The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (AM J DRUG ALCOHOL AB)
Where can you find timely discussions of topics such as... the characteristics of dually diagnosed patients drug use screening inventories the effects of age on perinatal substance abuse endogenous opiates and opiate and benzodiazepine receptors HIV infection risk behaviors and methadone treatment integrating substance abuse services with general medical care network therapy for addiction outreach engagement efforts physician unawareness of serious substance abuse sources of motivation in treatment programs substance abuse and organ transplantation transmission of parent/adult-child drinking patterns and much, much more! Focusing on the preclinical, clinical, pharmacological, administrative, and social aspects of substance misuse, this authoritative journal provides an important and stimulating exchange of ideas between the various modalities involved in the study and treatment of drug abuse and alcoholism. Comprehensive in scope, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse deepens your understanding of subjects, including community approaches criminal laws cultural and ideological attitudes epidemiology funding sources pharmacology of misused drugs self-help techniques treatment methods and more! Interdisciplinary in its approach, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse serves as an essential forum for established researchers and professionals in alcohol studies biostatistics criminology forensic medicine hematology law enforcement medicine neuropsychiatry nursing oncology pharmacology psychiatry psychology public health rehabilitation social and behavioral sciences social work sociology urban health policy, research, and education.
Journal Impact: 1.31*
Journal impact history
|2016 Journal impact||Available summer 2017|
|2015 Journal impact||1.31|
|2011 Journal impact||0.88|
|2010 Journal impact||1.16|
|2009 Journal impact||1.82|
|2008 Journal impact||1.77|
|2007 Journal impact||1.53|
|2006 Journal impact||1.62|
|2005 Journal impact||1.51|
|2004 Journal impact||1.38|
|2003 Journal impact||1.44|
|2002 Journal impact||1.51|
|2001 Journal impact||1.26|
|2000 Journal impact||1.32|
Journal impact over time
|Website||American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, The website|
|Other titles||The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse|
|Material type||Periodical, Internet resource|
|Document type||Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource|
Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. Objectives: To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Methods: We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a “crowdsourcing” platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Results: Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p’s < 0.05) and to believe that e-cigarettes help smokers quit (ps < 0.05). Among never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps < 0.01). Current smokers’ top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers’ top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Conclusions: Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The co-occurrence of depression and substance use disorders (SUD) is highly prevalent and associated with poor treatment outcomes for both disorders. As compared to individuals suffering from either disorder alone, individuals with both conditions are likely to endure a more severe and chronic clinical course with worse treatment outcomes. Thus, current practice guidelines recommend treating these co-occurring disorders simultaneously. Objectives: The overarching aims of this narrative are two-fold: (1) to provide an updated review of the current empirical status of integrated psychotherapy approaches for SUD and depression comorbidity, based on models of traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and newer third-wave CBT approaches, including acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions and behavioral activation (BA); and (2) to propose a novel theoretical framework for transdiagnostic CBT for SUD-depression, based upon empirically grounded psychological mechanisms underlying this highly prevalent comorbidity. Results: Traditional CBT approaches for the treatment of SUD-depression are well-studied. Despite advances in the development and evaluation of various third-wave psychotherapies, more work needs to be done to evaluate the efficacy of such approaches for SUD-depression. Conclusion: Informed by this summary of the evidence, we propose a transdiagnostic therapy approach that aims to integrate treatment elements found in empirically supported CBT-based interventions for SUD and depression. By targeting shared cognitive-affective processes underlying SUD-depression, transdiagnostic treatment models have the potential to offer a novel clinical approach to treating this difficult-to-treat comorbidity and relevant, co-occurring psychiatric disturbances, such as posttraumatic stress.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and smoking in youth has been well documented. Less research has examined why individuals with ADHD, particularly college students, are at increased risk for smoking. Objectives: This longitudinal study examined whether smoking motives [cognitive enhancement, tolerance, negative reinforcement (smoking to reduce negative affect or stress), craving, social influences, and weight control] helped to explain the relation between ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and cigarette smoking among college students. Methods: Participants were 889 undergraduates (21% men) and their parents who completed online surveys at the beginning and end of the Fall semester regarding their smoking behaviors, ADHD symptoms, and smoking motives. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data and answer research questions. Results: Nineteen percent of students reported smoking, while 20% reported one or more inattentive symptoms, 35% reported one or more hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, and 3.3% met criteria for ADHD. All smoking motives significantly moderated the relation between inattentive symptoms and smoking, while most smoking motives (negative reinforcement, tolerance, craving, cognitive enhancement, and weight control) moderated the link between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and smoking. Results remained significant after controlling for stimulant medication use and conduct disorder symptoms. Conclusions/importance: Addressing negative reinforcement, craving, social influences, and tolerance in prevention and intervention efforts on college campuses may reduce smoking. Results also highlight the importance of assessing a range of ADHD symptoms in college students as ADHD symptoms, even at subthreshold levels, were associated with increased smoking rates among college students.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) use among youth is a pressing public health issue, with prevalence of use surpassing that of tobacco cigarettes. While research concerning e-cigarettes has proliferated in recent years, there is a dearth of information regarding those whose first exposure to tobacco products was an e-cigarette. Objectives: To examine factors associated with e-cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States. Methods: Data on minority students in middle and high schools in the United States derived from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were sampled (weighted N = 27,294,454). We examined e-cigarette initiation among minority youth using logistic regression models to identify related factors. Results: In 2014, 736,158 minority youth were e-cigarette initiators. Odds of e-cigarette initiation was highest among Hispanic youth [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.60–4.56]. Exposure to e-cigarette advertising (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.07–2.50), perceptions of little to no harm (AOR = 7.08; 95% CI = 4.03–12.46), and believing e-cigarettes were less addictive than tobacco (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.52–3.02) were associated with e-cigarette initiation. Conclusions: Odds of initiating e-cigarette use was highest among Hispanic youth. Among minority youth, e-cigarette initiation was associated with perceptions of harm and addiction potential, as well as exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting minority youth who are at risk of becoming e-cigarette initiators may benefit by incorporating these factors into prevention campaigns.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The increasing popularity of non-cigarette nicotine products, especially among youth, highlights the need for greater attention to their potential risks, including nicotine addiction and other substance use and addiction. Objectives: To examine the extent to which nicotine product use co-occurs with other substance use and addiction among youth and adults, describe the demographic groups and types of nicotine products associated with an increased risk of such co-occurrence, and discuss implications for research, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. Methods: Analyzing 2014 data from two nationally representative US surveys, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, we examined the co-occurrence between nicotine product use and alcohol and other drug use and addiction. Results: Individuals of all ages who reported using nicotine products of any kind were significantly more likely than nonusers to report alcohol, marijuana, other drug, and poly-substance use and to meet diagnostic criteria for a substance-use disorder. Users of multiple nicotine products generally were the most likely to engage in alcohol and other drug use and to be addicted to these other substances. Conclusions: The substantial co-occurrence of all forms of nicotine use and other substance use and addiction underscores the need to control the growing use of non-cigarette nicotine products among youth and to incorporate all forms of nicotine product use into substance use and addiction research, prevention, clinical practice, and policy efforts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Alcohol use disorders and tobacco use contribute significant risk to the global burden of disease, and each are major public health concerns. Together, alcohol and tobacco use are highly comorbid and have multiplicative health risks when used concurrently, underscoring the importance of examining alcohol-tobacco interactions in the human laboratory. Objective: The aims of this review were to summarize the state of research examining alcohol-tobacco interactions in the human laboratory. Methods: We reviewed human laboratory evidence for alcohol and tobacco/nicotine interactions, including 1) craving in drinkers and smokers exposed to smoking or drinking cues, 2) fixed-dosing of alcohol or nicotine in smokers and drinkers, and 3) smoking and alcohol influences on self-administration behaviors. The interactive effects of tobacco/nicotine with other drugs of abuse are also briefly discussed. Results: Overall, results identified that alcohol and tobacco have reciprocal influences on potentiating craving, subjective responses to fixed-dose alcohol or nicotine administration, and self-administration. The literature identified that alcohol increases craving to smoke, decreases time to initiate smoking, and increases smoking self-administration. Similarly, tobacco and nicotine increase alcohol craving, decrease subjective effects of alcohol, and increase alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Future studies should continue to focus on alcohol and tobacco/nicotine interactions in individuals with a wide scope of drinking and smoking histories, different states of alcohol and nicotine deprivation, and influences of either drug on craving, subjective responses, and consumption over the course of the blood alcohol curve. This work could have important implications for the impact of alcohol-tobacco interactions on guiding clinical practice, as well as in the changing landscape of addiction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nicotine exerts its central actions through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which in turn regulate major neurotransmitter systems including dopamine. Nicotinic and dopaminergic systems play significant roles in physiological functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and addiction. Objectives: To evaluate possible differences in the expression of nAChR subunit and dopamine receptor (DR) mRNAs following voluntary nicotine intake. Methods: Male and female rats (n = 67) were exposed to long-term free-choice oral nicotine (24 hours/day, 6 weeks); rats with maximum and minimum nicotine preference/intake were selected. The mRNA levels of genes encoding α4,β2,α5, and α7 nAChR subunits and DR Drd1and Drd2 subtypes were evaluated in the striatum (STR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in selected rats (n = 30) and their control groups (n = 15). Results: In addition to baseline differences, expression changes were observed in the mRNA levels of evaluated genes in rats exposed to voluntary oral nicotine in a brain region-, sex-, and preference-related manner. Nicotine intake is correlated negatively with Chrnb2, Chrna7 and positively with Drd1 expression. In the cholinergic system, regional differences in Chnrb2 and Chrna5, sex differences in Chrna4 and Chrna5, and nicotine preference effects in the expression of all subunits except α4 were observed. Chrna5 was lower in maximum than in minimum preferring, and in male than female rats, supporting the inhibitory role of the α5 subunit in nicotine dependence. Nicotine increased Drd2 mRNA expression only in minimum preferring female rats in STR and PFC. Conclusion: Modulation of nAChR and DR gene expression by nicotine may have clinical implications and aid drug development. Pharmaceuticals targeting the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems might be expected to have differential efficacy that varies with the patient's sex or smoking status.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In Japan, fatalities among patients who experienced an acute reaction following self-administration of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have been more frequently reported since June 2014. Objective: This survey aimed to document and analyze trends in NPS consumption in emergency patients. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective survey of patients who were transported to emergency facilities after consuming NPS-containing products between January 2013 and December 2014. Letters requesting participation were sent to 467 emergency facilities, and questionnaires were mailed to facilities that agreed to participate. Results: We surveyed 589 patients from 85 (18.2%) facilities. Most patients were male (89.6%) and young (median age, 30 years), and inhaled (88%) NPS contained in herbal products (80.5%). Harmful behavior was observed at the scene of acute reaction, including violence (6.9%), traffic accidents (4.9%), and self-injury or suicidal attempts (1.1%). Other than neuropsychiatric and physical symptoms, many patients also had physical complications such as rhabdomyolysis (17.5%), liver injury (12.4%), acute kidney injury (9%), and physical injury (1.9%). Of the 256 patients (43.5%) admitted to hospitals, 35 (5.9%) were hospitalized for seven or more days. Most patients (93.2%) completely recovered, although a few (1.4%) died. However, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones were only detected in the blood of five patients. Conclusion: Consumption of NPS-containing products have been associated with harmful behaviors such as violence and traffic accidents, physical complications (e.g., rhabdomyolysis, liver injury), death, or physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to a previous survey (2006–2012), the present survey revealed more severe toxicity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression and substance use disorders are often comorbid, but the reasons for this are unclear. In human studies, it is difficult to determine how one disorder may affect predisposition to the other and what the underlying mechanisms might be. Instead, animal studies allow experimental induction of behaviors relevant to depression and drug-taking, and permit direct interrogation of changes to neural circuits and molecular pathways. While this field is still new, here we review animal studies that investigate whether depression-like states increase vulnerability to drug-taking behaviors. Since chronic psychosocial stress can precipitate or predispose to depression in humans, we review studies that use psychosocial stressors to produce depression-like phenotypes in animals. Specifically, we describe how postweaning isolation stress, repeated social defeat stress, and chronic mild (or unpredictable) stress affect behaviors relevant to substance abuse, especially operant self-administration. Potential brain changes mediating these effects are also discussed where available, with an emphasis on mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuits. Postweaning isolation stress and repeated social defeat generally increase acquisition or maintenance of drug self-administration, and alter dopamine sensitivity in various brain regions. However, the effects of chronic mild stress on drug-taking have been much less studied. Future studies should consider standardizing stress-induction protocols, including female subjects, and using multi-hit models (e.g. genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stress).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. Objectives: We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. Methods: The patients (N = 1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and perceived health risks. Results: Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR = 13). The participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p = 0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (p < 0.001) than those with low/moderate receptivity. Higher perceived health risk was associated with lower odds of smoking (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, p < 0.001). CPD for smokers highly receptive to advertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%–20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. Conclusion: The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements and lower perception of health-related smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: While nonstudent emerging adults are at elevated risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems, there remains a paucity of research devoted specifically to addressing drinking in this group. Objectives: The present study sought to offer unique insights into nonstudent drinking by examining drinking variability across 30 days using a retrospective diary method. Specific aims were to: (1) compare within- and between-person variability in alcohol use across 30 days, and (2) determine the extent to which central social-cognitive between-person factors (i.e., social expectancies, perceived drinking norms, social drinking motivations) predict between-person alcohol use as well as within-person variability in drinking. Methods: Participants were 195 (65.1% men) nonstudent emerging adults recruited from the community with a mean age of 21.9 (SD = 2.1) years. Results: Findings showed that a substantial portion of variation in daily alcohol consumption was attributable to the within-person (83%) rather than between-person (17.2%) level. Social expectancies, perceived drinking norms, and social motives were found to influence variability in daily alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Our findings contribute to knowledge that could guide efforts to design and tailor intervention strategies to minimize the harms experienced by an understudied and at-risk population of drinkers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Street-involved youth who use drugs may have limited income-generation options and are known to commonly become immersed in illicit drug markets to generate funds. However, little attention has been given to factors that may drive drug dealing initiation among this vulnerable population. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study from September 2005 to November 2014; a prospective cohort of 194 street-involved youth who use drugs aged 14–26, in Vancouver, Canada. Extended Cox model was used to identify factors independently associated with time to first drug dealing. Results: Among street-involved youth who had never dealt drugs at baseline, 56 (29%) individuals initiated drug dealing during the study period for an incidence density of 13.0 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.9–17.2). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, male gender (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.06–3.42), homelessness (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05–3.35), crystal methamphetamine use (AHR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.47–4.20), and crack cocaine use (AHR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.38–4.00) were positively and independently associated with initiating drug dealing. Conclusion: Homelessness and stimulant drug use were key risk factors for drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Findings indicate that evidence-based and innovative interventions, including youth-centric supportive housing, low threshold employment programs, and stimulant addiction treatment should be implemented and evaluated as strategies to help prevent this vulnerable population from engaging in risky illegal income generation practices.
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