Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington (Bull Biol Soc Wash)

Publisher: Biological Society of Washington

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Other titles Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington (Online), Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
ISSN 0097-0298
OCLC 80991912
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal


  • No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: The complete supraneural and dorsal and anal pterygiophore insertion patterns of over 900 specimens representing all 145 extant taxa of the Carangidae are reported, as well as those of several specimens comprising seven taxa among the other four carangoid families: Rachycentridae, Coryphaenidae, Echeneidae, Nematistiidae. The patterns of the carangids were variously partitioned and the resulting groups analyzed for the sequential arrangement of supraneurals and dorsal and anal pterygiophores and for total numbers of pterygiophores. Both procedures generate characters bearing on the intrarelationships and differentiation of the various taxa. The composition of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore in carangoids and other perciform fishes is discussed briefly. Depending on the taxon, there is evidence that supports findings that this element originates from one or two separate cartilages. Evidence is presented that the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore of the carangid Parastromateus niger variously comprises one simple pterygiophore or a fusion of two pterygiophores. We elected to treat either condition as a single pterygiophore. A preliminary survey of the number of pterygiophores inserting anterior to the first hemal spine and those in the first interhemal spine space of acanthomorphs is provided. In addition to the five carangoid families, the survey includes data on selected taxa in 176 families. The carangine, Parastromateus, has 9 to 11 (modally 9) pterygiophores inserting in the first interhemal spine space (a post-flexion larva exceptionally has only 7), which is more than any other extant taxon studied. A great majority of acanthomorphs have 0, 1, or 2 pterygiophores inserting in that space; a relatively few have as many as 5 or 6, and only one or two have 7 or 8. The appropriate tribal position of the Eocene fossil carangid, †Paratrachinotus tenuiceps (Agassiz), which has been assigned only to the family Trachinotidae (= tribe Trachinotini in present classifications), was examined. Based on supra-neural and pterygiophore insertion characters, but supported by other osteological characters, it was possible to exclude the fossil from any of the four extant carangid tribes. A new tribe, †Paratrachinotini, to accommodate the fossil, is described. Although additional, non-pterygiophore characters and a broadly based cladistic analysis are required to imply the closest relationship of the †Paratrachinotini, there are suggestions that it is closely related to the Carangini.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: The complete supraneural and dorsal and anal pterygiophore insertion patterns of over 900 specimens representing all 145 extant taxa of the Carangidae are reported, as well as those of several specimens comprising seven taxa among the other four carangoid families: Rachycentridae, Coryphaenidae, Echeneidae, Nematistiidae. The patterns of the carangids were variously partitioned and the resulting groups analyzed for the sequential arrangement of supraneurals and dorsal and anal pterygiophores and for total numbers of pterygiophores. Both procedures generate characters bearing on the intrarelationships and differentiation of the various taxa. The composition of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore in carangoids and other perciform fishes is discussed briefly. Depending on the taxon, there is evidence that supports findings that this element originates from one or two separate cartilages. Evidence is presented that the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore of the carangid Parastromateus niger variously comprises one simple pterygiophore or a fusion of two pterygiophores. We elected to treat either condition as a single pterygiophore. A preliminary survey of the number of pterygiophores inserting anterior to the first hemal spine and those in the first interhemal spine space of acanthomorphs is provided. In addition to the five carangoid families, the survey includes data on selected taxa in 176 families. The carangine, Parastromateus, has 9 to 11 (modally 9) pterygiophores inserting in the first interhemal spine space (a post-flexion larva exceptionally has only 7), which is more than any other extant taxon studied. A great majority of acanthomorphs have 0, 1, or 2 pterygiophores inserting in that space; a relatively few have as many as 5 or 6, and only one or two have 7 or 8. The appropriate tribal position of the Eocene fossil carangid, †Paratrachinotus tenuiceps (Agassiz), which has been assigned only to the family Trachinotidae (= tribe Trachinotini in present classifications), was examined. Based on supraneural and pterygiophore insertion characters, but supported by other osteological characters, it was possible to exclude the fossil from any of the four extant carangid tribes. A new tribe, †Paratrachinotini, to accommodate the fossil, is described. Although additional, non-pterygiophore characters and a broadly based cladistic analysis are required to imply the closest relationship of the †Paratrachinotini, there are suggestions that it is closely related to the Carangini.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: The nematode fauna of Plummers Island, on the Potomac River near Washington, D.C., is virtually unknown. Only three species have been reported from the Island: Daptonema dubium (Bütschli, 1873) Lorenzen, 1977, Isolaimium papillatum Cobb, 1920, and Tylolaimophorus cylindricum (Cobb, 1920) Goodey, 1963. We surveyed terrestrial and aquatic habitats on Plummers Island to begin to characterize its nematode fauna. Nematodes of 47 genera were found, representing 9 orders and 32 families, including an estimated 59 species. We provide diagnoses of the 3 species reported from the literature, a classified list of genera, their habitats and life stages found, and an estimate of the number of species found in each genus.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: Copepod (Crustacea) species diversity was remarkably low on Plummers Island, Maryland, and its immediate environs over a year-long sampling period in 1996 and 1997, compared to that previously and contemporaneously reported nearby within the Potomac River Basin; only two species were found on the Island and two others in the adjacent side channel of the Potomac River. Subsequent sampling in 2004 resulted in records of eight species, seven of which were not found in 1997; six of these were collected on the Island. One explanation for the paucity of species in 1996-1997 is the extreme floods of January and September 1996; the January flood reached a height not recorded since 1972 and destroyed canal locks. These floods scoured much of the Potomac floodplain and may have caused severe local population losses. The scarcity of aquatic microhabitats on the Island undoubtedly also contributed to the low local diversity.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: Plummers Island, a small site situated along the northern shore of the Potomac River in Montgomery County, Maryland, has been the research home of the Washington Biologists' Field Club for more than 100 years. Field work conducted by club members from 1901 to about 1925 resulted in the accumulation of thousands of insect specimens of all orders from the Island, most of which are deposited in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Little collecting was conducted from ca. 1930-1950. In the 1960s sampling by Karl Krombein focused on bees and wasps and that by Terry Erwin on carabid beetles. Since 1998 the Lepidoptera fauna, leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), and darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) all have been the subject of investigations. In 2005 and 2006 Malaise traps were deployed to sample other orders (e.g., Trichoptera, Diptera, Hyemenoptera). While the four major insect orders (i.e., Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) are represented by large numbers of historical specimens, only Lepidoptera have been surveyed thoroughly in recent times; notable exceptions include specific families: carabid beetles, leaf beetles, darkling beetles, sawflies, and bees and wasps. Based on an examination of the insect collection of the National Museum of Natural History and a review of relevant literature, we document 3012 insect species in 253 families, encompassing 18 insect orders: Collembola, Odonata, Dermaptera, Blattodea, Phasmatodea, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, and Hymenoptera.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: We found 19 species of freshwater mollusks (seven bivalves, 12 gastropods) in the Plummers Island area, Maryland, bringing the total known for the Middle Potomac River to 42 species. We found seven species not previously known from the Middle Potomac River, but we failed to find 23 species that had been reported there previously. The new records probably reflect our searching in backwater and woodland pools, habitats that had been poorly searched previously. Species not found but represented by historical records (including 15 bivalves, of which 13 are Unionidae) may represent extirpations or species missed owing to low search effort for mussels. The introduced bivalve Corbicula fluminea, apparently absent from the Middle Potomac in 1978, was the third most numerous species collected in our survey. We found three bivalve species not previously reported in the Middle Potomac: Utterbackia imbecillis (Unionidae), and Pisidium compressum and Pisidium nitidum (both Sphaeriidae).
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of the terrestrial isopods of Plummers Island, Maryland and its immediate vicinity revealed the presence of ten species representing nine genera and seven families. All are believed to have been introduced into North America from Europe. Eight of the ten species occurred throughout the study area, while two generally were limited to the edge of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal towpath and the clearing around the historic lock keeper's house at Lock 11.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: A review of the crayfishes and entocytherid ostracods occurring in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland revealed that four species of crayfishes and four species of ostracods were present. One of the crayfish is exotic and appears to be spreading throughout the Potomac River drainage. Three of the ostracods are common in Maryland, but one is known only from Plummers Island and a single locality in Indiana.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of the landsnails inhabiting the 20.5-hectare portion of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park formerly owned by the Washington Biologists' Field Club was conducted. Twelve stations, representing all major habitat types present, were intensively studied, and general collecting was done throughout the area. Twenty-five species of snails and slugs representing 12 families were documented. Survey of the literature and pertinent museum collections documented very little change in the composition of the gastropod community over the past 100 years, despite vegetation community succession of the property from largely open field to mature forest. Of nine species known historically from the study area, only one was not found during this survey. Although the mollusk community was diverse, the number of small species was less than expected. This may be the result of the near absence of a leaf litter/humus layer. The absence of those forest floor layers from the study area may be due to the presence of a large population of the introduced Asiatic earthworm, Amynthras agrestis. Regular inundation of flood plain areas along the Potomac River appears to depress or eliminate discrete colonies of land snails.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: Two species of pseudoscorpions, Tuberocreagris rufula (Banks) and Chthonius virginicus Chamberlin, are reported from Plummers Island, Maryland. Several specimens of C. virginicus were found in empty snail shells, and although this behavior has been reported previously, it is not well documented.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington
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    ABSTRACT: Species occurrences of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are listed for the historically collected locality of Plummers Island, Maryland, on the Potomac River just upstream from Washington, D.C. The list is compared to that of the currently known Maryland species, which includes a number of new state records and range extensions. Notes on some of these occurrences and the absence of certain species are discussed. Maryland records from multiple sources now total 128 species of this family of insects. Plummers Island records, from the beginning of the 20th century to the present, include nearly 50% of the state's fauna, and an additional 25% of the state's tenebrionids are expected there.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington