogen, lipids and lipid peroxidation were measured following treatment for 8 weeks. The results indicated that plasma insulin levels in normal controls at termination were about 76 micromol/L compared to trace levels in untreated diabetic mice. Glibenclamide and ADD-199 increased insulin levels in diabetic mice up to 70% of levels in untreated non-diabetic mice whilst metformin had no effect. Basal plasma glucose levels in diabetic controls (18.8 mM) were reduced to 14.0 mM by 100 mg/kg ADD-199 in <2 weeks compared to 4 and 6 weeks for glibenclamide and metformin, respectively. This hypoglycaemic effect of ADD-199 appeared to be associated with the alkaloidal content of the extract. Treatment with ADD-199 or the hypoglycaemic agents reversed the observed elevation in plasma lipids but increased hepatic glycogen, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. Treatment also increased glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms and attenuated hepatic lipid peroxidation. These antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant actions of ADD-199 at a dose of 100mg/kg/day are comparable to those of the maximum daily therapeutic doses of glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) and metformin (50 mg/kg). These could explain the basis for use of this plant extract to manage diabetes mellitus (DM).
The subchronic toxicity of the aqueous antidiabetic herbal extract ADD-199, prepared from Maytenus senegalensis, Annona senegalensis, Kigelia africana and Lanneawelwitschii, and administered at a daily dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight over 30 days, was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. Certain haematological, urine and plasma biochemical parameters, and modulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity or potential for drug interactions. ADD-199 did not affect plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and albumin or creatinine kinase (CK) levels. It also did not affect plasma creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, ADD-199 neither affected PCV nor blood Hb, RBC, reticulocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and granulocyte levels. It, however, caused significant dose-dependent reductions in WBC counts at day 15 with varying degrees of recovery by day 30. It also reduced the rate of body weight increases after week 3. However, no changes were observed in organ weights at termination. ADD-199 did not significantly affect zoxazolamine-induced paralysis and pentobarbital-induced sleeping times as well as certain CYP isozyme activities in rats. These findings suggest that ADD-199 had no overt organ specific toxicity and did not demonstrate a potential for drug interactions via CYP-mediated metabolism in the rat on subchronic administration.
The effect of aqueous extract of petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the established stages of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip renovascular hypertension was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced by subjecting the animals to left renal artery clamping using a 0.2mm silver clip under ether anesthesia. Sham-operated (Sh-Op) rats served as controls. Six weeks after renal artery clamping, one group of hypertensive rats (blood pressure (BP) >140 mmHg) received HS (250 mg/kg/day) in drinking water (2K-1C+HS). The second group (2K-1C) and the sham-operated (Sh-Op) controls, received drinking water. BP was monitored weekly using rat-tail plethysmography. After 8 weeks, 2K-1C+HS had a reduction in systolic BP (139.6+/-1.6 mmHg) compared to 2K-1C (174+/-2.4 mmHg, n=5; P<0.001). No significant difference was found in BP of 2K-1C+HS and Sh-Op (139.6+/-1.6 mmHg versus 132+/-3.4 mmHg). A reduction in heart rate in 2K-1C+HS was observed (388+/-3.7 bpm versus 444+/-6.8 bpm in 2K-1C and 416+/-9.3 in Sh-Op, n=5; P<0.001). The hearts of 2K-1C were heavier than those of 2K-1C+HS (0.74+/-0.03 g versus 0.66+/-0.03 g, n=5; P<0.05). Cardiac weight of 2K-1C+HS was comparable to those of Sh-Op (0.57+/-0.04 g). Serum creatinine and plasma electrolytes were not different from controls. This study suggests that HS exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects in vivo and supports the public belief that HS may be a useful antihypertensive agent.
Geniposide (GP) as an agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an iridoid glycoside from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as a Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of vitiligo vulgaris. Interaction of c-kit receptor with its ligand-SCF potent enhances the melanocytic melanogenesis, which can be repressed by norepinephrine (NE). To discover economic and efficient drug against vitiligo vulgaris, this paper addresses the action and mechanism of GP abrogating the NE-induced hypopigmentation in melanocyte. Flow cytometry exhibited the up-regulation effect of GP on NE-suppressed production of c-kit by normal human epidermal melanocyte (HEMn) in a concentration-dependent manner, and exendin-(9-39) (selective GLP-1R antagonist) appeared to alleviate the GP-stimulated expression of c-kit. However, neither NE nor GP affected the production of SCF by normal human epidermal keratinocyte (HEKn) assessed by cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spectrophotometry documented that GP abrogated the repression effect of NE on tyrosinase activity and melanin production in HEMn in the presence of recombination SCF significantly. The response of melanocytic melanogenesis to GP was blocked by exendin-(9-39) or K44.2 antibody (c-kit inhibitory antibody). Data from this paper provide the evidence that GP abrogates the NE-induced hypopigmentation by the activation of GLP-1R-dependent c-kit receptor signaling in which c-kit expression is augmented in HEMn.
We examined the effects of nine flavonoids isolated from Scutellariae radix on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced adhesion molecule expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among them, we found that baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy flavone) dose-dependently inhibited IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha-induced endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions. Its 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the IL-1 beta-induced ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions were 2.3 x 10(-5) M and 4.0 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The IC50 for the TNF-alpha-induced ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions were 1.5 x 10(-5) M and 3.1 x 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition, protein C-kinase (PKC) inhibitor H7 also inhibited the ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions induced by IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha.
Zingansikpoongtang (ZST) is a Korean herbal prescription, which has been successfully applied for the various neurodegenerative diseases. However, its effect remains unknown in the experimental models. In this study, we examined the effect of ZST on production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in IL-1beta and beta-amyloid [25-35] fragment (Abeta)-stimulated human astrocytoma cell line U373MG. We examined the biological effects of ZST in U373MG cells using MTT assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. ZST alone had no effect on the cell viability. The production of IL-6 and IL-8 was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with ZST (0.01-1 mg/ml) on IL-1beta and Abeta-stimulated U373MG cells. The expression level of COX-2 protein was up-regulated by IL-1beta and Abeta, but the increased level of COX-2 was partially down-regulated by pretreatment with ZST (1 mg/ml). These data indicate that ZST has a modulatory effect of cytokine production and COX-2 expression on IL-1beta and Abeta-stimulated U373MG cells, which might explain its beneficial effect in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.
Relevance to ethnopharmacology: Danzhi Xiaoyao San (DXS) is a canonical Chinese medicine formula from Principles of Internal Medicine, which was written during the Ming dynasty. This formula is approved and commercialized for use in the prevention and treatment of affective disorders. This study is aimed to investigate the hypothesis that DXS treats depressive-like behavior by shifting the balance of the kynurenine (Kyn)/serotonin (5-HT) pathway toward the 5-HT pathway through the downregulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Chemical fingerprints of gardenoside, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, paeonol, and ligustilide in standard extraction were used as the material bases of DXS. Rats with depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) were randomly divided into four groups, namely the control, model, DXS, and fluoxetine groups. Cytokines, IDO, and tryptophan (Trp) catabolites were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. DXS significantly increased crossing grid numbers, sucrose consumption, and body weight. This treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). However, DXS elicited no significant effects on IL-1β, IL-2, and interferon γ. DXS downregulated the activity of IDO and subsequent production of Kyn in the hippocampus. This treatment upregulated the hippocampal contents of Trp and 5-HT but did not influence 5-HT turnover. DXS exhibited antidepressant-like effects on rats exposed to CUMS. DXS reduced IDO activity to shift the balance of the Kyn/5-HT pathway toward the 5-HT pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Increased hepatic glucose output is one of the major mechanisms of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-BP), a gluconeogenic intermediate, plays a critical role in hepatic glucose output by regulating gluconeogenesis and glycolysis in the liver. Brazilin, an active component of sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan), decreases blood glucose in diabetic animals. In this study, the effect of brazilin on gluconeogenic intermediate production and enzyme activity were examined to investigate the hypoglycemic mechanism of brazilin. Brazilin increased the production of F-2,6-BP in hepatocytes by elevating intracellular levels of fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) and hexose-6-phosphate (H-6-P). Brazilin was also found to significantly increase the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) and pyruvate kinase in glucagon-treated hepatocytes. However, glucose-6-phosphatase activity was not affected by brazilin. This data suggests that brazilin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by elevating the F-2,6-BP level in hepatocytes, possibly by elevating cellular F-6-P/H-6-P levels and PFK-2 activity. Increased pyruvate kinase activity may also play a role in the anti-gluconeogenic action of brazilin.
Plants have always been an important source of treatment. The important contribution of phytotherapy became particularly recognised through European Directive 2004/24/EC (Directive, 2004), which set up a new Committee dedicated to herbal medicinal products at the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In addition, it created a new status for traditional herbal medicinal products by making possible their simplified "registration" based on plausible level of efficacy. Nearly 10 years after the creation of this new framework, an impressive number of monographs were established. However, implementation remains a challenge. There is also a critical need to encourage innovation and research and to ensure that new pieces of legislation are applied to herbal medicinal products taking due account of their characteristics. This article reflects the concerns and expectations of the European manufacturers of herbal medicines.
This report deals with the results of a study of present day uses of traditional medicinal materials in Israel. The survey covered selected markets in medicinal materials, belonging to various religious and ethnic communities, and also included questioning of the sellers and buyers about the healing characteristics of the various materials. The survey yielded information on many and varied medicinal materials, of which 310 are identified according to the following classifications, 264 species of plants (85.1%); 20 species of animals (6.5%); 19 kinds of minerals (6.5%); and seven materials of other or mixed origin (2.3%). Analysis of the data showed that a significant proportion of the materials were of local origin (51.5%) and some were imported from other countries. These data demonstrate that there is still a flourishing and well developed trade in these materials - a trade which is the remnant of a rich and ancient medical culture, which is disappearing from the modern world.
The crude ethanolic extract prepared from the stem bark of Solanum pseudo-quina produced excitatory effects dominated by convulsions in rats and mice. Solvent extraction followed by alumina column chromatography resulted in the isolation of a pharmacologically active material (AP) which was identified to be (25S)-isosolafloridine. The convulsions produced by AP were predominantly clonic and invariably preceded by generalized fine and coarse tremors. This convulsive behaviour did not entirely resemble the convulsions produced by strychnine, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, picrotoxin or 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The tremor and convulsions were only slightly affected by drugs interfering with cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotoninergic or encephalinergic neurotransmission. Only diazepam and particularly gamma-vinyl-GABA blocked AP-induced effects. After section of the spinal cord at a mid-theoretic level, AP produced convulsions only in the anterior part of the body. After intracerebroventricular administration, AP produced only sedation. A depressive effect was also observed on the blood pressure of conscious rats before and after the convulsions. In subconvulsive doses AP enhanced spontaneous motor activity in mice.
In order to validate the use of the stem bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don. (Bignoniaceae) as an anti-inflammatory drug in the traditional Korean medicine, we have investigated the effects of the methanol extract of this folk medicine on the productions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) on RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. The extract inhibited the productions of TNF-alpha and NO with significant decreases in mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and inducible NO synthase, suggesting that the stem bark of Catalpa ovata may have therapeutic potential in the control of inflammatory disorders.
Astragali radix, which has tonifying and circulatory effect as well as immune response, is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude drug for oriental medicine in many Asian countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Astragali radix (ARE) on the functions of murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In the cell proliferation assay, methotrexate (MTX), an agent of immune suppression, decreased the cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells (IC(50): 100 microg/ml), but the suppression of cell proliferation was significantly protected by ARE treatment in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The expressions of cytokine gene by ARE were investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In RT-PCR, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA expressions was induced in ARE-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. We also investigated the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression by ARE. ARE alone had no effect on NO synthesis and iNOS mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. In the case of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, NO production and iNOS mRNA expression were detected in RAW 264.7 cells. However, NO production and iNOS mRNA expression which is induced by LPS decreased after treatment of ARE. These data demonstrate that ARE can reduce the suppression of macrophage cell proliferation induced by MTX, and induce IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Also, ARE inhibit NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the inhibition of NO production may be associated with the inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression.
