European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (EUR J DRUG METAB PH)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics addresses all aspects of pre-clinical and clinical pharmacokinetics, including drug disposition, drug metabolism, drug transport, drug interactions, bioavailability and biopharmacy. The journal welcomes publications in the field of pharmacokinetic modeling. Analytical methods validation and bioequivalence studies will not be considered for publication. The journal publishes original articles, short preliminary communications, review articles on special topics, and conference proceedings. The European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics publishes four issues a year.

Current impact factor: 1.56

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.563
2013 Impact Factor 1.312
2012 Impact Factor 0.944
2011 Impact Factor 0.356
2010 Impact Factor 0.353
2009 Impact Factor 0.677
2008 Impact Factor 0.738
2007 Impact Factor 0.565
2006 Impact Factor 0.479
2005 Impact Factor 0.585
2004 Impact Factor 0.447
2003 Impact Factor 0.474
2002 Impact Factor 0.329
2001 Impact Factor 0.392
2000 Impact Factor 0.488
1999 Impact Factor 0.419
1998 Impact Factor 0.556
1997 Impact Factor 0.567
1996 Impact Factor 0.506
1995 Impact Factor 0.604
1994 Impact Factor 0.489
1993 Impact Factor 0.37
1992 Impact Factor 0.723

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.25
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.38
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
Website European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics website
Other titles European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
ISSN 0378-7966
OCLC 2181264
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Although lipid-based drug delivery systems have gained much importance in recent years due to their ability to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses have not been extensively explored. The oral pharmacokinetics of commercial liquid formulation and a developed semisolid system containing saquinavir mesylate (SQVM) were compared in Beagle dogs. A compartmental analysis after intravenous bolus administration of this drug (1 mg/kg) was also performed. Method: Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using both non-compartmental and compartmental approaches. Plasma concentration of the drug was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Results: The disposition curve of SQVM given intravenously was better described by a three-compartment model. In contrast, plasma profiles obtained following the oral administration were fitted to a two-compartment model with lag time due to the fact that the distribution phase was masked by the absorption phase in these formulations. Conclusion: The proposed semisolid lipid system was found to be a promising formulation for commercial purposes given the similarity of SQVM absorption rate to that from the commercial liquid formulation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose Predicting absorption of macromolecules in humans following subcutaneous administration is complicated by interspecies differences in skin anatomy. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that an empiric relationship exists between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans in the absorption of a subcutaneously administered macromolecule which was then used to predict the time course of a pegylated peptide conjugate for planning of a first-in-human investigation. Methods Concentration data obtained from NHPs receiving intravenous and subcutaneous doses of a novel pegylated peptide conjugate were fit to a pharmacokinetic model. The model was then scaled to a virtual population of humans through incorporation of allometric scaling factors on clearance, volume and first-order rate absorption processes. Several scenarios of simulated data were compared with observed data obtained from a first-in-human investigation. Results NHP data were best described by a 2-compartment model with dual-parallel, first-order absorption processes, one of which exhibited a lag time. Empirically selected scaling factors, assuming an inverse relationship of body weight and absorption provided reasonable prediction of the peptide’s time course in plasma. Employing fitted exponents based on observed human data improved the fit somewhat, however, did not correct entirely for over prediction observed with the empiric exponents. Conclusion For macromolecules where the absorption can be described by first-order rate processes, an assumption of an inverse relationship in species size may predict the time course after subcutaneous administration and may support optimal study design for a first-in-human investigation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective We recently developed a new population pharmacokinetic model for hydromorphone in patients including age and bodyweight as covariates. The aim of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the predictive performance of this new model during postoperative pain therapy. Methods This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized, single-center study with two parallel arms. Fifty patients aged 40–85 years undergoing cardiac surgery involving thoracotomy were enrolled. Hydromorphone was administered postoperatively on the intensive care unit as target controlled infusion (TCI) for patient controlled analgesia (TCI-PCA) using the new pharmacokinetic model, or as conventional patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Arterial blood samples were taken for measurement of the hydromorphone plasma concentration. The predictive performance of the pharmacokinetic model was assessed by the median performance error (MDPE), the median absolute performance error (MDAPE), wobble and divergence. For comparison, the performance indices were also determined for three older models from the literature. Results 903 plasma concentrations of 41 patients were analyzed. The mean values (95 % CI) of MDPE, MDAPE, wobble and divergence for the new pharmacokinetic model were 11.2 % (3.9 to 18.7 %), 28.5 % (23.9 to 33.0 %), 21.4 % (18.0 to 24.9 %) and −1.6 %/h (–2.3 to –0.8 %/h). When compared with older models from the literature, performance was better with less overshoot after bolus doses. Conclusion The new pharmacokinetic model of hydromorphone showed a good precision and a better performance than older models. It is therefore suitable for TCI with hydromorphone during postoperative pain therapy. Trial Registration EudraCT 2013-002875-16, Clinical Trials NCT02035709.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Hydronidone is a novel pyridine derivative with therapeutic potential for hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of hydronidone in healthy subjects. Effects of sex and food on hydronidone pharmacokinetics were also evaluated. Methods A randomized, dose-escalating, first-in-human study was conducted in 88 subjects. Five cohorts of 34 subjects received a single dose of hydronidone capsules at 15–120 mg, and two cohorts of 12 subjects received 90 and 120 mg of hydronidone thrice daily for 7 days, and six subjects received 60 mg of hydronidone thrice daily for 28 days to assess the safety and tolerability. In 36 subjects, hydronidone pharmacokinetics were investigated following oral administration of single (30, 60, and 120 mg) and multiple (60 mg, thrice daily) doses of hydronidone. Results Plasma concentrations of hydronidone and area under the concentration–time curve were found to be proportional to dose. Hydronidone was rapidly absorbed [median time to maximum plasma concentration (t max) = 0.33–0.63 h] and cleared [terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2) = 1.72–3.10 h]. Pharmacokinetic parameters after multiple doses were similar to those after single dose. Food had a significant affect (P < 0.01) on the extent and rate of absorption. No significant sex differences were noted for pharmacokinetic variables. Conclusion Hydronidone was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed, and concomitant intake of food reduced rate and extent (about 20 %) of absorption in healthy volunteers. There was no accumulation following multiple doses of hydronidone. These results support a 60 mg thrice-daily regimen for management of hepatic fibrosis and further development of hydronidone (registered at as ChiCTR-ONC-12002899).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives The probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 has previously been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone. The aim of this study was to determine whether the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei produces similar alterations in amiodarone disposition. Methods A suspension of live probiotic bacteria L. casei strain DN-114 001 (1.5 × 109 CFU/dose; probiotic pre-treated group) or a saline solution (control group) was administered directly into the stomach of male Wistar rats (N = 30 in each group) by oral gavage daily for 7 consecutive days. On the eighth day, all rats (N = 60) were given a single oral dose of an amiodarone hydrochloride suspension (model drug; 50 mg/kg). The concentrations of amiodarone and of its main metabolite N-desethylamiodarone were determined in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone in the control group and probiotic pre-treated group revealed that the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone was delayed by >2 h in the probiotic pre-treated group. The plasma level of N-desethylamiodarone was unchanged in the probiotic pre-medicated group and its pharmacokinetic parameters were not altered. Conclusions The slower absorption of amiodarone in the probiotic pre-treated rats compared to the control ones and the unchanged pharmacokinetics of its main metabolite suggest that the probiotic strain of L. casei DN-114 001 has probably no clinical consequences as the difference was not statistically significant.