Hydrometallurgy (HYDROMETALLURGY)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Hydrometallurgy aims to compile studies on novel processes, process design, chemistry, modelling, control, economics and interfaces between unit operations, and to provide a forum for discussions on case histories and operational difficulties. Topics covered include: leaching of metal values by chemical reagents or bacterial action at ambient or elevated pressures and temperatures; separation of solids from leach liquors; removal of impurities and recovery of metal values by precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, gaseous reduction, cementation, electro-winning and electro-refining; pre-treatment of ores by roasting or chemical treatments such as halogenation or reduction; recycling of reagents and treatment of effluents.

Current impact factor: 1.93

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.933
2013 Impact Factor 2.224
2012 Impact Factor 2.169
2011 Impact Factor 2.027
2010 Impact Factor 1.917
2009 Impact Factor 2.078
2008 Impact Factor 1.747
2007 Impact Factor 1.324
2006 Impact Factor 1.227
2005 Impact Factor 1.163
2004 Impact Factor 1.088
2003 Impact Factor 1.14
2002 Impact Factor 1.087
2001 Impact Factor 0.654
2000 Impact Factor 0.846
1999 Impact Factor 0.693
1998 Impact Factor 0.662
1997 Impact Factor 0.575
1996 Impact Factor 0.483
1995 Impact Factor 0.555
1994 Impact Factor 0.59
1993 Impact Factor 1.255
1992 Impact Factor 0.811

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.57
Cited half-life 8.20
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.59
Website Hydrometallurgy website
Other titles Hydrometallurgy (Online)
ISSN 0304-386X
OCLC 38901127
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The removal of chloride from simulated zinc sulfate electrolyte by ozone oxidation was investigated. The effects of various process factors including the O2 flow, bubbling time, reaction temperature, H2SO4 and ZnSO4 concentration, and existence of Mn2 + were systematically studied. The results showed that with increasing O2 flow, the chloride removal increased first and then decreased. Increasing both the bubbling time and reaction temperature was beneficial to dechlorination while an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration had an adverse effect. With increasing sulfuric acid concentration, the dechlorination rapidly rose due to the increasing hydrogen ion concentration in electrolyte. Optimum dechlorination process conditions in the absence of Mn2 + were obtained as follows: O2 flow 0.4 L·min− 1, H2SO4 concentration 160 g·L− 1, Zn2 + concentration 40 g·L− 1, reaction temperature 70 °C, and reaction time 120 min. Under these conditions, the concentration of Cl− was reduced from 300 to 5 mg·L− 1. The existence of Mn2 + can further accelerate the reaction of ozone with chloride, which was probably through charge-transfer and coordination catalysis mechanism.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Hydrometallurgy

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A liquid–liquid extractive separation between hafnium and zirconium from thiocyanic acid medium using the mixtures of diisobutyl ketone (DIBK) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (P204) as the extractant was developed. The effects of the aqueous acidity, the concentration of P204, the contacting time, the concentration of NH4SCN, and the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl on the extractive separation of the two metal ions were investigated. It is observed that hafnium was enriched in the organic layer while zirconium enriched in the aqueous layer in DIBK-P204 system. The optimum conditions for hafnium and zirconium separation was that the aqueous acidity is 1.0 mol/L, the concentration of P204 in the organic phase is 10% (v/v), the contacting time is 15 min, the concentration of NH4SCN is 4.0 mol/L, and the concentration of NaCl is about 2.0 ~ 3.0 mol/L. Under this condition, the separation factor of hafnium and zirconium is up to 10.5.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: Solid waste tionite generated in the sulfate process for TiO2 production is a secondary titanium resource with high silicon content. To recover titanium and remove silicon from the tionite, a process involving hydrothermal conversion, water washing, and acid leaching was proposed. To avoid Na2O loss, the formation of Na2TiSiO5 by-product was prevented by adding CaO. XRD, ICP-OES and FT-IR were used to examine the transformation of the titanium and silicon. The optimum hydrothermal conditions are NaOH/tionite mass ratio of 4:1 and Ca/Si molar ratio of 1:1 in 45% NaOH solution at 240 °C for 1 h. Under these conditions, the titanium conversion was 97.3% with Na2TiO3 as the main titanium phase, while most silicon was converted to Ca2SiO4, and katoite, and NaCaHSiO4, instead of Na2TiSiO5. About 97.5% of the Na2O was recovered after washing the hydrothermal products with water, and 93.1% of the silicon retained in the washed solution was removed by adding CaO. After leaching the washed products with 40% H2SO4 solution at 60 °C, about 97% of the titanium was easily recovered, forming the titanyl sulfate solution that was employed for TiO2 production. The Ca and Si components formed CaSO4 and silica gel, which were then separated from the acid leaching solution.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • Xiaolin Pan · Haiyan Yu · Ganfeng Tu · Shiwen Bi
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    ABSTRACT: Desilication products (DSPs) generated due to the dissolution and reaction of Si-containing minerals in the Bayer liquor during the digestion of bauxite ores have always been the research focus in the Bayer process, the precipitation mechanisms and kinetics of which have been widely studied. This paper deals with the precipitation activity of DSPs formed during the Bayer digestion and its effects on the stability of the Bayer liquor. The DSPs formed with a pre-desilication treatment and lime addition can largely decrease the hydrolysis degree of the Bayer liquor after digestion. The DSPs precipitating with or without a pre-desilication are comprised of amorphous phase, zeolite, sodalite and hydroxy-sodalite, while the DSPs precipitating with lime addition are comprised of hydrogarnet, tri-calcium aluminate hydrate and zeolite. The thermodynamic calculation of DSPs reveals that the Gibbs free energies of DSPs decrease with the increasing precipitation temperature, and the Gibbs free energies of zeolite and hydrogarnet are much higher than those of other DSPs. The crystal composition, crystallinity, microstructure of DSPs can affect the stability of sodium aluminate solution, and the proportions of amorphous phase and hydrogarnet in DSPs are the major factors determining the stability of the Bayer liquor.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extraction of rhenium(VII) from sulphate media by mixtures of tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and oxygen-containing reagents (2-octanol, 2-octanone, phenetole) has been examined. The synergistic effect for mixtures of TIOA and electron-donor reagents (ketone, ether) was established. The maximal synergistic enhancement factor (3.1) was observed for the “TIOA-2-octanone” mixture. Rhenium(VII) was extracted by this mixture as (R3NH)ReO4 ∙ 0.2B. The maximal rhenium(VII) extraction was found at weak acid concentrations in aqueous phase (pH ~ 2-3), whereas the “TIOA-ketone” mixture could extract rhenium(VII) from weak alkaline media (pH ~ 7-9) in contrast to the “TIOA-alcohol” mixture.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The theory of dissolution presented in this series of papers was used to model the zeta potential of various representative minerals from the sulphide, oxides and silicates. The calculation of the potential difference across the Helmholtz layer during the dissolution of these minerals was combined with a simple Gouy–Chapman–Stern model of the electrified interface. The correspondence between the proposed model and experimental data reported in the literature is good, providing confidence in the proposed model and the proposed theory of dissolution. The proposed model is also in accordance with the thermodynamic model of reversible interfaces, such as AgI.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A huge number of nonlinear equations must be solved to simulate the multicomponent solvent extraction process for purification of rare earth metals using saponified PC88A. Typical approaches to solve them have not been successful due to the large number of initial guess values and numerical problems such as poor convergence and divergence. In this paper, the number of nonlinear equations to be solved simultaneously is dramatically reduced by a proposed model simplification technique, which reduces the number of initial guess values and overcomes the numerical problems. Furthermore, a thermodynamic equilibrium analysis algorithm using the model simplification technique is proposed to calculate the equilibrium concentrations. Finally, a new multicomponent solvent extraction process simulator is developed to calculate the equilibrium concentrations for all stages of the solvent extraction process.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High concentrations of iron represent a drawback in the hydrometallurgy of copper, since this metal cation could be co-extracted or entrained to the electrowinning step causing difficulties in obtaining pure copper. In this work, a pre-treatment step based on solvent extraction of iron using a hydrophobic imidazolium-based ionic liquid is proposed to overcome this drawback. The ionic liquid [bmim][Tf2N] was used as the diluent. The β-diketone TFA was used as the extractant. The results show that the combination extractant-ionic liquid is capable to remove iron(III) selectively from a pregnant leach solution (PLS) containing mainly copper(II) and iron(III) at low pH values. Furthermore, the use of this ionic liquid as diluent shows high extraction capacities. Finally, 97% of iron(III) can be stripped from the ionic liquid using a diluted solution of sulfuric acid (2 M).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, hydrothermal sulfidation has received much attention for its potential application in the recovery of heavy metals from waste. To achieve a better understanding of the hydrothermal sulfidation process, the sulfidation behavior of Zn and ZnS crystal growth kinetics for the Zn(OH)2–S–NaOH hydrothermal system was studied in this article. Based on discussion of the thermodynamics, the behavior of S0 in the S–H2O system and the behavior of Zn(OH)2, the reaction steps of hydrothermal sulfidation were proposed. The sulfidation process was then analyzed by a new variant of the shrinking core model in which both the interfacial transfer and the diffusion across the product layer affect the sulfidation efficiency, and its apparent activation energy is 21.4 kJ/mol. The crystalline size data of ZnS are fitted by a standard Ostwald ripening model consistent with crystal growth controlled by the volume diffusion of ions in solution. The deduced activation energy for ZnS crystal growth is 39.8 kJ/mol.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: A novel hydrometallurgical process for recovering Pb from lead bearing waste glass in alkaline solution is proposed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: In the alumina extraction process of high-alumina fly ash, alkali was used to remove amorphous silica and then recovered through causticization. Focusing on the causticization process, the coupling control of CO32 − conversion and CaCO3 crystallization is important to secondary-pollution reduction and high-value utilization. Influences of temperature, stirring rate, feeding time, Ca(OH)2 concentration, and calcium/carbonate (Ca2 +/CO32 −) ratio on the conversion and CaCO3 morphology were investigated. Feeding time and Ca2 +/CO32 − ratio showed crucial effects on the conversion and crystallization of CaCO3 particles. Under optimized conditions, the conversion of CO32 − can reach 95.67%, and the alkali can be well recycled with the generation of superfine calcium carbonate. Furthermore, the morphology evolution of CaCO3 was investigated in the reaction process. At the beginning of causticization, a combination of amorphous and crystalline structures can be observed. Subsequently, cubic and homogeneous morphologies were formed. At the end of the reaction, the edges of the cubic particles were dissolved, and the large particles with irregular shapes were formed by the joint of small ones in the alkaline system.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic studies of the extraction of neodymium (Nd) from chloride medium in the presence of two complexing agents lactic acid (HLac) and citric acid (H3Cit) by D2EHPA (H2A2) in kerosene have been investigated using a constant interfacial area cell with laminar flow. The different parameters affecting the extraction rate such as stirring speed, temperature, specific interface area, hydrogen ion concentration, and H2A2 concentration are separately studied and a rate equation is deduced. The experimental results demonstrate that, the rate of Nd(III) extraction is a diffusion controlled process at the interface rather than in the bulk phase, and it is first order with respect to H2A2 and H+ concentrations. The rate-determining step is proposed on the basis of predictions derived from interfacial reaction models, and is in good agreement with the analysis of the experimental results.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, bifunctional ionic liquid extractant (bif-ILE) [A336][P507] was used in the extraction of mid-heavy rare earths metals (REs) from H2SO4 media. The investigation showed that the distribution ratios (D) of REs enhanced with the increase in equilibrium pH, extractant concentration, and the temperature, but decreased with the increase in the concentration of Na2SO4. A possible extraction stoichiometry was obtained. The thermodynamic functions ΔGo, ΔSo and ΔHo were calculated according to Van't Hoff equation. The results from the comparative test showed that the acidity range was different for [A336][P507], Cyanex 923 (mixture of four trialkylphosphine oxides), tributyl phosphate (TBP) and di-(1-methylheptyl)methyl phosphate (P350). The ionic liquid (IL) [A336][P507] had high extractability from solutions of pH 3.5–5.5. This extraction system was used to extract mid-heavy REs in a simulated leach liquor of ion-adsorbed type rare-earth ore. Moreover, there were enhanced effects for REs extraction when NaCl or NaNO3 was added as a salting-out agent of the simulated leach liquor.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the growth mechanism of the gibbsite basal (001) face and prismatic (100) face in high ionic strength (4M NaCl + 1M NaOH) and highly alkaline solution (pH = 13.4). The height of the steps on the gibbsite (001) faces can vary from less than one nanometre (elementary steps) to several nanometres (microsteps) and finally to dozens of nanometres (macrosteps). The lateral advancement rates of micro/macrosteps arerelated to the height of steps. Step coalescence occurs during lateral advancement, driven by Ostwald ripening. There are three possible pathways for the formation of micro/macrosteps on basal (001) face, all of which are controlled by layer-by-layer growth mechanism. Gibbsite structure suggests that the frequent and random formation of the elementary steps on basal (001) face can be attributed to weak inter-layer hydrogen bonds along the c-axis of gibbsite unit cell. The prismatic (100) faces are characterised by microstep trains along gibbsite [001] direction. These microsteps grow higher along gibbsite [100] direction, advance laterally and step coalescence also occurs. Two dimensional islands often form on the terrace adjacent to the edges of micro/macrosteps, suggesting that the step edge should be a preferred site for island nucleation due to the Ehrlich–Schwoebel effect.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: Most Cu, Te, Sb and precious metals in copper anode slime were enriched in residue using an alkali fusion-leaching process. In this paper, Cu and Te were extracted from the residue by acid leaching and Sb was separated by sulphide leaching. It was found that 96.2% Cu and 83.5% Te were extracted into leaching solution under the optimum conditions: 1 mol/L of H2SO4 concentration, 6% of NaCl addition, 20 °C of leaching temperature and 20 min of leaching time. 86.8% Sb was extracted when Na2S concentration, leaching temperature and leaching time were determined at 90 g/L, 80 °C and 40 min, respectively. Chemical analysis indicated that Ag, Pb and Au were enriched in the sulphide leaching residue, which could be processed to recover precious metals.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy
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    ABSTRACT: A novel leaching process for stibnite concentrates using ozone as oxidant has been studied in this paper. The main factors affecting the leaching rate such as leaching temperature, concentration of leaching agent, gas flow rate and liquid to solid ratio have been investigated comprehensively. In addition, the effect of ferric chloride and sodium chloride on antimony extraction has been studied. The results indicate that the leaching efficiency (%) of the antimony increases with the increase of those factors mentioned above. And the form that the antimony dissolves into solution is SbCln3 − n, while the sulfur mainly retains in the residue in the form of sulfur element. The oxidation leaching of stibnite concentrates has achieved antimony recoveries in excess of 99% under the optimum experimental conditions after 5 h of leaching.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hydrometallurgy