Post-treatment with nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone), which was purified from the fruit peel of Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, at concentration 6-50 microM significantly suppressed NF-kappaB transcriptional activation, NO and PGE(2) production, and iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Nobiletin inhibited neither LPS-induced phosphorylation/degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha nor LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. However, it interrupted the DNA-binding activity of activated NF-kappaB. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also known to regulate the activation of NF-kappaB, we tested the effect of nobiletin on LPS-induced ROS generation. Nobiletin significantly inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that nobiletin may exert an anti-inflammatory effect through the interruption of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity and the suppression of ROS generation.
Shikonin/alkannin (SA) derivatives, analogs of naphthoquinone pigments, are the major components of root extracts of the Chinese medicinal herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizon; LE) and widely distributed in several folk medicines. In the present study, the effect and the underline molecular mechanism of shikonin derivatives isolated from root extracts of Lithospermum euchroma on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response were investigated. Effects of five SA derivatives, including SA, acetylshikonin, beta,beta-dimethylacrylshikonin, 5,8-dihydroxy-1.4-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells were examined. Data suggested that SA derivatives inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production, and iNOS protein expression. RT-PCR analysis showed that SA derivatives diminished LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was concentration-dependently suppressed by SA derivatives. SA inhibited NF-kappaB activation by prevention of the degradation of inhibitory factor-kappaB and p65 level in nuclear fractions induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of SA derivatives might result from inhibition of iNOS protein expression through the downregulation of NF-kappaB activation via suppression of phosphorylation of ERK, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
It is well established that nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide radicals play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and fever. This study is undertaken to address whether the methanol extract of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora root, a traditional medicine as an antipyretic, modulates the generation of NO and superoxide in IFN-gamma primed or polymyristic acetate (PMA) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The generation of NO as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein from IFN-gamma primed RAW 264.7 cells is markedly decreased by the methanol extract in a dose dependent manner. However, the methanol extract does not affect the viability of RAW 264.7 cells, as assessed by methylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, the methanol extract suppresses the generation of superoxide in PMA-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose and a time dependent manner. Taken together, anti-pyretic effects of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora root extract could result from direct suppression of NO and decreased superoxide generation.
The effects of phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) from Rhus verniciflua Stokes (Anacardiaceae) on the activities of cellular signaling molecules that mediate inflammatory responses in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages were investigated. At various concentrations of PRF significantly inhibited NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The PRF also significantly inhibited iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key role for the inducible expression of genes mediating proinflammatory effects and here, we show that PRF can inhibit the induction of NF-kappaB activity. The PRF effectively inhibited the iNOS and COX-2 protein expression through suppression of phospho-JNK1/2 activation. Study using PDA HPLC has found that the PRF contains several low molecular compounds (i.e. p-coumaric acid, fustin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, sulfuretin, butein, kaempferol). Our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of PRF might result from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., NO, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha) by suppression of such signaling pathways as NF-kappaB and JNK1/2.
The subchronic toxicity of the aqueous antidiabetic herbal extract ADD-199, prepared from Maytenus senegalensis, Annona senegalensis, Kigelia africana and Lanneawelwitschii, and administered at a daily dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight over 30 days, was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. Certain haematological, urine and plasma biochemical parameters, and modulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity or potential for drug interactions. ADD-199 did not affect plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and albumin or creatinine kinase (CK) levels. It also did not affect plasma creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, ADD-199 neither affected PCV nor blood Hb, RBC, reticulocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and granulocyte levels. It, however, caused significant dose-dependent reductions in WBC counts at day 15 with varying degrees of recovery by day 30. It also reduced the rate of body weight increases after week 3. However, no changes were observed in organ weights at termination. ADD-199 did not significantly affect zoxazolamine-induced paralysis and pentobarbital-induced sleeping times as well as certain CYP isozyme activities in rats. These findings suggest that ADD-199 had no overt organ specific toxicity and did not demonstrate a potential for drug interactions via CYP-mediated metabolism in the rat on subchronic administration.
