Electrophoresis (ELECTROPHORESIS)

Publisher: Electrophoresis Society; International Electrophoresis Society, Wiley-VCH Verlag

Journal description

Attracting high-quality papers from the world's leading laboratories ELECTROPHORESIS has proved itself indispensable in the life sciences where electrophoresis is the most widely used method. ELECTROPHORESIS is the foremost journal for new analytical and preparative methods and for innovative applications on all aspects of electrophoresis. It has an international scope and publishes original papers short communications and review articles in the following areas: biochemistry molecular and cell biochemistry genetics immunology microbiology clinical chemistry forensics food science and many more. Special Issues Paper Symposium issues devoted to new developments prepared by an expert Guest Editor are published regularly with special emphasis on capillary electrophoresis (2-3 issues per year)and proteomics. The journal also publishes proceedings of international and national electrophoresis meetings.

Current impact factor: 3.03

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.028
2013 Impact Factor 3.161
2012 Impact Factor 3.261
2011 Impact Factor 3.303
2010 Impact Factor 3.569
2009 Impact Factor 3.077
2008 Impact Factor 3.509
2007 Impact Factor 3.609
2006 Impact Factor 4.101
2005 Impact Factor 3.85
2004 Impact Factor 3.743
2003 Impact Factor 4.04
2002 Impact Factor 4.325
2001 Impact Factor 4.282
2000 Impact Factor 3.385
1999 Impact Factor 3.447
1998 Impact Factor 3.054
1997 Impact Factor 2.848
1996 Impact Factor 2.467
1995 Impact Factor 2.73
1994 Impact Factor 2.274
1993 Impact Factor 1.842
1992 Impact Factor 2.159

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.72
Cited half-life 7.90
Immediacy index 0.53
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.58
Website Electrophoresis website
Other titles Electrophoresis, Proteomics reviews
ISSN 0173-0835
OCLC 7297725
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Wiley-VCH Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
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  • Conditions
    • Pre-print may be deposited on personal intranet or institutional intranet repository, but not on a public repository
    • Pre-print must not updates with future versions
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrases (See policy)
    • Must link to publisher's site: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Some journal exceptions-check individual homepages
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unique due to their highly complex nature and important emerging biological and protective functions during early life such as prebiotic activity, pathogen deflection and epithelial and immune cell modulation. Moreover, four genetically determined heterogeneous HMO secretory groups are known to be based on their structure and composition. Over the years, several analytical techniques have been applied to characterize and quantitate HMOs, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high pH anion-exchange chromatography, off-line and on-line mass spectrometry (MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Even if these techniques have proven to be efficient and simple, most glycans have no significant UV absorption and derivatization with fluorophore groups prior to separation usually results in higher sensitivity and an improved chromatographic/electrophoretic profile. Consequently, the analysis by HPLC/CE of derivatized milk oligosaccharides with different chromophoric active tags has been developed. However, UV or fluorescence detection does not provide specific structural information and this is a key point in particular related to the highly complex nature of the milk glycan mixtures. As a consequence, for a specific determination of complex mixtures of oligomers, analytical separation is usually required with evaluation by means of MS, which has been successfully applied to HMOs, resulting in efficient compositional analysis and profiling in various milk samples. This review aims to give an overview of the current state-of-the-art techniques used in HMO analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: A separation method was developed in order to quantify free amino acids in passion fruit juices using CE-UV. A selective derivatization reaction with FMOC followed by MEKC analysis was chosen due to the highly interconnected mobilities of the analytes, enabling the separation of 22 amino acids by lipophilicity differences, as will be further discussed. To achieve such results, the method was optimized concerning BGE composition (concentrations, pH and addition of organic modifier) and running conditions (temperature and applied voltage).The optimized running conditions were a BGE composed of 60 mmol L−1 borate buffer at pH 10.1, 30 mmol L−1 SDS, 5 % methanol, running for 40 minutes at 23°C, 25 kV. The method was validated and applied on eight brands plus one fresh natural juice detecting twelve amino acids. Quantification of six analytes combined with principal component analysis was capable to characterize different types of juices and showed potential to detect adulteration on industrial juices. Glutamic acid was found to be the most concentrated amino acid in all juices, exceeding 1 g L−1 in all samples and was also crucial for the correct classification of a natural juice, which presented a concentration of 22 g L−1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: A CE-ESI-MRM based assay was developed for targeted analysis of serotonin released by human embryonic stem cells-derived serotonergic neurons in a chemically defined environment. A discontinuous electrolyte system was optimized for pH-mediated online stacking of serotonin. Combining with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, LOD of serotonin in the Krebs'-Ringer's solution by CE-ESI-MS/MS on a 3D ion trap MS was 0.15 ng/mL. The quantitative results confirmed the serotonergic identity of the in vitro developed neurons and the capacity of these neurons to release serotonin in response to stimulus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Forensic toxicology and environmental water analysis share the common interest and responsibility in ensuring comprehensive and reliable confirmation of drugs and pharmaceutical compounds in samples analysed. Dealing with similar analytes, detection and identification techniques should be exchangeable between scientific disciplines. Herein, we demonstrate the successful adaption of a forensic toxicological screening workflow employing non-targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) under data-dependent acquisition control and subsequent database search to water analysis. The main modification involved processing of an increased sample volume with solid phase extraction (500 ml vs. 1–10 ml) to reach limits of detection in the low ng/l range. Tandem mass spectra acquired with a quadrupole-quadrupole-time of flight instrument were submitted to database search. The targeted data mining strategy was found to be sensitive and specific; automated search produced hardly any false results. To demonstrate the applicability of the adapted workflow to complex samples, fourteen wastewater effluent samples collected on seven consecutive days at the local wastewater-treatment plant were analysed. Out of the 88,970 fragment ion mass spectra produced, 8.8% of spectra were successfully assigned to one of the 1,040 reference compounds included in the database, and this enabled the identification of 51 compounds representing important illegal drugs, members of various pharmaceutical compound classes and metabolites thereof. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to control and pump high ionic strength fluids inside microchannels forms a major advantage for clinical diagnostics and drug screening processes, where high conductive biological and physiological buffers are used. Despite the known potential of AC Electrothermal (ACET) effect in different biomedical applications, comparatively little is known about controlling the velocity and direction of fluid inside the chip. Here, we proposed to discretize the conventional electrodes to form various asymmetric electrode structures in order to control the fluid direction by simple switching the appropriate electric potential applied to the discretized electrodes. The ACET pumping effect was numerically studied by solving electrical, thermal and hydrodynamic multi-physic coupled equations to optimize the geometrical dimensions of the discretized system. Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) solutions with different ionic strength were seeded with 1 micrometer sized fluorescent particles and electrothermally-driven fluid motion was observed inside the channel for different electrode structures. Experimental analyses confirm that the proposed micropump is efficient for a conductivity range between 0.1 and 1 S/m and the efficiency improves by increasing the voltage amplitude. Behavior of the proposed electrode-electrolyte system discussed by lumped circuit model. Frequency response of system illustrated that the optimal frequency range increases by increasing the conductivity of medium. For 0.18 S/m PBS solution, the constant pumping effect was observed at frequency range between 100 kHz and 1 MHz, while frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHZ was observed for 0.42 S/m. The characteristics of experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid method for the quantification of five ribonucleotides 5’- monophophates (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, uridine, 5’-monophosphate), in infant formula, has been proposed using nano-liquid chromatography. To separate the studied compounds, capillary columns packed with different C18 based stationary phases were investigated. All the columns tested were laboratory prepared. The experiments were performed in ion-pairing reversed phase chromatographic mode using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as ion-pairing reagent. The method was developed using a Core-Shell XB-C18 capillary column with a mobile phase consisting of 5% (v/v) methanol and 95% (v/v) 100 mM ammonium formate pH 8 containing 20 mM tetrabutylammonium hydroxide. All compounds were baseline resolved in less than 5 min with a flow rate of 500 nL/min in isocratic elution mode. Nucleotides were detected at 260 nm. Analytical validation parameters were evaluated. The RSD values for intra-day and inter-day repeatability for retention time and peak area, were below 2.4% and 4.2%, respectively. The method linearity was good (R2 < 0.9995) for the studied compounds. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.25 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of nucleotides in infant formula, subjected to a centrifugal ultrafiltration process, prior their analysis. The amounts found were in agreement to the labeled contents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA; bioplastics) from waste or surplus feedstocks using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) is a growing field within mixed culture biotechnology. This study aimed to optimize a 2DE workflow to investigate the proteome dynamics of an MMC synthesizing PHA from fermented dairy manure. To mitigate the challenges posed to effective 2DE by this complex sample matrix, the bacterial biomass was purified using Accudenz gradient centrifugation (AGC) before protein extraction. The optimized 2DE method yielded high-quality gels suitable for quantitative comparative analysis and subsequent protein identification by LC-MS/MS. The optimized 2DE method could be adapted to other proteomic investigations involving MMC in complex organic or environmental matrices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Lab-on-chip devices employ electro-osmotic flow (EOF) for transportation and mixing of liquids. However, when a steady (DC) electric field is applied to the liquids, there are undesirable effects like degradation of sample, electrolysis, bubble formation etc. due to large magnitude of electric potential required to generate the flow. These effects can be averted by using a time periodic or AC electric field. Transport and mixing of non-conductive liquids remain a problem even with this technique. In the present study, a two-liquid system bounded by two rigid plates, which act as substrates, is considered. The potential distribution is derived by assuming a Boltzmann charge distribution and using the Debye - Hückel linearization. Analytical solution of this time-periodic system shows some effects of viscosity ratio and permittivity ratio on the velocity profile. Interfacial electrostatics is also found to play a significant role in deciding velocity gradients at the interface. High frequency of the applied electric field is observed to generate an approximately static velocity profile away from the EDL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The synergistic stacking approach of field-enhanced sample injection-micelle-to-solvent stacking was used for high sensitivity CZE-ESI-MS of eight penicillins and sulfonamides. Sensitivity enhancement factors (peak height) were 1629-3328 compared to typical injection, with LODs from 0.11 to 0.55 ng/mL. The analytical figures of merit were acceptable. SPE on a fortified seawater sample resulted in 50-fold enrichment with recoveries of 85-110%. The overall method LODs were 0.002-0.011 ng/mL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Linkage disequilibria (LD) between alleles and haplotypes of HLA and STR loci located in the human MHC (major histocompatibility complex) were analysed in order to investigate whether or not HLA alleles and haplotypes are predictable by alleles or haplotypes of HLA STRs. Standardised genotyping of eight STR loci (D6S2972, D6S2906, D6S2691, D6S2678, D6S2792, D6S2789, D6S273 and DQIV) was performed by CE on 600 individuals from 150 Austrian Caucasoid families with known HLA-A,-B,-C and –DRB1 typing. From those 576 full haplotypes of four HLA and eight STR loci were obtained. Haplotypes of two flanking STRs predicted HLA alleles and two locus HLA haplotypes better than single STR alleles, except HLA-DRB1 alleles (92% were in LD with DQIV alleles only). 65%-86% of three and four locus HLA haplotypes were in LD with haplotypes of three, four and eight of their flanking STR loci including numerous clear cut predictions (20%-61%). All eight and a set of the four most informative STR loci D6S2972, D6S2678, D6S2792 and DQIV could identify all HLA identical and non-identical siblings in 138 pairs of siblings. The results of this proof of concept study in Austrian Caucasoids show, that HLA STRs can aid the definition of HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 haplotypes and the selection of sibling donors for stem cell transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: A frequently utilised method of data quantification in western blot analysis is comparison of the protein of interest with a house keeping gene or control protein. Commonly used proteins include β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin. Various reliability issues have been raised when using this technique for data analysis - particularly when investigating protein expression changes during development and in disease states. In this study we have demonstrated that β-actin, GAPDH, and α-tubulin are not appropriate controls in the study of development and hypoxic-ischemic induced damage in the piglet brain. We have also shown that using an in-house pooled standard, loaded on all blots is a reliable method for controlling inter-assay variability and data normalisation in protein expression analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled on-line to mass spectrometry (MS) via a sheathless porous tip sprayer was evaluated for anionic metabolic profiling. A representative metabolite mixture and biological samples were used for the evaluation of various analytical parameters, such as peak efficiency (plate numbers), migration time and peak area repeatability, and limits of detection (LODs). The background electrolyte (BGE), i.e. 10% acetic acid (pH 2.2), previously used for cationic metabolic profiling was now assessed for anionic metabolic profiling by using MS detection in negative ion mode. For test compounds, relative standard deviations (RSDs) for migration times and peak areas were below 2% and 11%, respectively, and plate numbers ranged from 60000 to 400000 demonstrating a high separation efficiency. Critical metabolites with low or no retention on reversed-phase LC could be efficiently separated and selectively analysed by the sheathless CE-MS method. An injection volume of only circa 20 nL resulted in LODs between 10 and 200 nM (corresponding to an amount of 0.4 to 4 fmol), which was an at least tenfold improvement as compared to LODs obtained by conventional CE-MS approaches for these analytes. The methodology was applied to anionic metabolic profiling of glioblastoma cell line extracts. Overall, a sheathless CE-MS method has been developed for highly efficient and sensitive anionic metabolic profiling studies, which can also be used for cationic metabolic profiling studies by only switching the MS detection and separation voltage polarity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic analytes from a sample is seen to be a challenging task. In this work, a novel and efficient electromembrane extraction (EME) method based on two separate cells was applied to simultaneously extract and preconcentrate two acidic drugs (naproxen and ibuprofen) along with a basic drug (ketamine). Once both cells were filled with the sample solution, basic drug was extracted from one cell with the other cell used to extract acidic drugs. The employed supported liquid membranes (SLMs) for the extraction of acidic and basic drugs were 2-ethyl hexanol and 1-octanol, respectively. Under an applied potential of 250V in the course of the extraction process, acidic and basic drugs were extracted from a 3.0 mL aqueous sample solution into 25 μL acceptor solutions. The pH values of the donor and acceptor solutions in the cathodic cell were 5.0 and 1.5, respectively, the corresponding values in the anodic cell were, however, 8.0 and 12.5, respectively. The rates of recovery obtained within 20 min of extraction time at a stirring rate of 750 rpm ranged from 45 to 54%. With correlation coefficients ranging from 0.990 to 0.996, the proposed EME technique provided good linearity over a concentration range of 20-1000 ng mL(-1) . The limit of detection for all drugs was found to be 6.7 ng mL(-1) , while reproducibility ranged from 7 to 12% (n = 5). Finally, applying the proposed method to determine and quantify the drugs in urine and wastewater samples, satisfactory results were achieved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (REP) is an emerging optoelectric technique that takes advantage of laser-induced AC electrothermal flow and particle-electrode interactions to trap and translate particles. The electrothermal flow in REP is driven by the temperature rise induced by the laser absorption in the thin electrode layer. In previous REP applications 350 to 700 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) layers have been used as electrodes. In this study, we show that ITO is an inefficient electrode choice as more than 92% of the irradiated laser on the ITO electrodes is transmitted without absorption. Using theoretical, computational and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that for a given laser power the temperature rise is controlled by both the electrode material and its thickness. A 25 nm thick Ti electrode creates an electrothermal flow of the same speed as a 700 nm thick ITO electrode while requiring only 14% of the laser power used by ITO. These results represent an important step in the design of low-cost portable REP systems by lowering the material cost and power consumption of the system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Electrokinetic sample injection using two piezoelectric micropumps has been proposed for electrophoresis in short capillaries. The sample is brought to the injection end of the capillary using one of them. Then the high-voltage source is turned on and the sample is injected electrokinetically for a defined time. The injection is terminated by removal of the sample zone by the flowing separation electrolyte pumped by the second piezoelectric micropump. The RSD value, expressing the repeatability of the injection, does not exceed 4%. The injection apparatus does not contain any mobile mechanical components, there is no movement of the capillary and both of its ends remain constantly in the solution during both the sample injection and separation. Thus the micropumps replace the six-way injection valve and linear pump in similar types of injection apparatuses. The injection was tested in the separation and determination of ammonium and potassium ions in two samples of mineral fertilisers. The separation was performed in background electrolyte containing 500 mM of acetic acid + 20 mM Tris + 2 mM 18-crown-6 (pH 3.3) in a capillary with id 50 μm and total length/length to the contactless conductivity detector of 10.5/8 cm. The injection and separation took place at a voltage of 5 kV and the separation time equalled 20 s. The measured values of the analyte contents corresponded to the value declared by the manufacturer within the reliability interval, where RSD equalled between 3.5 and 4.7 %. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Electrophoresis