Mycotoxin Research

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Other titles Mycotoxin research
ISSN 0178-7888
OCLC 13977773
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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    ABSTRACT: In 2012 to 2014, Philippine green coffee beans from Coffea arabica in Benguet and Ifugao; Coffea canephora var. Robusta in Abra, Cavite, and Ifugao; and Coffea liberica and Coffea excelsea from Cavite were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The presence of fungal species was evaluated both before and after surface sterilization. There were remarkable ecological and varietal differences in the population of OTA-producing species from the five provinces. Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, and Penicillium verruculosum were detected from Arabica in Benguet and Ifugao while Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus japonicus were isolated in Excelsa, Liberica, and Robusta varieties from Abra, Cavite, and Davao. Contamination by Aspergillus and Penicillium species was found on 59 and 19 %, respectively, of the 57 samples from five provinces. After disinfection with 1 % sodium hypochlorite, the levels of infection by Aspergillus and Penicillium fell to 40 and 17 %, respectively. A total of 1184 fungal isolates were identified to species level comprising Aspergillus sections Circumdati (four species), Clavati (one), Flavi (one), Fumigati (one), Nigri (three), and Terrie (one). Within section Circumdati, 70 % of A. ochraceus produced OTA as high as 16238 ng g−1 while 40 % of A. westerdijkiae produced maximum OTA of 36561 ng g−1 in solid agar. Within section Nigri, 16.76 % of A. niger produced OTA at the highest 18439 ng g−1, 10 % of A. japonicus at maximum level of 174 ng g−1, and 21.21 % of A. carbonarius yielded maximum OTA of 1900 ng g−1. Of the 12 species of Penicillium isolated, P. verruculosum was ochratoxigenic, with a maximum OTA production of 12 ng g−1.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins formed by Claviceps purpurea. Due to the large variation in EA content, the mass proportion of ergot (hardened sclerotia) in animal diets is not suited to establish safe levels of EA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of dietary EA on laying hens. Ergoty rye or ergot-free rye (control diet) was included in the diets either untreated or after hydrothermal treatment (“expansion”). The total EA levels in five different diets containing 0–3 % of untreated or expanded rye were 0.1–14.56 mg/kg (untreated rye) and 0.08–13.03 mg/kg (expanded rye). The average EA reduction amounted to 11 % due to expanding. The proportions of the sum of all -inine isomers however were consistently higher (19.5–48.4 %) compared to the sum of their -ine isomer counterparts which decreased at the same time. Most of the laying performance and reproductive traits were significantly compromised during the test period between weeks 22 and 42 of age when the diet with the highest EA content was fed. Toxic effects were less pronounced due to expanding. Relative weights of liver, proventriculus, and gizzard as well as the aspartate aminotransferase activity, the antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus, albumin, and total bilirubin concentrations were all significantly increased in hens fed at the highest dietary ergot level whereby expanding additionally modified the albumin and total bilirubin responses. No carry-over of EA into egg yolk and albumen, blood, liver, and breast muscle was found, but bile contained quantifiable levels of ergometrine and ergometrinine. Biological recovery of ingested individual alkaloids with the excreta varied from 2 to 22 % and was strongly positive linearly related to the octanol to water partition coefficient (logkOW). This suggests the lipophilicity of alkaloids as a factor influencing their metabolism and elimination. Based on the overall results of this study, a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 14.56 mg EA/kg for laying hen diets can be proposed, while the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) corresponds to a dietary EA level of 3.72 mg/kg. However, it must be stressed that these critical levels apply for the specific EA pattern tested in the present experiment, while batches of ergot containing a less typical alkaloid composition, or other expanding conditions, might contribute to variations in the LOAEL/NOAEL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are known to produce chronic carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects, as well as acute inflammatory effects, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The potentials of the flavonoid-rich extract from Chromolena odorata (FCO) and melatonin (a standard anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and morphology of liver and small intestines were evaluated in this study. We utilized Wistar albino rats (200–230 g) randomly divided into five groups made up of group A, control rats; group B, rats given AFB1 (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice on days 5 and 7; rats in groups C, D, and E were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or oral doses of FCO1 (50 mg/kg) and FCO2 (100 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively, along with AFB1 injection on days 5 and 7. Serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined using commercial ELISA kits and histopathological evaluation of the liver, duodenum, and ileum were also carried out. We observed significant elevation (p < 0.05) in serum IL-1β correlating with hemorrhages and leucocytic and lymphocytic infiltration in the liver and intestines as evidences of an acute inflammatory response to AFB1 administration. All treatments yielded significant reduction (p < 0.05) in IL-1β levels, although TNF-α levels were not significantly altered in all rats that received AFB1, irrespective of the treatments. Melatonin and FCO2 produced considerable protection of hepatic tissues, although melatonin was not quite effective in protecting the intestinal lesions. Our findings suggest a modulation of cytokine expression that may, in part, be responsible for the abilities of C. odorata or melatonin in amelioration of hepatic and intestinal lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 injury.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is a secondary metabolite occurring in a wide range of commodities. During the exposure of ochratoxin A to white and blue light, a cleavage between the carbon atom C-14 and the nitrogen atom was described. As a reaction product, the new compound ochratoxin α amide has been proposed based on mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In the following study, we observed that this compound is also formed at high temperatures such as used for example during coffee roasting and therefore represents a further thermal ochratoxin A degradation product. To confirm the structure of ochratoxin α amide, the compound was prepared in large scale and complete structure elucidation via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS was performed. Additionally, first studies on the toxicity of ochratoxin α amide were performed using immortalized human kidney epithelial (IHKE) cells, a cell line known to be sensitive against ochratoxin A with an IC50 value of 0.5 μM. Using this system, ochratoxin α amide revealed no cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 50 μM. Thus, these results propose that the thermal degradation of ochratoxin A to ochratoxin α amide might be a detoxification process. Finally, we present a sample preparation and a HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of ochratoxin α amide in extrudates and checked its formation during the extrusion of artificially contaminated wheat grits at 150 and 180 °C, whereas no ochratoxin α amide was detectable under these conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease resistance-associated genes in milk stage kernels from commercial popcorn fields over 3 years. Relatively lower expression of resistance gene types was noted in years with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, which was consistent with prior results for many previously identified resistance response-associated genes. The lower rates of expression occurred for genes such as chitinases, protease inhibitors, and peroxidases; enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall barriers and secondary metabolites; and regulatory proteins. However, expression of several specific resistance genes previously associated with mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin in dent maize, was not affected. Insect damage altered the spectrum of resistance gene expression differences compared to undamaged ears. Correlation analyses showed expression differences of some previously reported resistance genes that were highly associated with mycotoxin levels and included glucanases, protease inhibitors, peroxidases, and thionins.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Mycotoxin Research

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Toxinogenic Fusarium species were identified on grape berries from Slovak vineyards, and their toxic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides were found with varying frequency. F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum, cultured in vitro on Czapek yeast autolysate agar and yeast extract sucrose agar, produced beauvericin, in the range from 3,265 to 13,400 μg/kg, and fusaproliferin in high concentration, ranging from 49,850 to 259,500 μg/kg. A maximum value of 2.24 μg/kg has been observed for beauvericin in dried grape berries. Fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B2 were also identified, and the observed levels ranged from 500 to 2,040 μg/kg. Over 2 years (namely 2008 and 2009) many other metabolites have been identified and analysed in grape berries, in particular: avenacein Y, apicidin, aurofusarin, chlamydosporol, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B2, enniatin B3, and
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: In einem in-vitro-Pansenmodell (RUSITEC) wurde die Reaktion der Protozoenpoplation auf mit Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Mucor racemosus bzw. Ulocladium chartarum verschimmeltem Heu jeweils mit und ohne Zusatz von Vitamin B1 überprüft. Dabei wurden drei Protozoenfraktionen untersucht: a) kleine Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 81 – 93% an der Gesamtpopulation, b) mittelgroße Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 6 – 18% an der Gesamtpopulation c) große Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 0 – 3% an der Gesamtpopulation. Die Verwendung von havariertem Futter brachte folgende Ergebnisse: Schadfuttermittel beeinflußte die mittelgroße Protozoenfraktion in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß. Die Zulage von Vitamin B1 zeigte bei Mucor racemosus und Ulocladium chartarum positive Effekte. The influence of moulded hay (Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Mucor racemosus, Ulocladium chartarum) and the efficiency of Vitamin B1 substitution to cope these effects on rumen protozoa was investigated using the longterm rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) for about 25 days. Moulded hay affected medium-sized protozoa to a different extent (Alternaria alternata: −16 %, Epicoccum nigrum: −27 %, Mucor racemosus: −9 %, Ulocladium chartarum: +2 %). The vitamin B1 substitution had positive effects during the feeding of Mucor racemosus and Ulocladium chartarum.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an important food and feed contaminant with potential adverse effects in humans and animals. In view of present discussions on limit values for OTA in foods, essential elements of a toxicological risk assessment are outlined. The exposure situation in Europe is now well documented. The data base, with respect to a characterization of hazard and dose-response relationships, allowed to calculate a provisional tolerable daily intake for OTA suited to protect the consumer against undesirable toxic effects. Nonetheless, further research on OTA is indicated in view of unresolved issues regarding the following points:1. mechanisms of action (mode of genotoxicity, role of bioactivation/metabolism, identification of DNA-adducts and dose-dependency); 2. combinations of OTA and other mycotoxins (studies of relevant mixtures/conditions); 3. individual susceptibility and/or situation-based vulnerability. Better information on mechanistic aspects of mycotoxin-induced toxicities will further improve our knowledge on the “margin of safety” between a given exposure and a potential impairment of human health.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Für den gleichzeitigen Nachweis von sieben Mykotoxinen, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Fumonisin B1 (FB1), Ochratoxin A (OA), Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 Toxin (T-2), Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) und Roridin A (RoA), wurde ein immunchemischer Schnelltest (Immunfiltrationstest, flow-through testA) entwickelt. Dazu wurde ein wiederverwendbares Testtablett mit sieben Probenfeldern und einem Kontrollfeld hergestellt. Zur Testdurchführung wurde Probenextraktlösung auf die Probenfelder sowie das Kontrollfeld aufgetropft, gefolgt von Toxin-Enzymkonjugat-Lösung, Waschlösung und Farbentwickler-Lösung. Die Testauswertung erfolgt durch visuellen Vergleich der Farbintensität der Probenfelder mit derjenigen des Kontrollfeldes. Die Nachweisgrenzen für Toxin-Standardlösungen lagen bei 0,5 ng/ml (AFB1), 5 ng/ml (FB1), 5 ng/ml (OA), 500 ng/ml (DON), 10 ng/ml (T-2), 0,5 ng/ml (DAS) bzw. 25 ng/ml (RoA). Nach Untersuchung künstlich kontaminierter Getreideproben, kombiniert mit einer einfachen Extraktionsmethode, wurden folgende Nachweisgrenzen ermittelt: 10 ng/g (AFB1), 50 ng/g (FB1), 50 ng/g (OA), 3500 ng/g (DON), 100 ng/g (T-2), 5 ng/g (DAS) bzw. 250 ng/g (RoA). A rapid immunochemical test system (immunofiltration, flow-through test) was developed for the simultaneous detection of seven mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OA), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and roridin A (RoA), respectively. A reusable test device, containing seven sample wells and one control well was produced. Sample extract solutions were dropped onto each sample well and the controll well, followed by toxin-enzyme conjugate solution, wash solution and colour delevoper solution. The test results were evaluated by visual comparison of colour intensity of sample wells and control well. The detection limits in buffer solution were at 0.5 ng/ml (AFB1), 5 ng/ml (FB1), 5 ng/ml (OA), 500 ng/ml (DON), 10 ng/ml (T-2), 0.5 ng/ml (DAS), and 25 ng/ml (RoA), respectively. Employing a simple extraction procedure, artificially contaminated cereal samples (wheat, maize) were analysed, with detection limits of 10 ng/g (AFB1), 50 ng/g (FB1), 50 ng/g (OA), 3500 ng/g (DON), 100 ng/g (T-2), 5 ng/g (DAS), and 250 ng/g (RoA), respectively.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the most common contaminating fungi on different types of cheese are;Penicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum andAspergillus versicolor. On blue cheese a new speciesP. caseifulvum has been discovered as a surface contaminant. A large number of known and unknown metabolites have been described from the above mentioned cheese associated fungi from both synthetic media and real samples. Based on chemotaxonomy our laboratory has discovered thatP. roqueforti should be divided into three species:P. roqueforti (from cheese),P. carneum (from meat) andP. paneum (from bread). SimilarlyP. verrucosum should be divided intoP. verrucosum (from cereals) andP. nordicum (from cheese and meat products). Both species produce ochratoxins, however, only the former species produce citrinin. Unsere jüngsten Arbeiten zeigten, dass hauptsächlichPenicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum undAspergillus versicolor verschiedene Käsesorten kontaminieren. Eine neue Art,P. caseifulvum, wurde jetzt als Oberflächenkontamination entdeckt. Eine Vielzahl bekannter und unbekannter Stoffwechselprodukte wurden sowohl in synthetischem Medium als auch in Käseproben gefunden. Basierend auf taxonomischen Untersuchungen fand unser Labor heraus, dassP. roqueforti in drei Arten unterteilt werden sollte:P. roqueforti (Käse),P. carneum (Fleisch) andP. paneum (Brot). Gleichermassen sollteP. verrucosum inP. verrucosum (Getreide) und inP. nordicum (Käse- und Fleischprodukte) unterteilt werden. Beide Arten produzieren Ochratoxine. Allerdings wird Citrinin nur vonP. verrucosum produziert.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: The sclerotia of the fungus Claviceps sp. are still a challenge for the milling industry. Ergot sclerotia are a constant contamination of the rye crop and have to be removed by modern milling technologies. Changing sizes and coloration of the sclerotia make it difficult to separate them from the grain. Ergot sclerotia are a problem when cleaning is insufficient and non-separated specimens or sclerotia fragments get into the milling stream and thus ergot alkaloids are distributed into the different cereal fractions. In model milling experiments, the residues of ergot in rye flour and the distribution of ergot into different milling fractions were investigated. Rye grains were mixed with whole ergot sclerotia and in another experiment with ergot powder and cleaned afterwards before milling. The ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristineand their related isomeric forms (-inine-forms), and additionally ricinoleic acid as a characteristic component of ergot, were quantified in the different milling fractions. From the first experiment, it can be shown that after harvesting even simple contact of sclerotia with bulk grains during ordinary handling or movement of bulk grain in the granary is sufficient to contaminate all the healthy or sound rye grains with ergot alkaloids. Thereby, the amount of ergot residue correlates with the amount of peripheral layers of rye grains in the flour. In an additional experiment without sclerotia specimens, bulk rye grains were loaded with powder of sclerotia. After subsequent cleaning, aconcentration of ergot alkaloids was detected, which was tenfold higher than the ergot alkaloidconcentration of the experiment with intact ergot sclerotia.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. Up to now, different abbreviations and counting systems for the numerous positions of this macrocyclic ß-resorcylic acid lactone and its metabolites have been used. As the number of identified fungal and mammalian metabolites of zearalenone is still growing, the lack of a uniform designation makes the literature on these important toxins confusing and complicated. Here, we propose a logical set of abbreviations and a simple counting system, in order to facilitate future research communications on zearalenone and its congeners.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Cereal, fruit and vegetable products were analyzed for contamination with the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs). Both toxins were practically not detected in cereals and cereal products: AOH-one out of 13 samples at a content of 4.1 μg/kg; AME-two out of 13 samples at contents ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 μg/kg. However, if cereals for animal nutrition were analyzed, much higher values were found: AOH-five out of six samples (13-250 μg/kg); AME-six out of six samples (3-100 μg/kg). This finding may pose a potential problem concerning animal health. AOH and AME were frequently detected in vegetable products: AOH-5 out of 10 samples (2.6-25 μg/kg); AME-6 out of 10 samples (0.1-5 μg/kg). Tomato products were affected, especially. The highest content of AOH (25 μg/kg) and AME (5 μg/kg) were found in triple concentrated tomato paste. Special wines like "Trockenbeerenauslese" or "Spätlese" (affected by noble rot in the vineyard) contained AOH (4/6 samples; 1.2-4.9 μg/kg) and AME (4/6 samples; 0.1-0.3 μg/kg), but the values did not exceed the values of both toxins that were found generally in wines.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Mycotoxin Research
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi as secondary metabolites. Both compounds have the immunotoxic effects that the productions of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages is disturbed. Co-contamination with DON and NIV can occur; however, the effects of simultaneous contamination are not well known. The present study investigated the combined effects of DON and NIV on nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolisaccharide (LPS). The inhibitory effect of DON and NIV on NO release from activated macrophages has already been reported as an appropriate indicator of immunotoxic effect of the both compounds. LPS-induced NO production in macrophages was inhibited by both of these toxins individually in a dose-dependent manner, and toxin mixtures at the same concentration inhibited NO production in the same manner. In addition, there were no unique inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in macrophages in the presence of mixtures of various molar ratios. These results suggest that the combined effects of DON and NIV can be predicted based on addition of each compound alone.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Mycotoxin Research