The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the herbal preparation ADD-199 were investigated in STZ-induced diabetic C(3)H mice and results were compared with two allopathic hypoglycaemic drugs, glibenclamide and metformin. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipids as well as liver glycogen, lipids and lipid peroxidation were measured following treatment for 8 weeks. The results indicated that plasma insulin levels in normal controls at termination were about 76 micromol/L compared to trace levels in untreated diabetic mice. Glibenclamide and ADD-199 increased insulin levels in diabetic mice up to 70% of levels in untreated non-diabetic mice whilst metformin had no effect. Basal plasma glucose levels in diabetic controls (18.8 mM) were reduced to 14.0 mM by 100 mg/kg ADD-199 in <2 weeks compared to 4 and 6 weeks for glibenclamide and metformin, respectively. This hypoglycaemic effect of ADD-199 appeared to be associated with the alkaloidal content of the extract. Treatment with ADD-199 or the hypoglycaemic agents reversed the observed elevation in plasma lipids but increased hepatic glycogen, triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. Treatment also increased glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms and attenuated hepatic lipid peroxidation. These antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant actions of ADD-199 at a dose of 100mg/kg/day are comparable to those of the maximum daily therapeutic doses of glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) and metformin (50 mg/kg). These could explain the basis for use of this plant extract to manage diabetes mellitus (DM).
The effect of aqueous extract of petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the established stages of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip renovascular hypertension was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced by subjecting the animals to left renal artery clamping using a 0.2mm silver clip under ether anesthesia. Sham-operated (Sh-Op) rats served as controls. Six weeks after renal artery clamping, one group of hypertensive rats (blood pressure (BP) >140 mmHg) received HS (250 mg/kg/day) in drinking water (2K-1C+HS). The second group (2K-1C) and the sham-operated (Sh-Op) controls, received drinking water. BP was monitored weekly using rat-tail plethysmography. After 8 weeks, 2K-1C+HS had a reduction in systolic BP (139.6+/-1.6 mmHg) compared to 2K-1C (174+/-2.4 mmHg, n=5; P<0.001). No significant difference was found in BP of 2K-1C+HS and Sh-Op (139.6+/-1.6 mmHg versus 132+/-3.4 mmHg). A reduction in heart rate in 2K-1C+HS was observed (388+/-3.7 bpm versus 444+/-6.8 bpm in 2K-1C and 416+/-9.3 in Sh-Op, n=5; P<0.001). The hearts of 2K-1C were heavier than those of 2K-1C+HS (0.74+/-0.03 g versus 0.66+/-0.03 g, n=5; P<0.05). Cardiac weight of 2K-1C+HS was comparable to those of Sh-Op (0.57+/-0.04 g). Serum creatinine and plasma electrolytes were not different from controls. This study suggests that HS exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects in vivo and supports the public belief that HS may be a useful antihypertensive agent.
Geniposide (GP) as an agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an iridoid glycoside from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as a Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of vitiligo vulgaris. Interaction of c-kit receptor with its ligand-SCF potent enhances the melanocytic melanogenesis, which can be repressed by norepinephrine (NE). To discover economic and efficient drug against vitiligo vulgaris, this paper addresses the action and mechanism of GP abrogating the NE-induced hypopigmentation in melanocyte. Flow cytometry exhibited the up-regulation effect of GP on NE-suppressed production of c-kit by normal human epidermal melanocyte (HEMn) in a concentration-dependent manner, and exendin-(9-39) (selective GLP-1R antagonist) appeared to alleviate the GP-stimulated expression of c-kit. However, neither NE nor GP affected the production of SCF by normal human epidermal keratinocyte (HEKn) assessed by cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spectrophotometry documented that GP abrogated the repression effect of NE on tyrosinase activity and melanin production in HEMn in the presence of recombination SCF significantly. The response of melanocytic melanogenesis to GP was blocked by exendin-(9-39) or K44.2 antibody (c-kit inhibitory antibody). Data from this paper provide the evidence that GP abrogates the NE-induced hypopigmentation by the activation of GLP-1R-dependent c-kit receptor signaling in which c-kit expression is augmented in HEMn.
We examined the effects of nine flavonoids isolated from Scutellariae radix on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced adhesion molecule expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among them, we found that baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy flavone) dose-dependently inhibited IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha-induced endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions. Its 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the IL-1 beta-induced ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions were 2.3 x 10(-5) M and 4.0 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The IC50 for the TNF-alpha-induced ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions were 1.5 x 10(-5) M and 3.1 x 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition, protein C-kinase (PKC) inhibitor H7 also inhibited the ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 expressions induced by IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha.

Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed.