Psychological monographs (Psychol Monogr)

Publisher: American Psychological Association

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Other titles Psychological monographs, Psychological review
ISSN 0096-9753
OCLC 1763055
Material type Series
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: This report, concerned primarily with conditioned eyelid responses of normal monkeys, is the second of a series having as objectives the comparative study of the process of conditioning in different species of mammals and the analysis of the central mechanism of conditioning by experimental lesions of the nervous system. Five rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) were carried through a series of adaptation trials, conditioning, and extinction, following the routine described in the study with dogs. A daily conditioning session consisted of 50 reinforcements preceded and followed by 5-trial tests with the conditioned stimulus, and interspersed with control trials on which the unconditioned stimulus was presented alone. Four of 5 monkeys developed conditioned eyelid responses to a flash of light which preceded by 400 ms. an air-puff to one cornea. These responses occurred at a mean latency of 226 ms., definitely anticipatory with respect to the air-puff. All conditioned responses were complete closures, differing in this respect from those of dog and man. A protracted extinction series with one animal produced some decrease in frequency of response within 12 periods of non-reinforcement, but a single period of reconditioning restored the response to the value achieved after the 5 days of original conditioning.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Psychological monographs
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    ABSTRACT: We are not content to explore surfaces and objects of interest with our elbows, our wrists or the backs of our hands. The visual fields, like the cutaneous, exhibit graded-preference zones, and as we are impelled manually to touch and to handle that which interests us, so with our eyes we seek as we are attracted the "contact" of direct central vision in preference to the vaguer peripheral experience. It is not sufficient that light from an object shall gain entrance to our eyes or even that the image of the object shall fall somewhere within our visual field. The fixation response, although a part of a more elaborate experience, constitutes in itself a pattern of behavior and one which is both prompt and of very frequent occurrence. Here the stimulus is a bright point of light near the free end of a second-pendulum. The angular distance from the preliminary fixation point to the stimulus was varied consistently in many of the eye-reaction experiments and illustrative data are available if only for two subjects and with contradictory implications. In this study an attempt has also been made to define the foveal drive and to measure under varying conditions the latency which is its temporal index. The shorter latency found for a larger (4-mm.) stimulus patch in comparison to a smaller (2-mm.) one when luminous intensity is constant for both, is a result in general accord with the subjective impressions of experience. We probably become more promptly aware of the larger stimuli in our environment because they activate greater numbers of retinal elements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence seems to indicate rather definitely that the higher cortical centers dominate the activity of the lower centers and that a hyper- or hypo-activity of the former results in a hypo- or hyper-activity of the latter. The aim of this present study is to determine whether this relationship between higher and lower centers was similarly modified in a wider variety of psychiatric and neurologic cases. For this purpose a number of unselected cases were used, representing both the organic and the so-called functional types of disorder. Not only were the reflex times determined, but records of the action currents incident to the voluntary contraction of the muscle group involved in the reflex contraction were secured. This permitted a comparison of both the gross qualitative and quantitative features of the action currents produced by voluntary and reflex innervation. A total of 66 individuals were used, a majority of whom were patients in the Psychopathic Hospital of the University of Iowa. The result shows that the reflex time as given is the average of all reflexes secured from the subject, usually five or more. In the determination of reflex frequency the number of peaks, regardless of their extent, in the action current discharge was counted throughout the entire duration of the volley and the frequency per sec. calculated from the result. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation is an experimental study of the mental processes involved in the solution of certain novel problems and in the utilization of experiences so gained for the subsequent mastery of other problems of a similar nature. The problems were chosen with a view to the possibility of accurate measurement of the progress. in their mastery. They are arranged roughly in the order of increasing complexity, and are so related that the solutions for later problems are, for the most part, simply more generalized statements of solutions for earlier ones. Explicit generalization did not often occur until the number of beads presented was high enough to preclude the possibility of direct, perceptual foresight of the consequences of all possible draws, i.e., until the numbers presented were high enough to place a premium on the use of symbols in their solution. Several fairly distinct stages in the development of the critical- number concept were found. False analogies arising from the observation of superficial relations often resulted in confusion and error. Sometimes the solution of new problems was much retarded by the attempted application of inadequate or irrelevant generalizations formulated from the elements of earlier series. The only originality which is claimed for the present study is to be found in the experimental verification of some of these ideas and in the development of a technique which, it is hoped, may prove to be of value in the further investigation of some of the problems in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: It is only within the last decade or so that the psychology of movement and the broader aspects that it involves has been coming to its own. This monograph investigates free will, impulses and in what way they effect one another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: The subject of binaural beats has been one of much interest to the psychologist, not only because the phenomena observed are difficult to explain with entire satisfaction, but also because the explanations involve what are evidently very important questions. The writer became interested in the physical aspects of binaural hearing through his theoretical and experimental studies of the sound intensity and phase relations in the neighborhood of a rigid sphere. His experimental work upon the subject of binaural beats will be presented in appropriate detail in the Physical Review for 1917. The present article will give a very brief account of the results, both experimental and theoretical, with the expectation that those especially interested in this field will refer freely to the detailed reports in the Physical Review. Brevity will necessitate the preparation of this article for the most part as an abstract, and hence omissions of references to other investigations and of complete discussions of disputed points, will occur frequently. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: The objective study of ocular behavior has passed through several developmental stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: It may be assumed that the experience of evaluating properly the artwork of another (passive creative imagination) calls out abilities very similar to those functioning in active creative imagination or the process of constructing a composition oneself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of apparent movement, the perception of two stationary objects exposed in quick succession as a single object in motion, are numerous in the visual and tactual modalities, but surprisingly little searching work has been done on the subject in the auditory field. Perhaps this is because of the greater difficulties with physical and psychological controls in audition, and because the phenomenon seems to be more subtle and less stable in this field than in the others. Apparent auditory movement, however, occasionally intrudes itself into studies in sound localization. Three direct approaches have been made to the problem of apparent auditory movement with the particular aim of comparing it with the visual phi-phenomenon. In view of these facts the need for finding reliable conditions for the arousal of this phenomenon becomes obvious. It was in the interest of finding and describing compulsory conditions for apparent auditory movement with the presentation of pairs of very brief stimuli that this study was made. The apparatus consisted of two main units, the timing and click-producing apparatus, and the signalling and reporting unit, besides a number of accessory parts. By way of conclusion we can say that under our conditions (1) we did not find compulsory conditions for apparent auditory movement; (2) we found, in so far as we got reports of movement, that the range of intervals within which movement occurred did not closely correspond to the range of phenomenal shortening of distance; (3) we found that differences in the quality of telephone receivers had, in a limited range of intervals, no appreciable effect upon the range and kind of movement; (4) we found in preliminary series certain conditions of dichotic hearing most favorable of all our conditions for movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: Two important forms of appreciative ability in graphic art are the ability of the individual to analyze the manner in which a composition has been aesthetically organized, and the ability to recognize the effect of variations in the aesthetic organization of a picture upon its relative merit. This investigation concerns itself with the effect of two factors, direction and practice upon the development of aesthetic analysis and judgment in elementary school children, and upon the development of ability to produce an aesthetically meritorious composition. It would seem logical to suppose that aesthetic analysis and judgment can best be developed through cultivation of a knowledge of the criteria upon which aesthetic merit is based. Experiments in the study attempted to isolate the effect upon aesthetic judgment of the manner in which the problem of looking at pictures was approached. It is observed that the principles of art can be explained in such a manner that they can be understood and applied by children in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to judge between varying degrees of merit. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to analyze the aesthetic organization of a picture. Results also show that with complete cessation of the type of activities provided by the experimental procedure over a considerable period of time, there is failure to progress to a sufficient extent so that the experimental group retains a significant superiority over the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with certain auditory sensations and noises; in connection with certain gustatory sensations and disagreeable tastes; in connection with certain kinaesthetic sensations and the unpleasant feeling of physical restraint; in connection with certain olfactory sensations and nasty smells; in connection with some organic sensations, such as physical well being, relaxation, rhythmic changes in equilibrium, the unpleasantness of resisting fatigue, of feeling, tension, of sudden changes in equilibrium, of pain; in connection with some tactile sensations and irritations of touch; in connection with some temperature sensations and the painful feelings of heat and cold; in connection with certain visual sensations and disliked colors; and in connection with disagreeable intensities. One motive observed frequently in clinical work and dependent upon the self sentiments is the desire for attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: In the realm of special ability there is a widespread belief that artistic ability is inborn and remains more or less fixed throughout life. The objective of this study was to test the possibility of art ability at the childhood level being changed, with an attempt to identify the factors that might be involved if such a change were brought about. This investigation has been directed toward the nature of these capacity-limits, in an attempt to discover whether it is possible to produce a definite extension of the usual limits. This plan was specifically attempted, first, through the use of a number of subjects who, at the start of the investigation, were definitely inferior, and a few who were definitely superior in art ability, and secondly, through the examination of a section of the general population at the same age-level. The technique of using a reliable scale in judging actual achievement in art appeared to be the best method for use in this field. The factors of aesthetic sensitivity differentiating children artistically superior and artistically inferior were identified to a certain degree by the comparison of responses of a large number (Group B) of normal children, previously measured in artistic ability, to aesthetic situations of five types. Results show that the lack of aesthetic sensitivity, as shown by the methods and materials of this study, is practically the normal condition at the Grade 1 level, sensitivity becoming more evident as a differentiating agent in the subsequent grades, resulting in Grade 4 in a significant or nearly significant difference between inferior and superior subjects in all of the art elements considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, the assumption is made, at the outset, that changes of muscle tonus provide the immediate conditions for variations of kinaesthetic threshold. The relationship between degree of tonus and number intensity of afferent impulses is probably a direct one. Although it may be argued that changes of muscle tonus are merely variations of local conditions in the region of threshold determination, evidence will be presented to indicate the apparent significance of afferent impulses reflected from the muscles involved. For the investigations to be reported here, a hand-controlled pallesthesiometer was employed. The instrument consists essentially of an electromagnetically controlled rod which vibrates vertically. The pallesthesiometer was tested on the patient's legs in order to familiarize him with the nature of the vibration. Preliminary observations indicated that there was definite loss and return of vibratory sensibility during the seizures. This seemed to be the case on both the left and right sides, although the right side was never involved in the convulsion. Changes of muscle tonus induced by exercise and by varied postures are associated inversely with sensitivity to vibration as measured by its threshold. Our clinical observation, in which vibration loss was concomitant with the initial phase of clonus, the period when proprioceptive impulses are probably most frequent and intense, is adduced as evidence of this theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: In the experimental work on memory, for instance, the subject is given some kind of material to learn; but in no case does the experimenter offer him any assistance or suggestion during either the process of memorizing or recall. In acquiring acts of skill, the subject does not receive any coaching from the experimenter during the period of practice. In learning a maze the subject is asked to master the problem in as short a time and with as few errors as possible. The experimenter may purposely introduce some suggestion, advice or guidance from time to time, in order to study its effect upon the process of learning. Such an attempt on the part of the experimenter to give some assistance to the subject while learning may be called a process of tuition. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of verbal means of tuition upon maze learning. Two forms of tuition were employed: (1) The method of Instruction and (2) The method of Information. Three hundred and fifteen subjects mastered the maze under twenty-six different conditions. Almost all of the subjects were drafted from the classes of introductory psychology. In this study of the influence of tuition upon learning a stylus maze, two forms of tuition were employed; namely, the method of verbal instruction and the method of verbal information. This attitude of caution induced by the tuition seemed to be the reason for the effectiveness of tuition in learning. Without exception tuition affected the records for the final speed most, the error records next, and the trial records least. In the study of the effect of various amounts of tuition upon learning the maze, it was brought out that the effectiveness at first increased and then decreased, as the number of the controlled trials was increased. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed, first, to discover the nature of equivalence reactions in normal animals which had learned a "size" discrimination, and how these equivalence reactions are altered with retesting. Secondly, it was designed to find out how cortical injury affects the equivalence reactions of rats which had learned a "size" discrimination. Thirdly, an attempt was made to construct a highly diagnostic series of critical cards, which would indicate properties serving as a basis for the discrimination, and which would also serve to test the role of relational responses. Finally, an effort was made to determine whether alterations in procedure have any effect on equivalence reactions. The particular factors chosen for variation were the training procedure, and the order of presentation of critical pairs. The nature of the technique used is to provide reward for a correct choice and punishment for an incorrect choice. An analysis of the group variability again provided evidence for the opposite effects of operation and retesting. The individual differences with respect to "total brightness" and size preferences decreased after operation, in contrast to the increase in individual differences that resulted from retesting. It was shown that whenever a critical pair was regarded as equivalent, there was a marked consistency of preference for a particular card of the pair. No evidence was found of a relationship between the behavioral criteria and locus, shape, depth, and extent of lesion. The interrelations of the results, their relation to the findings of other investigators and the bearing which they may have on theoretical issues was considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    ABSTRACT: The term nystagmus has commonly been applied to the phenomenon of alternating slow and quick ocular excursions. There are many forms of nystagmus, elicited under a wide variety of conditions, both normal and pathological. Despite the fact that eye movements are a highly practiced type of muscular reaction and show very little variability under normal conditions, there have been very few studies of ocular reactions as an indication of the effects of drugs. This is perhaps because there are available more practical and more thoroughly investigated indicators. The study of nystagmus has depended upon the development of adequate techniques for the observing and the recording of eye movements. In the present investigation the eye movements involved in optic nystagmus were photographically recorded on moving sensitized paper by means of the Dodge mirror-recorder. One of the essential controls in all drug experiments is the maintenance of ignorance on the part of the subject as to when he is receiving the drug and when he is not; otherwise, one may question whether the effects revealed are due to the drug itself or to the subject's knowledge of what the effects ought to be. The administration of alcohol to the human subject presents almost insurmountable difficulties in this particular control, difficulties which have never been completely avoided. The investigation suggests that optic nystagmus may be used as an index of the effects of alcohol and caffeine upon motor performance, but that unequivocal conclusions wait upon more adequate methods of quantifying the eye movement records than have heretofore been applied in such studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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