Psychological monographs (Psychol Monogr)

Publisher: American Psychological Association

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Other titles Psychological monographs, Psychological review
ISSN 0096-9753
OCLC 1763055
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Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report, concerned primarily with conditioned eyelid responses of normal monkeys, is the second of a series having as objectives the comparative study of the process of conditioning in different species of mammals and the analysis of the central mechanism of conditioning by experimental lesions of the nervous system. Five rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) were carried through a series of adaptation trials, conditioning, and extinction, following the routine described in the study with dogs. A daily conditioning session consisted of 50 reinforcements preceded and followed by 5-trial tests with the conditioned stimulus, and interspersed with control trials on which the unconditioned stimulus was presented alone. Four of 5 monkeys developed conditioned eyelid responses to a flash of light which preceded by 400 ms. an air-puff to one cornea. These responses occurred at a mean latency of 226 ms., definitely anticipatory with respect to the air-puff. All conditioned responses were complete closures, differing in this respect from those of dog and man. A protracted extinction series with one animal produced some decrease in frequency of response within 12 periods of non-reinforcement, but a single period of reconditioning restored the response to the value achieved after the 5 days of original conditioning.
    Article · Jul 2015 · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The subject of this study will be referred to as J. H. He began the experiments with the pre-established conviction that he was blind to blue and yellow, and was allowed to continue in that belief without discussion. Family history shows that some other members of his family are color blind as well. The report of this case, though apparently extensive, should be regarded as a preliminary survey; and it is hoped that at some future time the study may be continued at the Nela Research Laboratory. The color names as used by J. H. have been quite disregarded. Control observers, usually three in number, were used in all tests where relative values only were obtainable. For the most part the several experiments are reported in their chronological order. The tests have all been conducted by the writer and are reliable to the extent claimed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is based on data from 18 institutions which may be classified as follows: Four state universities, three of which are located in the Mid-West, and one in the South. Six Lutheran colleges of which three are located in the Mid-West, two in the East (east of Chicago), and one in the South. Three institutions are affiliated with the Society of Friends, all of which are in the Mid-West. The study is based on responses from a total of 3,758 students attending these 18 institutions, a total of nearly a quarter million responses. In reporting this investigation, we shall first consider the attitudes of students in four state universities. This will be followed by a study of the attitudes of students in 14 church affiliated colleges which are arranged by denomination in the order of the number of students participating in this study. Possible sex differences will be briefly presented and the data from the entire group of institutions summarized. Of the four state universities participating in this investigation, it will be recalled that three are located in the Mid-West and one in the South. Most of the 1,032 students studied are attending the colleges of liberal arts or the teachers colleges in these universities. In this group of 18 colleges and universities we find not the radicalism attributed to the campus of today, but to the contrary, our data indicates that these students are definitely on the side of conservatism. Only 22 individuals out of 3,758 students showed mean scores in the lowest 10 point area which might be termed " radical". (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Professor Dodge was a charter member of the Institute of Human Relations. As a prominent figure in the Institute of Psychology, which was merged into the Institute of Human Relations, he participated in the deliberations that led to the organization of the latter. As soon as the Institute building was completed, Professor Dodge began a series of cooperative studies which continued until his retirement. His cooperative work with members of the medical faculty was by no means confined to psychology. His wide range of scientific interests enabled him to carry on collaborative work with both the clinical and pre-clinical divisions of the School of Medicine. The main conclusion of this informal discussion may be summarized by reemphasizing the complexity of the conditions of mutual mental nearness. This is particularly obvious in the attitude of the graduate students and assistants, who have often spontaneously combined in the experimental study of normal and abnormal material. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the realm of special ability there is a widespread belief that artistic ability is inborn and remains more or less fixed throughout life. The objective of this study was to test the possibility of art ability at the childhood level being changed, with an attempt to identify the factors that might be involved if such a change were brought about. This investigation has been directed toward the nature of these capacity-limits, in an attempt to discover whether it is possible to produce a definite extension of the usual limits. This plan was specifically attempted, first, through the use of a number of subjects who, at the start of the investigation, were definitely inferior, and a few who were definitely superior in art ability, and secondly, through the examination of a section of the general population at the same age-level. The technique of using a reliable scale in judging actual achievement in art appeared to be the best method for use in this field. The factors of aesthetic sensitivity differentiating children artistically superior and artistically inferior were identified to a certain degree by the comparison of responses of a large number (Group B) of normal children, previously measured in artistic ability, to aesthetic situations of five types. Results show that the lack of aesthetic sensitivity, as shown by the methods and materials of this study, is practically the normal condition at the Grade 1 level, sensitivity becoming more evident as a differentiating agent in the subsequent grades, resulting in Grade 4 in a significant or nearly significant difference between inferior and superior subjects in all of the art elements considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the experimental work on memory, for instance, the subject is given some kind of material to learn; but in no case does the experimenter offer him any assistance or suggestion during either the process of memorizing or recall. In acquiring acts of skill, the subject does not receive any coaching from the experimenter during the period of practice. In learning a maze the subject is asked to master the problem in as short a time and with as few errors as possible. The experimenter may purposely introduce some suggestion, advice or guidance from time to time, in order to study its effect upon the process of learning. Such an attempt on the part of the experimenter to give some assistance to the subject while learning may be called a process of tuition. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of verbal means of tuition upon maze learning. Two forms of tuition were employed: (1) The method of Instruction and (2) The method of Information. Three hundred and fifteen subjects mastered the maze under twenty-six different conditions. Almost all of the subjects were drafted from the classes of introductory psychology. In this study of the influence of tuition upon learning a stylus maze, two forms of tuition were employed; namely, the method of verbal instruction and the method of verbal information. This attitude of caution induced by the tuition seemed to be the reason for the effectiveness of tuition in learning. Without exception tuition affected the records for the final speed most, the error records next, and the trial records least. In the study of the effect of various amounts of tuition upon learning the maze, it was brought out that the effectiveness at first increased and then decreased, as the number of the controlled trials was increased. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual forms and objects are characterized by orientation in visual space and this space may be said to constitute for them an orientational frame of reference. The experiments to be reported deal with one aspect of the perception of tip-character in visual forms. The hypothesis with which the first experiment started was that there might be a tendency for forms which are objectively tipped to be perceived and reproduced as upright. The hypothesis of the perceptual center need not in itself contain any implications as to its own nature. It may be regarded both as a perceptual organization which has reached relative stability, and as a habitual mode of perceiving. The relative parts played by dynamical factors and by past experience in determining perceptual change, together with their interrelationship, has yet to be worked out. A feature of visual form-perception is the characteristic of being upright or tipped. Forms objectively at an angle are often reproduced as upright but if the tip-character is noticed they are usually reproduced with an exaggerated degree of tip. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two important forms of appreciative ability in graphic art are the ability of the individual to analyze the manner in which a composition has been aesthetically organized, and the ability to recognize the effect of variations in the aesthetic organization of a picture upon its relative merit. This investigation concerns itself with the effect of two factors, direction and practice upon the development of aesthetic analysis and judgment in elementary school children, and upon the development of ability to produce an aesthetically meritorious composition. It would seem logical to suppose that aesthetic analysis and judgment can best be developed through cultivation of a knowledge of the criteria upon which aesthetic merit is based. Experiments in the study attempted to isolate the effect upon aesthetic judgment of the manner in which the problem of looking at pictures was approached. It is observed that the principles of art can be explained in such a manner that they can be understood and applied by children in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to judge between varying degrees of merit. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to analyze the aesthetic organization of a picture. Results also show that with complete cessation of the type of activities provided by the experimental procedure over a considerable period of time, there is failure to progress to a sufficient extent so that the experimental group retains a significant superiority over the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with certain auditory sensations and noises; in connection with certain gustatory sensations and disagreeable tastes; in connection with certain kinaesthetic sensations and the unpleasant feeling of physical restraint; in connection with certain olfactory sensations and nasty smells; in connection with some organic sensations, such as physical well being, relaxation, rhythmic changes in equilibrium, the unpleasantness of resisting fatigue, of feeling, tension, of sudden changes in equilibrium, of pain; in connection with some tactile sensations and irritations of touch; in connection with some temperature sensations and the painful feelings of heat and cold; in connection with certain visual sensations and disliked colors; and in connection with disagreeable intensities. One motive observed frequently in clinical work and dependent upon the self sentiments is the desire for attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In experiments on the galvanic response certain characteristic variations occur which are of interest to the psychologist. These may be described in terms of the direction, latency, magnitude, time and number of deflections in a given response. The primary object of the investigations reported in this paper was to determine the variations in each of these characteristics of the galvanic response when various stimuli are presented to different individuals. Forty-nine Os including 18 men and 31 women participated in the experiments. Of the advanced laboratory class 8 were graduate students in psychology. Each trial lasted 20 to 25 minutes and was divided into two parts, the first, a period of two minutes with no stimulus, and the second, a series of tests with various stimuli. No definite method of presenting stimuli could be followed owing to differences inherent in the requirements of different situations. It will be noted that for 22 out of the 49 Os included in this table the initial deflection was to the right, indicating decreasing resistance to electrical currents between the electrodes, while for 27 it was to the left indicating increasing resistance. In determining the number of deflections only appreciably permanent changes in the direction of the indicator were taken into account and not the minor fluctuations occurring while the indicator was progressing, or returning, in the same general direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous investigators of the lag in the responses of the retina to lights of different compositions and intensities have worked with one method alone and have not, as a rule, specified their conditions of experimentation with sufficient definiteness and precision that their work can be reproduced or their results be compared with each other. The object of the present study has been to devise new methods and to compare the results obtained by them with those obtained by the more promising of the older methods with the same observer, under the same conditions of experimentation and with the same wave-lengths and intensities of light. A very close agreement in the rate of rise of sensation was obtained by the new methods for each kind and intensity of light used. A close agreement also was obtained by all of the new methods, and two of the old for the time required for sensation to reach its maximum in each of the cases compared. With increase of intensity of light there was a decrease in the time required to produce the maximum response. A different rate of rise of sensation is found for the different wave-lengths and for white light. With increase of intensity of light there was a decrease in the time required to produce the maximum response. This decrease was more rapid for green and blue and slower for red and yellow. An investigation of this kind is already in progress in the Bryn Mawr laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is only within the last decade or so that the psychology of movement and the broader aspects that it involves has been coming to its own. This monograph investigates free will, impulses and in what way they effect one another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are not content to explore surfaces and objects of interest with our elbows, our wrists or the backs of our hands. The visual fields, like the cutaneous, exhibit graded-preference zones, and as we are impelled manually to touch and to handle that which interests us, so with our eyes we seek as we are attracted the "contact" of direct central vision in preference to the vaguer peripheral experience. It is not sufficient that light from an object shall gain entrance to our eyes or even that the image of the object shall fall somewhere within our visual field. The fixation response, although a part of a more elaborate experience, constitutes in itself a pattern of behavior and one which is both prompt and of very frequent occurrence. Here the stimulus is a bright point of light near the free end of a second-pendulum. The angular distance from the preliminary fixation point to the stimulus was varied consistently in many of the eye-reaction experiments and illustrative data are available if only for two subjects and with contradictory implications. In this study an attempt has also been made to define the foveal drive and to measure under varying conditions the latency which is its temporal index. The shorter latency found for a larger (4-mm.) stimulus patch in comparison to a smaller (2-mm.) one when luminous intensity is constant for both, is a result in general accord with the subjective impressions of experience. We probably become more promptly aware of the larger stimuli in our environment because they activate greater numbers of retinal elements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of rate of response to general intelligence. Investigations to determine the significance of rate, or speed, of human reactions have included three main lines of research: sensory and perceptual discrimination, learning and memory, and general intelligence. Eighty-eight boys and girls in the grammar grades were given a series of speed tests by McCall: Cancellation, handwriting, addition, and looking up and copying addresses from a directory; and a series of power tests. As the correlations with each of the three criteria are so nearly the same the average will probably give the best view of the facts. This study differs essentially from the other investigations of this problem in that we are employing separate measures for rate of response and for general intelligence, and a third measure combining the factors measured by the other two. This study is based upon the responses of 87 boys and girls of the Peabody Demonstration School to the tests described below. Twenty-nine were in the fifth grade, 30 in the sixth, and 28 in the seventh. The determination of the reliability of the measures employed in this study differ with different measures. The results of this investigation indicate decidedly that the rate of response to test material is by no means a safe measure of intelligence. The simple linguistic rate tests used in this study are about as good a measure of intelligence as is the National Intelligence test. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The problem investigated in this experiment deals specifically with the emergence of insightful behavior. Light stimuli were arranged in two pairs which could be varied in intensity so that each member of a pair presented, with its neighbor, a relation of greater difference or lesser difference or greater summation or lesser summation when compared with the other pair. This method carries the conventional apparatus employed in experiments on relational judgment and transposition a step farther and requires the subject to compare the relationship between the lights of one pair with the relationship between another pair rather than to compare directly the intensity of one light with that of another. In order to bring out the insightful mode of response from its very beginning in the problem situation, no verbal instructions were given the subjects who were left to their own ingenuity both in discovering the problem character of the experiment and in ascertaining the principle of the correct choice. Overall, this experiment would seem to justify the following results: Insightful behavior can be represented by a performance curve showing an upward drift; The light intensities may be shifted within the limits of clearness and if the ratio remains the same, the experiment is unchanged, showing transposition and satisfying this criterion of insight; This experiment shows transfer in the solution of problems of relationships; There is a pause or period of deliberation just previous to full insight; Neither too rapid nor too deliberate responses are conducive to the early emergence of full insight; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence seems to indicate rather definitely that the higher cortical centers dominate the activity of the lower centers and that a hyper- or hypo-activity of the former results in a hypo- or hyper-activity of the latter. The aim of this present study is to determine whether this relationship between higher and lower centers was similarly modified in a wider variety of psychiatric and neurologic cases. For this purpose a number of unselected cases were used, representing both the organic and the so-called functional types of disorder. Not only were the reflex times determined, but records of the action currents incident to the voluntary contraction of the muscle group involved in the reflex contraction were secured. This permitted a comparison of both the gross qualitative and quantitative features of the action currents produced by voluntary and reflex innervation. A total of 66 individuals were used, a majority of whom were patients in the Psychopathic Hospital of the University of Iowa. The result shows that the reflex time as given is the average of all reflexes secured from the subject, usually five or more. In the determination of reflex frequency the number of peaks, regardless of their extent, in the action current discharge was counted throughout the entire duration of the volley and the frequency per sec. calculated from the result. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this series of experiments the attempt was made to get an introspective analysis of what occurs in the process of perceiving and recalling when a subject is given real objects, pictures or words to remember. The method of experiment was very simple. A number of small objects such as a knife, a pair of scissors, a brush, etc., were collected and placed in a drawer. A number of pictures were drawn and printed and a list of words prepared and printed in large legible type. The pictures used represented concrete objects that could easily be visualized. The words used were simply the names of the pictures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Article · · Psychological monographs