Journal of psychoactive drugs (J PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS)
Current impact factor: 1.10
Impact Factor Rankings
|2016 Impact Factor ||Available summer 2017 |
|2009 Impact Factor ||0.811 |
|5-year impact ||1.21 |
|Cited half-life ||8.70 |
|Immediacy index ||0.06 |
|Eigenfactor ||0.00 |
|Article influence ||0.37 |
|Other titles ||Journal of psychoactive drugs (Online) |
|ISSN ||0279-1072 |
|OCLC ||60617798 |
|Material type ||Document, Periodical, Internet resource |
|Document type ||Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper |
Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
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- STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
- Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
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Publications in this journal
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: College students engage in risky alcohol use within a variety of contexts, including specific celebratory events. Student intentions and peer perceptions predict alcohol use; however, how these factors affect specific celebratory drinking may vary from typical alcohol use. The current study sought to better understand event-specific drinking among college students during St. Patrick's Day, as compared to Spring Break. Undergraduate students (N = 82) at a campus with a unique traditional celebration of St. Patrick's Day were surveyed. At Time 1, participants were asked to indicate how much alcohol they intended to drink and how much alcohol they expected other students to drink during St. Patrick's Day and Spring Break. At Time 2, students reported on actual alcohol consumption during both events. Results indicated that participants reported greater intent to consume, expectation of peer consumption, and actual alcohol consumption during St. Patrick's Day as compared to Spring Break. Neither sensation seeking nor impulsivity predicted alcohol use during either event. Findings are discussed in the context of understanding, preventing, and intervening with event-specific drinking among college students.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the rise in recreational use of ketamine in Malaysia, there have been no studies of users or of the health-related consequences they face. This study was initiated to examine ketamine use and its health consequences. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information. A final sample of 127 males was divided into persons who used only ketamine and those who were poly-drug users. Each group was further divided into long-period and short-period users. Urine toxicology screening for ketamine and other illicit drugs commonly used in Malaysia was also done. Our findings corroborate those of earlier studies that link ketamine use to urological problems such as frequent urination, dysuria, incontinence, painful bladder, nocturia, and urinary urgency. A new finding in this study is the significant association between ketamine use and erectile dysfunction, such that higher odds of reporting erectile dysfunction were linked to long-period users. Our findings strengthen the case for early intervention, as ketamine users are drawn from young and unmarried male participants. The association of ketamine use with erectile dysfunction, if substantiated, will help physicians in their diagnosis of erectile dysfunction, particularly among youths.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During withdrawal, nicotine users experience aversive withdrawal symptoms, such as increased nociceptive processing, which may be responsible for subsequent use. Smokers often times consume more caffeine than non-smokers and the combined effects of these two psychoactive drugs results in an enhanced analgesic effect of nicotine. We examined the effects of caffeine (via coffee consumption) and nicotine withdrawal on pain perception in minimally deprived smokers and non-smokers. Pain threshold and pain tolerance were assessed using a radiant heat stimulus before and 30 minutes after caffeine consumption. Nicotine deprivation (2-hrs) produced increases in pain threshold and decreases in pain tolerance representative of hyperalgesia. When smokers are nicotine deprived, caffeine consumption diminished baseline elevations in pain threshold, but had no effect on pain tolerance. These data suggest that caffeine consumption can dampen deficits in sensory discrimination related to pain during nicotine deprivation by reducing pain threshold to levels representative of non-smoking controls.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Service provision using "one-stop shopping" of medical, psychiatric, and case management services at the same location has been associated with superior client retention. The Yadumu project tested this premise, with attention to HIV-infected African Americans. Each client was assigned a case manager, who arranged meetings with mental health, substance abuse, and medical care professionals. The Center for Mental Health Services, National Outcome Measures (CMHS NOMs) questionnaire was used to evaluate client progress. Data were collected longitudinally and the program evaluation was performed by an outside center. Among 129 clients, 47% were male, 30% were female, and 22% were transgender. The majority (72%) were African American. Clients who lived in detox/drug treatment programs had higher completion rates (48%) than those who were homeless or otherwise housed (28%) (p = 0.04). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between independent factors and retention. Clients satisfied with their housing situation were less likely to retain in the program than those who were not satisfied with their housing situation (OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.78). High discharge rates among HIV-infected people were observed and may reflect the unstable circumstances of the population studied, but structured residential programs could be advantageous for improving retention.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Drug-free" outpatient programs deliver treatment to the largest number of patients of all treatment modalities in the U.S., providing a significant opportunity to expand access to medication treatments for substance use disorders. This analysis examined staff perceptions of organizational dynamics associated with the delivery of buprenorphine maintenance within three formerly "drug-free" outpatient treatment programs. Semi-structured interviews (N = 15) were conducted with counseling and medical staff, and respondents were predominantly African American (n = 11) and female (n = 12). Themes and concepts related to medical staff integration emerged through an inductive and iterative coding process using Atlas.ti qualitative analysis software. Two treatment clinics incorporated buprenorphine maintenance into their programs using a co-located model of care. Their staff generally reported greater intra-organizational discord regarding the best ways to combine medication and counseling compared to the clinic using an integrated model of care. Co-located program staff reported less communication between medical and clinical staff, which contributed to some uncertainty about proper dosing and concerns about the potential for medication diversion. Clinics that shift from "drug-free" to incorporating buprenorphine maintenance should consider which model of care they wish to adapt and how to train staff and structure staff communication.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recreational nonmedical use has been described and also occurs in patients on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). MPH has been proposed for use as replacement therapy in cocaine dependence, although evidence for efficacy is inconclusive. We conducted a cross-sectional interview study on patterns of MPH use in a sample of 20 MPH-using patients on OMT with a history of cocaine use. We assessed symptoms of depression, ADHD during childhood, and retrospective subjective-effects profiles of MPH and cocaine. Risky patterns of MPH use were common, in particular illicit acquisition, use of high doses, and parenteral administration. Sixty percent of patients reported having used MPH as a substitute for cocaine. Correspondingly, the subjective-effect profiles of MPH and cocaine showed striking parallels, with overall effects of MPH being rated more positively than those of cocaine. Proportions of patients with elevated scores for depression or childhood ADHD were large, highlighting the importance of treating dual disorders in this population. Clinical studies on MPH substitution in cocaine-dependent patients on opioid maintenance treatment could benefit from consideration of the patterns of application of MPH in this population. Results are preliminary due to small sample size.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a large literature documenting that adult men in treatment for substance use disorders perpetrate more aggression than men without substance use disorders. Unfortunately, there is minimal research on aggression among young adult men (i.e., 18-25 years of age) in treatment for substance use. Moreover, although aggression is more likely to occur when individuals are acutely intoxicated by alcohol or drugs, research also suggests that antisocial (ASPD) and borderline (BPD) personality features increase the chances an individual will use aggression. The current study therefore examined the associations between ASPD and BPD features, including specific features that are reflective of impulsivity, and aggression in young adult men in treatment for substance use disorders (N = 79). Controlling for age, education, alcohol and drug use, ASPD features were positively associated with various indicators of aggression (e.g., physical, verbal, attitudinal), whereas BPD features were only associated with physical aggression. However, ASPD and BPD features that were specific to impulsivity were robustly related to indicators of aggression. Findings suggest that substance use treatment should attempt to target ASPD and BPD features in young adult men, which may help reduce aggression after treatment.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine, a.k.a. "ecstasy") was first synthesized in 1912 and resynthesized more than once for pharmaceutical reasons before it became a popular recreational drug. Partially based on previously overlooked U.S. government documentation, this article reconstructs the early history of MDMA as a recreational drug in the U.S. from 1960 to 1979. According to the literature, MDMA was introduced as a street drug at the end of the 1960s. The first forensic detection of MDMA "on the street" was reported in 1970 in Chicago. It appears that MDMA was first synthesized by underground chemists in search of "legal alternatives" for the closely related and highly sought-after drug MDA, which was scheduled under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in 1970. Until 1974, nearly all MDMA street samples seized came from the U.S. Midwest, the first "hot region" of MDMA use. In Canada, MDMA was first detected in 1974 and scheduled in 1976. From 1975 to 1979, MDMA was found in street samples in more than 10 U.S. states, the West Coast becoming the major "hot region" of MDMA use. Recreational use of MDMA spread across the U.S. in the early 1980s, and in 1985 it was scheduled under the CSA.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If recreational marijuana is legalized for adults in California, a rational implementation of public policy would neither criminalize youth possession, nor medically pathologize it by conflating possession with addiction. The harms of a criminal justice approach to juveniles should not exceed the harms of the drug itself. Juvenile arrests and probation have consequences: (1) arrest records, probation, and juvenile hall; (2) an incarceration subculture, "crime school," psychological and re-entry costs; (3) school "zero-tolerance" expulsions and suspensions; (4) ineligibility for federal school loans; (5) employment screening problems; (6) racial disparities in arrests; (7) fines and attorney's fees; and (8) immigration/naturalization problems. Marijuana-related arrest rates in California dropped after a 2011 law making possession under 1 oz. an infraction for all, but juvenile marijuana arrests continue to outnumber arrests for hard drugs. Recommendations for prudent implementation policy include: stable marijuana tax funding for Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) in high schools; elimination of "zero-tolerance" suspension/expulsion policies in favor of school retention and academic remediation programs; juvenile justice transparency discriminating among infractions, misdemeanors, and felonies. Criminal sanctions and durations must be proportional to the offense. Probation-based interventions should be reserved for larger possession amounts and recidivist offenders, and outcomes should be independently evaluated.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable money and effort have been expended in attempts to prevent drug use by youth, with disappointing results. Too often, prevention programs have singled out youth with simplistic messages of exaggerated risk and the same politically acceptable solution for all-abstinence. Historically, prevention efforts have been less effective by not being soundly based in science and failing also to address adult drug and alcohol use as part of the problem. The Institute of Medicine continuum of care model developed in 1994 offers a framework for a more sophisticated, three-tiered approach to prevention, defined as all services provided prior to a clinical diagnosis of a substance use disorder. By dividing prevention efforts into universal (delivered to broad populations without consideration of individual risk for developing substance use disorder), selected (targeting sub-groups of individuals identified on the basis of characteristics known to create an elevated risk for substance use disorder), and indicated (addressing individuals identified on the basis of manifest risk behaviors), prevention can be better tailored to meet different levels of need. Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) and community coalitions provide examples of how IOM's continuum of care model can be integrated into drug prevention programs for youth.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article begins with a case vignette exemplifying the common clinical problem of heavy marijuana users. The epidemiology and basic science underlying cannabis dependence is outlined, followed by clinical strategies for basing a therapeutic alliance on known research findings and using motivational interviewing to deal with typical patterns of denial.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Where is the national issue of cannabis (marijuana) regulation going? Recent actions at the State level are moving to guide us to a national perspective on how to control this new marketplace.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia joined Colorado and Washington as voters approved initiatives to legally regulate and tax marijuana for adults. Other states, including California, are likely to follow in 2016. While none of these new laws allow sales to minors, there is widespread concern about the potential impact of these reforms on teenagers. Many worry that legalization will "send the wrong message," and increase access and availability, leading to an escalation in teenage use. This new social, political and cultural context presents a new challenge, as marijuana gradually becomes a normal part of the adult world, akin to alcohol. The movement toward legalization provides an opportunity to re-think our approach to teen drug education/prevention. This is the moment to examine current approaches, and devise innovative, pragmatic strategies for dealing with teens and marijuana (and other drug use). As we examine the issue of drug education/prevention in the context of legalization, we detail efforts that have been tried, and what is realistically possible to accomplish, with the health and safety of teenagers our highest priority. A reality-based approach advocates honest, science-based information; encourages moderation, if experimentation persists; promotes an understanding of the legal consequences and social context of drug use; emphasizes safety through personal responsibility and knowledge; and encourages the delay of experimentation with all intoxicating substances until adulthood.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.
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