Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER)

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Journal description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Current impact factor: 1.95

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2009 Impact Factor 1.878

Additional details

5-year impact 2.31
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.78
Website Personality and Individual Differences website
Other titles Personality and individual differences
ISSN 0191-8869
OCLC 4965018
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: People read dominance, trustworthiness and competence into the faces of politicians but do they also perceive such social qualities in other nonverbal cues? We transferred the body movements of politicians giving a speech onto animated stick-figures and presented these stimuli to participants in a rating-experiment. Analyses revealed single body postures of maximal expansiveness as strong predictors of perceived dominance. Also, stick-figures producing expansive movements as well as a great number of movements throughout the encoded sequences were judged high on dominance and low on trustworthiness. In a second step we divided our sample into speakers from the opposition parties and speakers that were part of the government as well as into male and female speakers. Male speakers from the opposition were rated higher on dominance but lower on trustworthiness than speakers from all other groups. In conclusion, people use simple cues to make equally simple social categorizations. Moreover, the party status of male politicians seems to become visible in their body motion.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research has shown pervasive gender differences in academic achievement. Because both genders present similar global intellectual ability levels, interest has arisen concerning the role of non-intellectual factors in explaining these differences. In this study, the mediating role of personality dimensions related to disconstraint and aggressiveness, in the relationship between gender and academic achievement is assessed. The sample consists of 351 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old. The instruments are the aggressiveness and disconstraint PSY-5 dimensions of the MMPI-A and the School Life Survey (SLS). MANOVA shows that females report better indicators of achievement, the frequency of behavioral problems and overall satisfaction. Regression analyses using bootstrapping procedures reveal the full mediation effects of disconstraint, but not of aggressiveness, on the influence of gender on achievement. The results are discussed in light of the role of disconstraint-related personality characteristics for academic success and the potential factors underlying gender variability in these characteristics.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between mindfulness and well-being has received considerable importance in positive psychological research. The aim of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between mindfulness and well-being. A sample of 318 Indian undergraduate university students in the age range of 18–23 years completed self-report measures of mindfulness, self-esteem, affect and mental well-being. Correlation results indicated that mindfulness was associated with self-esteem, affect, and mental well-being and self-esteem was associated with affect and mental well-being. Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that self-esteem fully mediated the relationship between mindfulness and positive affect and mental well-being. Furthermore, self esteem partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect. Moreover, a multi-group analysis showed that the mediational model was not moderated by gender. The limitations and implications of the results are discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory has been applied to childhood psychopathology and the development of different types of personality in recent years. Few studies have reported evidence of the reliability/validity of specific measures based on this theory. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the measures obtained through the Spanish version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C) in a community sample of N= 478 children aged 6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the three-factor model was the best solution with indexes of moderate to good fit. Resulting factors were F1 sensitivity-to-punishment, F2 impulsivity/fun-seeking and drive and F3 reward-responsivity. High correlations were achieved between empirical SPSRQ-C factors and external measures: a) F1 largely correlated with anxiety-depression and internalizing problems, shyness and negative affectivity; b) F2 was strongly related to externalizing problems (attention-aggressive), activity level and surgency; and c) F3 achieved the highest correlations with externalizing problems. These results highlight the validity of the SPSRQ-C measures to be used with young children from the general population. Availability of accurate measures of response to punishment and reward is especially valuable in educational and therapeutic plans that include discipline and incentives as contingencies.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use is frequently perceived as a problematic behavior associated with negative social, psychological and physiological consequences. Despite the perception that substance use constitutes problematic behavior, previous literature on the personality characteristics of substance users is scarce. The majority of past research has focused on clinical samples as opposed to normative substance use among non-clinical samples. The current study investigated the relationship between the Dark Triad, reinforcement sensitivity and substance use. Participants consisted of 242 students (122 males and 120 females) from Western University ages 18 to 37 years (M = 18.85, SD = 2.05). Participants completed an online survey that included the Short Dark Triad, the BIS/BAS scales and a substance use questionnaire. Results revealed that all components of the Dark Triad were positively correlated with behavioral approach, psychopathy was negatively correlated with behavioral inhibition, psychopathy and narcissism were positively correlated with substance use, and behavioral inhibition was negatively correlated with substance use. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant mediation among the Dark Triad components, BAS and substance use. By identifying the personality traits of substance users, researchers can attempt to decrease the costs associated with substance use by developing prevention programs that target high-risk individuals.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Sadism was established as a moderator of the relationship between the severity of others' misfortunes and schadenfreude. In Study 1, we measured sadistic personality traits, and afterwards, participants were presented with a video clip of a cyclist's accident that was described as having resulted in minor (low misfortune condition) or severe (high misfortune condition) injuries. Individuals high in sadism experienced greater schadenfreude in the high misfortune condition. Conversely, we found lower schadenfreude in the high misfortune condition for individuals low in sadism. In Study 2, we were able to replicate our findings while controlling for deservingness of the target person and impression management tendencies. Moreover, we manipulated the importance of the cycling race. In line with our expectations, race importance exacerbated the effects observed in Study 1. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of social support and coercion on risk taking associated with the Dark Triad. Participants brought a picture into the lab of an individual who calmed them (social support) or stressed them (coercion). They were then randomly assigned to place one of these pictures beside a computer screen. Participants completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and IOWA Gambling Task (IGT) with the photograph next to the computer. Results indicated that, overall, coercion resulted in less risky decisions. However, among those high in psychopathy, coercion led to riskier decisions. In contrast, those high in narcissism made less risky choices when primed with social support. Taken together, the Dark Triad may respond differently to different social contexts.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Two lines of research converge on the topic of predicting emotions, namely the response expectancy theory and the affective forecasting paradigm. We propose a revised response expectancy model, in which affective forecasts are a subgroup of response expectancies, referring to emotional outcomes. We conducted two meta-analyses in order to assess the effect size of the relationship between predictions and emotions. 106 studies comprising 301 effect sizes were analyzed. Our results showed a medium effect size regarding the association (r = .46, p < .001), and a small effect size regarding the difference (d = .42, p < .001) between predictions and emotions. Valence of emotion, valence of event, and type of design moderated the difference between predictions and emotions. Individuals are both accurate in the relative sense, as indicated by the response expectancy theory, and inaccurate in the absolute sense, as suggested by the affective forecasting paradigm. Thus, our results support the integration of the two paradigms.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
  • René T. Proyer · Fabian Gander · Sara Wellenzohn · Willibald Ruch
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the effectiveness of a self-administered online positive psychology intervention which addressed the appreciation of beauty and excellence on happiness and depression directly after the intervention, after one week, and one, three, and six months. One hundred thirteen adults were randomly assigned to a “9 beautiful things” intervention (IG; n = 59), or a placebo control group (“early memories”; n = 54). Participants in the IG were asked to write down (a) three beautiful things in human behavior; (b) three things they experienced as beautiful in nature and/or the environment; and (c) three beautiful things related to beauty in general that they observed. Findings show increased levels of happiness in the intervention group at post-test, after one week and one month, and amelioration of depressive symptoms at the post-test and one week after the interven- tion. The effect sizes were small to medium (η2 = .03 to .07). Overall, this initial study provides support for the notion that the “9 beautiful things” intervention may be effective in increasing people's well-being—at least in a short term.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Men are more likely than women to misperceive a cross-sex companion's degree of sexual interest. The current study extends previous research by using the confluence model (Malamuth et al., 1991) to examine how narcissism and impulsive sensation-seeking are directly and indirectly associated with men's misperception of women's sexual interest. A community sample of young, single men (N = 470) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Using path analyses, hostile masculinity and impersonal sexual orientation were proximal predictors of men's misperception of women's sexual intent. Additionally, narcissism was indirectly related to men's misperception through hostile masculinity. Impulsive sensation-seeking was directly and indirectly related to men's misperceptions through impersonal sexual orientation. Although there was a bivariate relationship between alcohol consumption and misperception, this relationship was not significant in the path model. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of considering how personality traits increase the risk for misperception.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences