Mikrobiyoloji bülteni (MIKROBIYOL BUL)

Publisher: Ankara Mikrobiyoloji Derneği

Current impact factor: 0.65

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 0.654
2013 Impact Factor 0.438
2012 Impact Factor 0.611
2011 Impact Factor 0.402
2010 Impact Factor 0.354
2009 Impact Factor 0.286
2008 Impact Factor 0.301
2007 Impact Factor 0.209

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.70
Cited half-life 4.40
Immediacy index 0.09
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.11
Website Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni / Bulletin of Mikrobiyology website
Other titles Mikrobiyoloji bülteni, Bulletin of microbiology
ISSN 0374-9096
OCLC 1262126
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, a significant rise in the number of immunocompromised patients have been observed due to cancer chemotherapy, organ transplantation and HIV infection. As a result of this, the frequency of Candida albicans infections in the clinics have been increased. Fluconazole, as being a well tolerated, easy to use drug with minor side effects, is often the first choice antifungal agent for this patient group, both for therapy and prophylaxis. Especially the long-term use of this drug, causes the selection of resistant strains and leads to the development of fluconazole resistance. The most frequently observed resistance mechanism against fluconazole in C.albicans strains is the transportation of the drug out of the cell via efflux pumps. The efflux pumps mainly involved are Cdr1, Cdr2 ve Mdr1 encoded by CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 genes. It has been shown that, the overexpression of these efflux pump genes was caused by functional mutations in TAC1 and MRR1 genes which encode the transcription factors Tac1p and Mrr1p. This study was aimed to analyze TAC1 and MRR1 genes of 15 C.albicans strains which consist of six fluconazole-susceptible, four susceptible with trailing effect and five fluconazole-resistant isolates plus one resistant strain (DSY292), known to overexpress Mdr1 efflux pump due to P683H mutation in MRR1 gene and one fluconazole-sensitive ATCC 14053 C.albicans strain in terms of mutations with polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Two of the fluconazole-resistant isolates which had overexpression of Cdr1 and Cdr2 pumps known to have overexpression of TAC1 gene, revealed R673Q and A736V mutations. A P683H point mutation, that overexpressed the Mdr1 pump was detected in a fluconazole-resistant strain, which was known to cause MRR1 overexpression. In conclusion, mutations in the transcription factors of the efflux pump genes may play an important role in the resistance against fluconazole among our selected C.albicans strains.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis, caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars with the consumption of contaminated food, is one of the leading food-borne disease that makes microbial food safety an important public health issue. This study was performed in order to determine the antibiotic resistance, serotyping, plasmid profiles and pathogenicity potentials of food-borne Salmonella isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model system in Edirne province, located at Thrace region of Turkey. In this study, 32 Salmonella isolates, of which 26 belonged to Infantis, four to Enteritidis, one to Telaviv and one to Kentucky serovars, isolated from chicken carcasses were used. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A new C.elegans nematode animal model system was used to determine the pathogenicity potential of the isolates. The antibiotic resistance profiles revealed that one (3.1%) isolate was resistant to gentamicin, two (6.2%) to ciprofloxacin, three (9.4%) to ampicillin, 18 (56.3%) to kanamycin, 19 (60.8%) to neomycin, 25 (78.1%) to tetracycline, 25 (78.1%) to trimethoprim, 26 (81.25%) to nalidixic acid, 27 (84.4%) to streptomycin and 32 (100%) to sulfonamide. All of the 32 strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ampicillin/sulbactam. High levels of resistance to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfonamide, kanamycin and neomycin was determined. According to the plasmid analysis, six isolates (18.75%) harboured 1-3 plasmids with sizes between 1.2 and 42.4 kb. In C.elegans nematode animal model system, the time (in days) required to kill 50% (TD50) of nematodes was calculated for each experimental group. TD50 values of the nematode group fed with S.Typhimurium ATCC 14028 that was used as the positive control and another group fed with E.coli OP50 as the negative control were 4.2 ± 0.5 days and 8.0 ± 0.02 days, respectively. TD50 of the groups fed with Salmonella isolates ranged between 3.4 and 7.3 days. The significance of the differences between TD50 values of the positive control and experimental groups was analysed by using Student's t test. Ten of the isolates (31.25%), of which six belonged to Infantis and four to the Enteritidis serotypes were non-pathogenic, and the rest 22 isolates including Infantis, Kentucky and Telaviv serovars (67.75%) were found to be pathogenic for the C.elegans animal system (p< 0.05). Twenty of the isolates (90.9%) which were determined as pathogens showed multiple drug resistance and three of them possessed 1-3 plasmids, sizes between 1.2 - 42.4 kb. The overall results underlined wide distribution of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica strains and provided a practical alternative for studies aiming determination of pathogenic potential of environmental and food-borne strains through new experimental animal infection model. In this study, C.elegans was utilized for the first time to determine the profiles of pathogenicity of food-borne Salmonella serotypes in Turkey.