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: We have recently found an H(+)/quinidine antiport system in human kidney HEK 293 cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the H(+)/quinidine antiport system is expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Methods: We investigated the uptake and efflux of quinidine in MDCK cells. Results: The uptake of 100 µM quinidine into MDCK cells was decreased by acidification of extracellular pH or alkalization of intracellular pH. In addition, the uptake of quinidine was highly temperature sensitive, but was extracellular Na(+) and membrane potential independent. Furthermore, tetraethylammonium, a typical substrate of renal organic cation transporters, did not inhibit the uptake of quinidine in MDCK cells. On the other hand, lipophilic cationic drugs, such as clonidine, bisoprolol, diphenhydramine, pyrilamine, and imipramine, significantly decreased the uptake of quinidine in MDCK cells. The uptake of quinidine was saturable, and the Michaelis-Menten constant was estimated to be approximately 0.5 mM. In addition, the efflux of quinidine from MDCK cells was increased by the acidification of extracellular pH, suggesting that the transport system mediates not only the uptake, but also secretion of quinidine. Conclusions: The present findings suggested that the renal new antiport system is involved in the bidirectional membrane transport of quinidine in MDCK cells.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet and antithrombotic prodrug. It has poor oral bioavailability due to poor dissolution and possible premature degradation in the intestine. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to enhance clopidogrel dissolution rate and to reduce its premature degradation in rabbit intestine. Methods: Solid dispersion (SD) systems of clopidogrel with gelucire 50/13 and/or cremophor RH40 were prepared using fusion technique. The SD systems were characterized with respect to drug dissolution. The characterization included thermal analysis and infrared investigations. The stability of clopidogrel in the fluid extracted from small intestinal and colonic mucosal surfaces was monitored both in absence and presence of cremophor or gelucire. Results: SD formation enhanced drug dissolution with the enhancement increasing at higher concentrations of either cremophor or gelucire. The ternary SD of clopidogrel with cremophor and gelucire reflected synergism between them. This synergism was manifested by enhanced dissolution efficiency of drug to reach 85 % at pH 6.8 and 89 % at pH 7.4 compared to unprocessed drug which liberated 16.2 and 15.2 % at the same pH values, respectively. Enhanced dissolution from SD was mainly due to micellar solubilization for cremophor and was due to change in the crystalline nature of drug with a contribution to self-emulsification in case of gelucire. Clopidogrel showed premature degradation in the intestinal fluid. Cremophor RH 40 reduced this degradation but gelucire failed in this respect. Conclusion: The study introduced SD system for enhanced dissolution rate of clopidogrel with a potential of reduced premature degradation in the intestine.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: β-Lapachone (βLAP) is a promising, poorly soluble, antitumoral drug. βLAP combination with cyclodextrins (CDs) improves its solubility and dissolution but there is not enough information about the impact of cyclodextrins on βLAP intestinal permeability. The objectives of this work were to characterize βLAP intestinal permeability and to elucidate cyclodextrins effect on the dissolution properties and on the intestinal permeability. The final goal was to evaluate CDs influence on the oral absorption of βLAP. Methods: Binary systems (physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) including βLAP and CDs (β-cyclodextrin: βCD, random-methyl-β-cyclodextrin: RMβCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin: SBEβCD) have been prepared and analysed by differential scanning calorimetry. βLAP (and its combinations with CDs) absorption rate coefficients and effective permeability values have been determined in vitro in MDCK or MDCK-Mdr1 monolayers and in situ in rat by a closed loop perfusion technique. Results: DSC results confirmed the formation of the inclusion complexes. βLAP-CDs inclusion complexes improve drug solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with physical mixtures. βLAP presented a high permeability value which can provide complete oral absorption. Its oral absorption is limited by its low solubility and dissolution rate. Cyclodextrin (both as physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) showed a positive effect on the intestinal permeability of βLAP. Complexation with CDs does not reduce βLAP intestinal permeability in spite of the potential negative effect of the reduction in free fraction of the drug. Conclusions: The use of RMβCD or SBEβCD inclusion complexes could benefit βLAP oral absorption by enhancing its solubility, dissolution rate and permeability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is becoming an increasingly prevalent disease that concerns patients and healthcare professionals worldwide. Among many anti-diabetic agents in clinical uses, numerous reports are available on their altered pharmacokinetics because of changes in the expression of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes under diabetic states. These changes may affect the safety and efficacy of therapeutic agents and/or drug-drug interaction with co-administered agents. Therefore, the changes in transporter expression should be identified, and the underlying mechanisms should be clarified. This review summarizes the progress of recent studies on the alterations in important uptake and efflux transporters in liver of diabetic animals and their regulatory pathways.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Curcumin is the major bioactive component of turmeric, but has poor oral bioavailability that limits its clinical applications. To improve the in vitro solubility and alkaline stability, we developed a prodrug of curcumin by succinylation to obtain curcumin diethyl disuccinate, with the goal of improving the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Methods: The in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of curcumin diethyl disuccinate was compared with that of curcumin in male Wistar rats. Doses of curcumin 20 mg/kg intravenous or 40 mg/kg oral were used as standard regimens for comparison with the prodrug at equivalent doses in healthy adult rats. Blood, tissues, urine, and faeces were collected from time zero to 48 h after dosing to determine the prodrug level, curcumin level and a major metabolite by liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry. Results: The absolute oral bioavailability of curcumin diethyl disuccinate was not significantly improved compared with curcumin, with both compounds having oral bioavailability of curcumin less than 1 %. The major metabolic pathway of the prodrug was rapid hydrolysis to obtain curcumin, followed by glucuronidation. Interestingly, curcumin diethyl disuccinate gave superior tissue distribution with higher tissue to plasma ratio of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide in several organs after intravenous dosing at 1 and 4 h. The primary elimination route of curcumin glucuronide occurred via biliary and faecal excretion, with evidence of an entry into the enterohepatic circulation. Conclusion: Curcumin diethyl disuccinate did not significantly improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin due to first pass metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. Further studies on reduction of first pass metabolism are required to optimise delivery of curcumin using a prodrug approach.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Glycopyrronium is a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics of inhaled glycopyrronium 50 µg once-daily for 14 days in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods: In this open-label study, 12 Chinese healthy subjects (six males and six females; mean age 23.1 years [range 18-26 years]) were enrolled and completed the study. Glycopyrronium in plasma was determined using validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with a lower limit of quantification of 1.5 pg/mL. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on Day 1 after first dose and on Day 14 (steady state) after last dose using non-compartmental analysis. Trough pharmacokinetic samples (Days 5, 7, 10 and 12) were collected. Safety was also assessed. Results: Glycopyrronium was rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation and its plasma concentrations decreased rapidly thereafter. Median time to reach maximum concentration (T max) was reached within 5 min after inhalation on both Days 1 and 14. Accumulation in the systemic exposure to glycopyrronium was observed from the time of first dose administration on Day 1 up to Day 14 and the observed accumulation ratio (R acc) values of area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve [AUC] from time 0 to 24 h post-dose (AUC0-24h) and maximum plasma drug concentration (C max) (Day 14/Day 1) were 2.77 and 1.59, respectively. The elimination half-life (T 1/2) was not reported. Mean effective half-life (T 1/2,acc) was 37.7 h. Pharmacokinetic steady state was reached after 5 days of daily dosing. One subject experienced dry mouth; otherwise glycopyrronium was well tolerated. Conclusions: Comparison of systemic exposure to glycopyrronium in Chinese versus the non-Chinese population did not indicate clinically relevant ethnic differences. Multiple inhaled doses of glycopyrronium were safe and well tolerated.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Herbal medicines are currently in high demand, and their popularity is steadily increasing. Because of their perceived effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost, they are being used for the management of numerous medical conditions. However, they are capable of affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of coadministered conventional drugs. These interactions are particularly of clinically relevance when metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters, which are responsible for the fate of many drugs, are induced or inhibited, sometimes resulting in unexpected outcomes. This article discusses the general use of herbal medicines in the management of several ailments, their concurrent use with conventional therapy, mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions (HDIs) as well as the drawbacks of herbal remedy use. The authors also suggest means of surveillance and safety monitoring of herbal medicines. Contrary to popular belief that "herbal medicines are totally safe," we are of the view that they are capable of causing significant toxic effects and altered pharmaceutical outcomes when coadministered with conventional medicines. Due to the paucity of information as well as sometimes conflicting reports on HDIs, much more research in this field is needed. The authors further suggest the need to standardize and better regulate herbal medicines in order to ensure their safety and efficacy when used alone or in combination with conventional drugs.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Rufinamide is a triazole derivative that is structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic medications for add-on treatment of seizures in the setting of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients from the age of 4 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of single and multiple doses of rufinamide in healthy Chinese subjects. The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide were also evaluated. In the single-dose study, volunteers were randomly assigned to 4 dose groups and received a single dose of 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg rufinamide tablets under fasting condition. Ten subjects in the 200-mg dose group were randomly assigned to either a high-fat or non-high-fat breakfast group in each study period. The drug administration was separated by a washout period of 7 calendar days. In the multiple-dose study, 10 subjects were administered on an empty stomach rufinamide 200 mg twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine plasma concentration of rufinamide. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max), the time to peak concentration (t max), the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2), apparent volume of distribution (V d), apparent clearance (CL), average residence time (MRT), area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration at steady state (AUCss), peak concentration (C max,ss) and trough level concentration (C min,ss) at steady state were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed based on investigator inquiries, spontaneous reports and clinical evaluations. Rufinamide displayed a dose-dependent, but sub-proportional increase in exposure following single-dose and repeated dose administration. After administration of single dose of 200, 400, 800 and 1200 mg, without food, the rufinamide mean C max (standard deviation, SD) was 1806.5 (526.4), 2490 (564.8), 3719 (976.1) and 4166 (1187.1) μg/L, respectively. Mean AUC0-t (SD) was 34,571 (9484), 56,246 (18,077), 89,022 (23,379) and 107,316 (34,766) μg·h/L, respectively. While in fed condition at the dosage of 200 mg, mean C max (SD) and mean AUC0-t (SD) were 2363 (582) μg/L and 40,593 (10,516) μg·h/L, respectively. After administration of multiple doses, arithmetic mean (SD) values of C max and AUC0-t were 3566 (873) μg/L and 62,803 (19,873) μg·h/L, respectively. The steady state was achieved by day 3 of multiple dosing after 2 daily doses (twice a day), the corresponding accumulation factor (AUCss/AUC0-t) was 0.9057. Although there were no substantial effects on exposure resulting from gender differences, a notable food effect was observed, with AUC and C max increased by 17.4 and 30.8 %, respectively. Single- and multiple-dose phases were generally safe and well tolerated. Overall, 15 % (6/40) of subjects experienced a mild indisposition with no serious adverse events. On single and multiple dosing, rufinamide exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics and was well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: MTBH, a novel hesperetin derivative, possesses in vivo hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of MTBH and its conjugated metabolites in rats after a single dose of MTBH. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally administered (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) or intravenously administered (25 mg/kg) MTBH and blood samples were withdrawn at specific times. Moreover, after a single oral dose of MTBH (200 mg/kg), tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, brain and muscle) were collected at scheduled time points. The concentration of MTBH in plasma and tissues was assayed by HPLC before and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase or sulfatase. The glucuronides/sulfates were extensively present in the plasma, moreover, the free form was detectable in the plasma, but in a small amount equivalent to nearly 0.85-1.46 % of the amount of glucuronides/sulfates, the absolute bioavailability of MTBH was approximately 31.27 %. In tissues, the free form appeared in all tissues examined, with trace amount in brain and muscle, and considerable concentration in stomach and lung. Glucuronides/sulfates were the major forms in intestine, kidney and liver, whereas not detectable in heart, brain and muscle. The liver and intestine were found likely to accumulate MTBH at a high concentration among all tissues. The free form of MTBH was present in the circulation and all assayed organs, whereas its glucuronides/sulfates were the major forms in plasma and intestine, kidney and liver after a single dose.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics