Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER)

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Journal description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Current impact factor: 1.95

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2009 Impact Factor 1.878

Additional details

5-year impact 2.31
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.78
Website Personality and Individual Differences website
Other titles Personality and individual differences
ISSN 0191-8869
OCLC 4965018
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: People read dominance, trustworthiness and competence into the faces of politicians but do they also perceive such social qualities in other nonverbal cues? We transferred the body movements of politicians giving a speech onto animated stick-figures and presented these stimuli to participants in a rating-experiment. Analyses revealed single body postures of maximal expansiveness as strong predictors of perceived dominance. Also, stick-figures producing expansive movements as well as a great number of movements throughout the encoded sequences were judged high on dominance and low on trustworthiness. In a second step we divided our sample into speakers from the opposition parties and speakers that were part of the government as well as into male and female speakers. Male speakers from the opposition were rated higher on dominance but lower on trustworthiness than speakers from all other groups. In conclusion, people use simple cues to make equally simple social categorizations. Moreover, the party status of male politicians seems to become visible in their body motion.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown pervasive gender differences in academic achievement. Because both genders present similar global intellectual ability levels, interest has arisen concerning the role of non-intellectual factors in explaining these differences. In this study, the mediating role of personality dimensions related to disconstraint and aggressiveness, in the relationship between gender and academic achievement is assessed. The sample consists of 351 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old. The instruments are the aggressiveness and disconstraint PSY-5 dimensions of the MMPI-A and the School Life Survey (SLS). MANOVA shows that females report better indicators of achievement, the frequency of behavioral problems and overall satisfaction. Regression analyses using bootstrapping procedures reveal the full mediation effects of disconstraint, but not of aggressiveness, on the influence of gender on achievement. The results are discussed in light of the role of disconstraint-related personality characteristics for academic success and the potential factors underlying gender variability in these characteristics.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: The demand for organ transplants far exceeds supply. Underlying this shortfall is the fact that some people choose to register as organ donors, whereas many others decide not to. Why do people vary in their attitudes and choices regarding organ donation? We hypothesize that attitudes toward organ donation and decisions to register as a donor are linked to prosociality. We test this hypothesis across two studies, both of which suggest that prosociality is linked to attitudes toward organ donation or actual donor status. Study 1 demonstrates that two groups (economics students and psychology students) that have previously been shown to differ in prosocial orientations have different attitudes toward organ donation and are registered as organ donors at different rates. Study 2 investigated three groups (economics, psychology, and medical students), and it found that messages framing organ donation as a prosocial act affect willingness to become a donor, but only among economics students and among students who score lower on an instrument designed to measure prosociality. Implications and future research directions are offered.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
  • Peter K. Jonason · Jason D. Ferrell

    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: It is frequently asserted that conservatives exhibit a cognitive style that renders them less well disposed toward science than progressives, and that they are correspondingly less trusting of scientific institutions and less knowledgeable about scientific ideas. Here we scrutinize these assertions, using data from the U.S. General Social Survey. We distinguish between three different definitions of ‘conservative’: first, identifying as conservative, rather than as liberal; second, holding socially conservative views, rather than socially progressive views; and third, holding economically conservative views, rather than economically leftist views. We find that self-identified conservatives and social conservatives are less scientifically literate and optimistic about science than, respectively, self-identified liberals and social progressives. However, we find that economic conservatives are as or more scientifically literate and optimistic about science than economic leftists. Our results highlight the importance of separating different sub-dimensions of political orientation when studying the relationships between political beliefs, scientific literacy and optimism about science.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: This research project identifies a cognitive bias that has not been studied as an independent construct in previous research. This bias is related to the thought–action fusion bias that has been examined in work on obsessive–compulsive disorder and various mood disorders. The newly identified bias, labeled positive thought–action fusion, focuses on a belief that one's personal thoughts regarding positive outcomes can have an influence on real-life events. For example, a person may think that he will win the lottery, and he believes that this thought has actually improved his chance of winning. This project involves two studies, which together show that (1) the positive thought–action fusion bias does exist as an independent construct, (2) we now have a valid measure with which to measure it, and (3) that this bias is related to impaired mental control. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales is/are widely used in many countries and have been suggested for use within the Payment By Results framework in England. There are, however, questions over the best way to score it. Originally it was promoted as twelve independent scales, although more recently several alternative models of its factor structure have been proposed. Research so far has concentrated on the use of parametric methods of analysis that may be inappropriate. In this study, we examined the structure of 80,161 completed HoNOS scores using Mokken scale analysis, which is a nonparametric form of item response theory. Confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted on the proposed scales. Two possible subscales were found, which correspond to a Depression subscale and a Social and Cognitive Problems subscale. Neither scale had strong Mokken scale properties, particularly when compared with other scales. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two subscale model had acceptable fit statistics. It is clear that the items cannot be considered as twelve independent items or indeed as a unidimensional scale. Given the relative psychometric weakness of HoNOS, it may be advisable to develop a new measure or at least to consider alternative measures of outcome.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory has been applied to childhood psychopathology and the development of different types of personality in recent years. Few studies have reported evidence of the reliability/validity of specific measures based on this theory. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the measures obtained through the Spanish version of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C) in a community sample of N= 478 children aged 6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the three-factor model was the best solution with indexes of moderate to good fit. Resulting factors were F1 sensitivity-to-punishment, F2 impulsivity/fun-seeking and drive and F3 reward-responsivity. High correlations were achieved between empirical SPSRQ-C factors and external measures: a) F1 largely correlated with anxiety-depression and internalizing problems, shyness and negative affectivity; b) F2 was strongly related to externalizing problems (attention-aggressive), activity level and surgency; and c) F3 achieved the highest correlations with externalizing problems. These results highlight the validity of the SPSRQ-C measures to be used with young children from the general population. Availability of accurate measures of response to punishment and reward is especially valuable in educational and therapeutic plans that include discipline and incentives as contingencies.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior in adolescents. We assessed four subtypes of aggression (proactive-overt, reactive-overt, proactive-relational and reactive-relational). Gender was included as a moderator of those relationships. The sample comprised 765 adolescents (464 girls) who completed measures of psychopathic traits (callous–unemotional, grandiose–manipulative and impulsivity) and aggression at Time 1 and one year later. Participants were between 14 and 18 years old. Results showed that callous–unemotional (CU) traits predicted proactive-overt and proactive-relational aggression. Grandiose–Manipulative (GM) predicted proactive-overt and reactive-overt aggression, and Impulsivity-Irresponsibility (II) predicted reactive-overt aggression. The path from CU traits to proactive-overt aggression was higher in girls, and the path from GM to proactive-overt aggression was higher in boys. Results indicate that research on psychopathic traits needs to include both girls and boys to identify gender-specific manifestations of these traits.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common mental disorder in clinical practice. Research on its phenomenology and psychopathology is still limited. Cognitive structures called schemas prove useful, both in conceptualizing a case and in implementing change strategies. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence on the relationship between BPD and schemas. A comprehensive literature search using keywords and subject headings was performed with 9 electronic databases, resulting in 17 studies. These papers underwent methodological quality assessment. Schemas of the disconnection/rejection domain were the most prevalent, endorsed in at least ten studies. Highly endorsed schemas in BPD populations were: abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation, emotional deprivation and defectiveness/shame. The patterns of association between schemas and BPD were examined in clinical, offender, substance using and non-clinical populations.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Personality and Individual Differences