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a potent cytotoxin of S.aureus is also considered as an important virulence factor. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and prevalence of mecC and pvl genes among S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 1700 S.aureus isolates including 1177 methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and 523 MRSA, isolated in our hospital between January 2007 to December 2014, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and BD Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) according to the CLSI standards. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by the use of real-time PCR, and the presence of pvl and mecC genes were detected by conventional PCR method. Among the patients, 44.6% (759/1700) were outpatients, 65.8% (1119/1700) were male and the mean age of of patients was 39.7 years. Of 1700 isolates evaluated in this study, 523 (30.7%) were positive for mecA gene, however all of them were negative for mecC gene. A total of 32 (1.8%) isolates were positive for pvl gene including 23 (1.9%) out of 1177 MSSA and nine (1.7%) out of 523 MRSA strains. Eighteen (56.2%) of the PVL-positive S.aureus strains were isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. The frequency of PVL detected in this study was similar to the data of previous studies in our country. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for the determination of the mecC in our country. Although the mecC gene positive S.aureus has not been detected in our study, it should be kept in mind that the regional epidemiological conditions can vary quickly. In conclusion, multicenter studies are needed for the screening of mecC gene including the animal isolates, in Turkey.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally-dispersed agent of chronic hepatitis with a significant public health threat, affecting over 110 million individuals throughout the world. The increased risk for chronicity after exposure and the lack of a protective vaccine make HCV is a leading infectious cause of cirrhosis, liver failure requiring transplantation and hepatocellular carcinoma. The replicative process and infection dynamics in the host enable HCV to generate an array of closely-related but non-identical genetic variants known as quasispecies in the infected individuals. Pathogenesis and outcome in HCV infections are directly affected by the virus genetic heterogeneity, reflected as the emergence of quasispecies in infected individuals. The evolution of these highly-diverse viral populations in the host directly influences the disease course, via providing a pool of variants capable of resuming viral replication under extrinsic and/or intrinsic selective pressures. Viral quasispecies go through several alterations during the course of the infection, and provide a background for the selection of escape mutants from the host humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and antiviral treatment. Supported by the robust next generation sequencing techniques, recent studies have provided significant insights on the genomic diversity and progression as well as on the origin and the epidemiology of HCV. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of HCV genetic variability, and the interactions with the host, that affects clinical disease, covering viral and host determinants of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, alterations during the early and late stages of the infection and disease progression leading to chronicity. In addition, current findings in virus evolution and epidemiology were briefly interpreted from the inter-species and population perspectives. The impact of viral genomic heterogeneity on antiviral treatment in the era of direct-acting agents is also discussed, along with an overview of current methods employed for the characterization of viral diversity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with rodents, eating the meat of hunted animals (rabbit), having pet (cat) in home (p> 0.05). In this study, the rate of tularemia seropositivity among humans was similar to the results of previous studies which were performed in our country; however the seropositivity rate of tularemia among domestic animals in our study was higher than the results of a few studies which were conducted on domestic animals. In conclusion, preventive procedures and precautions must be taken into consideration to control the transmission of the infection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a zoonotic infection caused by Leishmania species which are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmania infantum is the responsible species of VL in Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey mainly observed sporadically in pediatric age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of adult patients with VL who were admitted to our hospital. A total of 10 patients (3 female, 7 male; age range: 18-67 years, mean age: 39.3 ± 16.51) followed in the infectious diseases clinic of the hospital between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The diagnosis of VL was based on the presence of appropriate clinical and physical examination, as well as biochemical findings, positive serological test results (indirect fluorescent antibody test, and rK39 rapid antigen test) and/or detection of amastigote forms of parasite in the bone marrow aspiration samples. Of the cases three were diagnosed with both bone marrow and serology positivity, five with bone marrow positivity and one of each only with liver biopsy and positive serology result. Time interval from onset of the symptoms until the establishment of the specific clinical diagnosis was ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. The most frequent initial symptoms were fever, fatigue and abdominal distension. None of the patients had immunosupressive conditions such as HIV infection, corticosteroid use, immunosupressive treatment, or transplantation. All the patients were from Aegean region and six were living in rural areas. In all cases, hepatosplenomegaly, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin/globulin ratio inversion, anemia, leukopenia and among nine cases trombocytopenia were detected. In one case acute renal failure has been developed before treatment and the patient was admitted to dialysis program. Bacterial superinfection occurred in two cases. Patients were treated with either meglumine antimonate (Glucantime®, 20 mg/kg/day, intramuscularly for 28 days) or liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/day, intravenously for the first 5 days, then on 14th and 21st days) according to the availability of drugs. During one year follow-up period all of the patients improved and no recurrence was seen in any patient. In conclusion, among adult patients with fever uncontrolled within 2-week course of ampiric antibiotic treatment without any infectious focus or malignancy, VL should also be considered.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV), classified in Hepeviridae family, Hepevirus genus, is a non-enveloped virus with icosahedral capsid containing single-stranded positive sense RNA genome. HEV infections may be asymptomatic especially in children, however it may present as fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, as well as chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. There are four well-known genotypes of HEV that infect humans and many mammalian species. Genotype 1 and 2 are frequently responsible for water-borne infections transmitted by fecal-oral way in developing countries, while genotype 3 and 4 cause zoonotic infections in developed countries. Turkey is considered as an endemic country with a total seroprevalence rate of 6.3% for normal population, showing significant variation (0-73%) according to the regions and study groups. The aims of this study were to investigate the HEV seropositivity in cases admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty Hospital (HUMFH), to evaluate the results according to the demographic features of patients, and to determine the current HEV seroprevalence in our region, contributing seroepidemiological data in Turkey. A total of 1043 serum samples (514 female, 529 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 38.03) obtained from 327 blood donors (32 female, 295 male; age range: 19-59 years, mean age: 31.1) who were admitted to HUMFH Blood Center, and 716 sera (482 female, 234 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 41.7) that were sent to HUMFH Central Laboratory from various outpatient/inpatient clinics, between November 2012 to November 2013, were included in the study. The presence of HEV-IgG antibodies in serum samples was detected by a commercial ELISA method (Euroimmun, Germany), and the presence of HEV-IgM antibodies was also investigated in the sera with IgG-positive results. The overall HEV-IgG seropositivity rate was determined as 4.4% (46/1043), and the seropositivity rates for blood donors and in/outpatients were as 0.92% (3/327) and 6.0% (43/716), respectively. HEV-IgM antibody was not detected in any of the cases. The HEV-IgG seropositivity was 3.2% among male, and 5.6% among female, yielding no statistically significant difference between the gender (p= 0.056). HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in none (0/118) of the pediatric age group (0-18 years), while the seropositivity rates were 1.9% (14/731) and 16.5% (32/194) in 19-55 and ≥ 56 years-old groups, respectively. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant (p< 0.001), indicating the age-related pattern of HEV exposure. In conclusion, the total HEV seroprevalence rate found as 4.4% in our study, is comparable to the average results reported from Turkey. Our data is also in agreement with the result of a previous report (3.8%) that performed from Ankara province in 2002 with similar study groups, emphasizing that there was no significant changes for HEV exposure have occured over more than the last decade in Ankara, Cental Anatolia, Turkey.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Non-neutropenic intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at particular risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In these cases, radiological and microbiological methods (direct microscopy, culture), which can be used for diagnosis, have quite low sensitivity and specificity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk factors for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-neutropenic ICU patients and to determine the diagnostic values of galactomannan (GM) antigen and Aspergillus nucleic acid detection methods. A total of 44 patients (13 female, 31 male; age range: 36-96 years) who had been followed at pulmonary ICU with invasive mechanical ventilation and undergone bronchoscopy between January to December 2013, were included in the study. Consecutive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples were obtained from all of the patients. BAL samples were tested for the presence of Aspergillus DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and both serum and BAL samples were tested for GM antigen by EIA method (Platelia Aspergillus, BioRad, France). EORTC/MSG criteria were used for the case definition of IPA. Patients were classified as high-probable IPA, possible IPA and non-IPA. ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis was used to determine the diagnostic values of BAL Aspergillus PCR and BAL GM in the diagnosis of IPA. Five patients were defined as high-probable IPA and six were defined as possible IPA; thus the incidence rate of IPA was estimated as 11.4% (5/44) among non-neutropenic intensive care unit patients. In high-probable IPA patients, BAL GM levels were significantly higher than non-IPA patients (p< 0.05). The prolonged duration in ICU, presence of septic shock and the use of high cumulative doses (> 460 mg) of steroid were found to be risk factors for IPA development. The cut-off value for GM in BAL samples was determined as 0.7, with a sensitivity rate of 100% (95% confidence interval: 47.9-100) and a specificity rate of 87.9% (95% confidence interval: 71.7-96.5), so optimal GM level in BAL was considered as ≥ 0.7 for the diagnosis of IPA. The specificity rates of serum GM and BAL Aspergillus PCR methods were high (97.1% and 93.9%, respectively), however their sensitivity rates were found quite low (33.3% and 40%, respectively), in the diagnosis of IPA. In conclusion, development of IPA should be assessed in non-neutropenic patients when the stay in ICU extends and high dose cumulative steroids are used. GM antigen detection in BAL can be used effectively for diagnosis of IPA in these patients compared to other diagnostic methods.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella infections, especially infections due to Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 phage type strains are an important public health issue in many parts of the world. S.Typhimurium is the most common serotype isolated from clinical samples in Turkey but we have limited data about the phage types of these isolates. The aims of this study were to find out whether these MDR S.Typhimurium isolates are DT104 phage type isolates and have class 1 integrons and to investigate the relationships of these characteristics between plasmid and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. A total of 66 S.Typhimurium stock strains selected from Enterobacteria Laboratory culture collections of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology were investigated by plasmid profile analysis (PPA) and PFGE with the use of XbaI and SpeI enzymes. The presence of class 1 integrons and the phage type 104 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The strains used in the study were sporadically isolated cases from seven provinces after year 2000 with ACSSuT (63), ACGSSuTT/S (1), ACSSuTT/S (1) and ASSuTT/S (1) resistance types [ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), gentamicin (G), streptomycin (S), sulphonamide (Su), tetracycline (T), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T/S)]. Of the isolates 65 were found as DT104 phage type. Forty-three S.Typhimurium DT104 isolates that carry class 1 integrons had five different bands between 350-1600 base pairs (bp); all of the isolates harbored 1-4 plasmids with sizes ranging from 1.0-180 kbp and 62 isolates had 90 kbp plasmid which was serotype specific and virulence related. S.Typhimurium DT104 isolates were grouped into five (X1-X5) and seven (S1-S7) profiles with XbaI and SpeI enzymes, respectively. When the profiles of the two enzymes were evaluated, 58 of the 65 (89.2%) isolates showed similar (X1.S1) profile. The molecular characteristics of the most S.Typhimurium isolates were clustered in similar groups when class 1 integron, plasmid and PFGE types were analyzed together. In this study we showed that nearly all S.Typhimurium isolates with five drug resistance pattern (ACSSuT) were DT104 isolates. PFGE profiles of these sporadic isolates suggested that they were epidemiologically related.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Today, the most common cause of bloodstream infections, which led to high mortality, prolonged hospitalization and increased costs are the intravenous catheters. Among the microorganisms associated with catheter infections, staphylococci took the first place and because of their biofilm-forming properties they cause serious problems in treatment and management of the patients. Although the drug of choice in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is vancomycin, its effect on the bacterial biofilm is known to be low. Tigecycline, newly used in our country is a well tolerated glycylcycline antibiotic. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of tigecycline and vancomycin in an in vitro MRSA biofilm model. The study consisted of 10 MRSA strains, which were detected as causative agents of catheter-related infections in our hospital. The methicillin resistance of the strains were performed by disk diffusion test with oxacillin (1 μg) disks and the biofilm forming capacity of the strains was evaluated using the Congo red agar method. The silicone disks with created biofilm layer were exposed to tigecycline (2 mg/ml) and vancomycin (2 mg/ml) for 24 hours and for 5 days 4-hours per day in a model of antibiotic lock therapy. The present study showed that, after incubating the silicon discs in antibiotic solution for 24 hours, colony forming unit counts of MRSA decreased from 105 cfu/ml to 510 cfu/ml in the tigecycline group and from 105 cfu/ml to 3.800 cfu/ml in the vancomycin group and remained the same in the control (105 cfu/ml) group (p< 0.001). In the antibiotic lock therapy model, incubation with antibiotics for 4 hours per day, yielded that the average growth was 1.800 cfu/ml in the tigecycline group and 8.700 cfu/ml in the vancomycin group, which was statistically significant (p< 0.001). No growth was detected in the tigecycline group (0 cfu/ml) while in vancomycin group number of colonies in second, thirth and fourth days were 2.000, 260, 80 cfu/ml, respectively, no growth was seen in the fifth day. From the first day until the fourth day tigecycline was statistically more effective than vancomycin (p< 0.001, p< 0.001, p< 0.001, p= 0.013, according to days respectively). As a result, it was determined that tigecycline showed a higher effect on MRSA biofilm layer created on silicon discs and the results suggested that tigecycline might be a good alternative in the treatment of catheter infections.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne, multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Although variable rates of seropositivity for B.burgdorferi have been reported between 2% to 44% in Turkey, its actual prevalence is not well-understood. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristics of 10 cases of LD presenting as erythema migrans (EM) between 2009 and 2013 from Istanbul which is one of the metropolitan cities of Turkey. Of the patients, five were male and five were female, ages between 9-51 years (mean age: 34.5 years). Five of the patients were admitted in June, three in October, one in November and two in December and all have the history of tick bite in last 1-2 weeks. There were no clinical symptoms for systemic infection among the patients with normal level routine laboratory test (whole blood count and biochemical tests) results. Five of the cases had EM lesions in the trunk, three in the upper extremities, and two in the lower extremities. Four patients presented with annular, three with solitary macular, and three with target-like EM lesions. In all cases, the biopsy specimens were positive for B.burgdorferi sensu lato DNA with polymerase chain reaction and all were also positive in terms of B.burgdorferi IgM antibodies with ELISA. Nine patients were treated with oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily and one child patient was treated with oral amoxicillin 500 mg twice daily for 21 days. EM lesions disappeared within 2-4 weeks in all patients. There was no clinical evidence for systemic involvement in any of the patients like neurologic, cardiac, and joint involvement at the follow-ups on the third, sixth and 12th months. To our best knowledge, 10 patients in this study are the largest EM series reported from Turkey. The increase in the number of LD cases may be associated with increased tick bite and increased awareness due to the emergence of concurrent Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Turkey. As a result, when enlarged erythematous lesions on the skin were observed, LH must also be considered in differential diagnosis, history of tick bite should be questioned and etiological diagnostic test should be performed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
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    ABSTRACT: M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, p< 0.05). The M protein gene could be characterized only among 123 isolates by DNA sequencing, and 20 different emm types were detected. The most frequent emm type was emm1 (n= 38, 30.9%) followed by emm12 (n= 18, 14.6%), emm89 (n= 10, 8.1%), emm118 (n= 9, 7.3%), and emm4 (n= 7, 5.7%). Pyrogenic toxin genes were found in 25 (18.6%) of the isolates, including speA in 11 isolates (8.2%) and speC in 12 isolates (8.9%) and both genes were detected in 2 isolates (1.5%). Sixty-two different Rep (Repetitive extragenic palindromic)-PCR profiles were detected in 134 S.pyogenes isolates by DiversiLab method. Thirteen different clusters were formed by a total of clonally related 36 isolates revealing a strain clustering ratio of 26.9%. Clonal relationship of all isolates in the same cluster was confirmed by PFGE method. In this study, relatively high percentage of GAS carriage was observed among primary school children in our region. The coverage rate of the 30-valent vaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni