Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement (Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl)
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|Other titles||Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement (Online)|
|Material type||Document, Periodical, Internet resource|
|Document type||Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper|
Publications in this journal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying duodenal ulcer (DU) recurrence after endoscopically confirmed healing are unclear. We sought to examine histologic differences in healing induced by omeprazole and nizatidine. This also entailed assessing interobserver variation in endoscopic diagnosis and the correlation between endoscopic and histomorphologic healing. We treated 31 DU patients for 4 weeks with either omeprazole (20 mg daily a.m.) or nizatidine (300 mg twice daily). The healing rates of both groups showed no significant differences (86.7% versus 81.2%; p = 0.5). Good mucosal repair rates did not differ significantly (38.5% versus 69.2% respectively; p = 0.5). Endoscopists' agreement over scar type was 0.80, with the chance of agreement 0.70 (k = 0.34 ± -0.08). The correlation between macroscopic and histologic appearance of scars was fair, but fully significant (r = 0.48; p < 0.05). We conclude that the study was too small to detect significant differences in healing patterns between the two drugs. The wide variation in endoscopic diagnosis suggests that mucosal repair is best assessed by histologic examination of biopsy samples.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorectal endosonography (AE), which was introduced 20 years ago, derives from the study of urology. It was first used to evaluate rectal tumours and later also to investigate benign disorders of the anal sphincters and pelvic floor. The technique is easy to perform, it has a short learning curve and causes no more discomfort than a routine digital examination. A rotating probe with a 360 degrees radius and a frequency between 5 and 16 MHz is introduced to the rectum and then slowly withdrawn so that the pelvic floor and subsequently the sphincter complex are seen. Recently, it has become possible to reconstruct three-dimensional images. AE has been used for almost every possible disorder in the anal region and has increased our insight into anal pathology. The clinical indications for AE are: 1. Faecal incontinence in patients when surgery is an option. AE can show sphincter defects with excellent precision. There is a perfect correlation with surgical findings. Studies comparing AE with endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have shown that both methods are equally good for demonstrating defects in the external anal sphincter; the internal anal sphincter is better visualized with AE. After sphincter repair, the effect is directly related to the decrease in the sphincter defect. 2. Perianal fistulae. AE has been shown to be accurate in staging perianal cryptoglandular fistulae and fistulae in Crohn's disease. When there is an external fistula opening, H2O2 can be introduced with a plastic infusion catheter. The tract then becomes visible as a hyperechoic lesion ("white"). It has been shown that this corresponds well with surgical findings. It is equally sensitive as endoanal MRI. Since recurrent cryptoglandular fistulae are complex in 50% and Crohn's fistula in 75%, it is mandatory to perform AE preoperatively in these patients to avoid missed tracts during surgery and subsequent recurrences. 3. Rectal tumors. In low tubulovillous adenomas or malignant polyps considered removable locally, confirming the local resectability (T0 or T1) is mandatory. Although larger rectal and more advanced tumours can be evaluated with AE, MRI is more sensitive in staging nodal involvement. 4. Anal carcinoma for staging. AE has been shown to stage better than the classical TNM classification for both local extension and prognosis. In conclusion, AE images the internal and external anal sphincter with high accuracy. It is easy to perform and is of particular value in the diagnosis of anal incontinence and perianal fistulae. It is excellent in staging anal carcinoma and can also be used in staging rectal carcinoma, especially very low large malignant polyps.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver biopsy is still regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of liver disease. However, there is a growing demand for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis, which is the most important prognostic factor in chronic liver disease, in particular in viral hepatitis. Transient elastography is a novel, non-invasive and rapid bedside method for assessing liver fibrosis by measuring liver stiffness. Some recent extensive studies, mainly from France, have demonstrated that measurement with the FibroScan is a good alternative for the liver biopsy. The amount of fibrosis can be quantified very easily and reliably. In this review, we describe the technique and discuss the available studies in order to establish applicability and to provide points for discussion.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After liver transplantation, the prevalence of complications related to the biliary system is 6-35%. In recent years, the diagnosis and treatment of biliary problems has changed markedly. The two standard methods of biliary reconstruction in liver transplant recipients are the duct-to-duct choledochocholedochostomy and the Roux-en-Y-hepaticojejunostomy. Biliary leakage occurs in approximately 5-7% of transplant cases. Leakage from the site of anastomosis, the T-tube exit site and donor or recipient remnant cystic duct is well described. Symptomatic bile leakage should be treated by stenting of the duct by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCD). Biliary strictures can occur at the site of the anastomosis (anastomotic stricture; AS) or at other locations in the biliary tree (non-anastomotic strictures; NAS). AS occur in 5-10% of cases and are due to fibrotic healing. Treatment by ERCP or PTCD with dilatation and progressive stenting is successful in the majority of cases. NAS can occur in the context of a hepatic artery thrombosis, or with an open hepatic artery (ischaemic type biliary lesions or ITBL). The incidence is 5-10%. NAS has been associated with various types of injury, e.g. macrovascular, microvascular, immunological and cytotoxic injury by bile salts. Treatment can be attempted with multiple sessions of dilatation and stenting of stenotic areas by ERCP or PTCD. In cases of localized diseased and good graft function, biliary reconstructive surgery is useful. However, a significant number of patients will need a re-transplant. When biliary strictures or ischaemia of the graft are present, stones, casts and sludge can develop.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rectal blood loss is a common late sequel of radiation proctitis. Teleangiectasias appear in the mucosa in 2-5% of patients after radiotherapy of the pelvis. Since pharmacotherapy is usually not beneficial, local treatment modalities with formalin irrigation, Nd:YAG laser and argon plasma coagulation (APC) have been advocated, but experience is still limited. Between January 1997 and August 2001, 50 consecutive patients with rectal bleeding due to radiation proctitis were included for treatment with APC. Thirteen patients suffered from anaemia, six of whom required blood transfusion. Nine patients were receiving anticoagulant therapy and 10 patients used low-dose aspirin. APC was performed, applying the no-touch spotting technique at an electrical power of 50 Watt and an argon gas flow of 2.0 l/min. Pulse duration was less than 0.5 s. Treatment sessions were carried out at intervals of 3 weeks. In 47 out of 48 patients (98%) in whom the effect could be assessed, APC led to persistent clinical and endoscopic remission of rectal bleeding after a median of three sessions. One patient developed recurrent blood loss after resuming anticoagulant therapy for his aortic valve prosthesis. No adverse effects were encountered after initial treatment. One serious complication occurred in a patient with recurrent blood loss when he was prescribed aspirin for a transient ischaemic attack 2 years after the initial APC. Re-treatment resulted in a major rectal bleeding from a small ulcer with a visible vessel. APC is a safe, effective and well-tolerated treatment for blood loss due to radiation proctitis. The use of anticoagulants and aspirin seems to be a co-factors that induces bleeding.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To give a general outline of a 10-year clinical follow-up study of a population-based European cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and to present the first results in terms of clinical outcome parameters and risk factors. A population-based cohort of newly, prospectively, diagnosed cases was initiated between 1991 and 1993. The 2201 patients with IBD (706 had Crohn's disease (CD), 1379 had ulcerative colitis (UC) and 116 had indeterminate colitis) originated from 20 different areas in 11 different European countries and Israel. For the 10-year follow-up of this cohort, electronic data-collecting instruments were made available through an Internet-based website. Data concerning vital status, disease activity, medication use, surgical events, cancer, pregnancy, fertility, quality of life and health-care costs were gathered. A blood sample was obtained from patients and controls to perform genotypic characterization. Thirteen centres from eight European countries and Israel participated. In 958 (316 CD and 642 UC) out of a total of 1505 IBD patients (64%) from these 13 centres, a complete dataset was obtained at follow-up. Even though an increased mortality risk was observed in CD patients 10 years after diagnosis, a benign disease course was observed in this patient group in terms of disease recurrence. A correlation between ASCA and CARD15 variants in CD patients and complicated disease course was observed. A north-south gradient was observed regarding colectomy rates in UC patients. Direct costs were found to be highest in the first year after diagnosis and greater in CD patients than in UC patients, with marked differences between participating countries. This 10-year clinical follow-up study of a population-based European cohort of IBD patients provides updated information on disease outcome of these patient groups.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a 10-year period we observed 10 patients who suffered from an inflammatory-fibrosing disease mimicking pancreatic carcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). A review of the presenting features, the clinical course and the relevant literature. Ten male patients (mean age 55 years) presented with weight loss, jaundice and pruritus. Pancreatic cancer was suggested by imaging studies, which showed focal or generalized pancreatic enlargement and compression of the distal common bile duct. Cholangiography also demonstrated intrahepatic biliary stenoses consistent with sclerosing cholangitis. None had evidence of IBD. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was found in six cases and diabetes in four. Pancreatic histology (n=3) showed fibrosis and extensive inflammatory infiltrates. Immunosuppressive treatment was instituted in five patients. Clinical and biochemical remission occurred in three; in one other patient, previously documented intrahepatic biliary strictures had disappeared after 3 months. One patient had concomitant Sjögren's disease. The clinical features, pancreatic involvement, age at presentation, absence of IBD and response to steroids all plead against a diagnosis of "classical" PSC. The natural course of the disease was highly variable. Thirty-five comparable cases, with a largest series of three, have been reported in the literature. The disease has been associated with Sjögren's disease, retroperitoneal fibrosis and other fibrosing conditions, and may be a manifestation of a systemic fibro-inflammatory disorder. Autoimmune pancreatocholangitis is a distinct inflammatory disorder involving the pancreas and biliary tree. The disease may mimick pancreatic carcinoma and PSC and responds to immunosuppressives.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a disease with a high incidence and mortality. Prevention of (pre-) cancerous lesions of CRC by endoscopic screening is promising, but costs are high and identification of high-risk populations is difficult. Since screening both average-risk and high-risk populations for CRC has its logistic and financial limitations, new primary prevention strategies are sought. Substantial evidence has shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors can reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. However, long-term use of NSAIDs is associated with substantial gastrointestinal toxicity and may cause an exacerbation in IBD patients. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, with a better toxicity profile and no flare-up in IBD disease activity, are therefore attractive candidates for prevention. Chemoprevention with low-dose aspirin can be considered for individuals carrying a high risk for CRC. Folate supplementation is beneficial to the folate-depleted patients, since significant risk reductions for CRC are reported. Moreover, it might be applicable to the general population because it is safe, inexpensive and protects against vascular diseases. In line with drugs beneficial for multiple disease entities, statins have recently been proposed to reduce CRC risk. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been shown to decrease the incidence of colonic dysplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis and PSC and possibly reduces recurrence rates of polyps in general. Unfortunately, prospective randomized trials, in both high-risk and general population, are not available and the evidence is still controversial. Furthermore, cumulative epidemiological and observational data suggest the potential role of hormones as a chemoprotective agent. An increase in CRC in females with an early menopause, as well as a decrease of CRC in women with hormone replacement therapy justify further research into this issue. In IBD patients, both the severity and duration of the inflammation are the most evident risk factors for the development of dysplasia and subsequently cancer. Remission of inflammation, clinically, endoscopically and histologically, in IBD is the major goal. Long-term use of 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) has been shown to decrease the incidence of CRC and may hold the best promise as a chemoprotective agent in IBD. In parallel with primary prevention strategies in vascular medicine, the aim might be to postpone adenoma formation, for instance for 10 years, thereby achieving a significant risk reduction for CRC. In current practice, folate supplementation along with low-dose aspirin use in high-risk patients may be most attractive candidates, while future studies will have to clarify the role of these and other chemoprotective agents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various studies have demonstrated that 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), measuring altered tissue glucose metabolism, is a promising non-invasive method for detecting both distant nodal and haematogenous metastases in patients with oesophageal carcinoma (OC) and might thus prevent futile esophagectomy. Moreover, FDG-PET is a promising tool in assessing response to non-surgical treatment, and might therefore be used for an early decision on whether treatment should be stopped or continued. Review of the recent literature regarding the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET in the preoperative staging of patients with OC and regarding diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in assessing response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with OC compared to conventional techniques (especially computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)). A search of the literature resulted in the inclusion of 16 studies on the diagnostic value of FDG-PET. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of locoregional metastases were moderate. Sensitivity and specificity were reasonable for distant metastases. The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in assessing response to treatment was similar to the accuracy of EUS, but significantly higher than that of CT. The staging value of FDG-PET in OC patients is limited in the detection of locoregional metastases; however; its value is higher in the detection of distant lymphatic and haematogenous metastases. Moreover, FDG-PET is a valuable tool for the non-invasive assessment of histopathologic tumour response after neoadjuvant therapy..
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment strategies for Crohn's disease are targeted toward lifelong management. Optimization of outpatient care is mandatory, because of many clinics facing capacity issues, and, along with routine follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, is putting increasing pressure on outpatient clinics. Recent studies demonstrate clearly that alternative management strategies are feasible and effective with a high rate of patient satisfaction. It is recommended that future research evaluates the way in which medical care is provided and explores the long-term effects of novel management strategies in IBD. This approach can then be extrapolated to other chronic conditions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common medical problems in daily practice, with many guidelines on diagnosis and treatment available. The prevalence and incidence of reflux disease are rising. In a period of 10 years, the incidence of reflux oesophagitis has almost doubled, as has the number of pills and tablets of acid-suppressive therapy sold. The decreased number of patients with severe reflux oesophagitis is indicative of increased public awareness. Heartburn and regurgitation are the hallmarks of reflux disease. The symptom score in patients with the mild reflux oesophagitis is significantly higher than it is in patients presenting with severe oesophagitis, NERD or Barrett's oesophagus. Patients with mild oesophagitis also suffer from more reflux. Dysphagia is often the only presenting symptom in severe oesophagitis. Patients with reflux oesophagitis have a significantly higher symptom score than patients with Barrett's oesophagus. The scores for heartburn and acid regurgitation are significantly higher in reflux oesophagitis. The primary goal of treatment is complete clinical remission and prevention of long-term complications. In a study with a follow-up of 4.5 to 7.5 years in patients with reflux oesophagitis it was shown that 85% still used acid-suppressive therapy, mostly on a daily basis. However, the majority were never completely free of reflux. Despite the fact that the degree of reflux oesophagitis correlates with the risk of relapse, also patients in whom initially the most severe grade of reflux oesophagitis (grades III and IV) was diagnosed no longer use medication. Treatment of reflux disease with acid suppressants is a major component in national and international drug budgets, and health-care authorities and insurance companies are eager to reduce these budgets. Since diagnosis and treatment are already discussed in many guidelines, cut-backs could be achieved in patients on maintenance therapy. For this reason, more data have to be assessed on therapy outcome in cases of chronic maintenance therapy. Guidelines for maintenance or on-demand therapy are necessary.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oesophagus resection is adequate treatment for some benign oesophageal diseases, especially caustic and peptic stenosis and end-stage motility dysfunction. However, the most frequent indications for oesophageal resection are the high-grade dysplasia of Barrett oesophagus and non-metastasized oesophageal cancer. Different procedures have been developed for performing oesophageal resection given the 5-year survival rate of only 18% among patients operated on. A disadvantage of the conventional approach is the high morbidity rate, especially with pulmonary complications. Minimally invasive oesophageal resections, which were first performed in 1991, may reduce this important morbidity and preserve the oncologic outcome. The first reports of morbidity and respiratory complications with this approach were disappointing and it seemed likely that the procedure would have to be abandoned. However, in the past 5 years, Japanese groups and the group of Luketich in Pittsburgh have given these techniques an important impetus. The outcomes of the new series are different from those in the beginning period, and are leading to an enormous expansion worldwide. Important factors behind the change are standardization of the operative technique, the experience of many surgeons with more advanced laparoscopic procedures, important improvements in instruments for dissection and division of tissues, a better technique in use of anaesthesia, and a better selection of patients for operation. Two minimally invasive techniques are being perfected: the three-stage operation by right thoracoscopy and laparoscopy, and the transhiatal laparoscopic approach. The former may be applied successfully for any tumour in the oesophagus, whereas the latter seems ideal for distal oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction tumours. This review article discusses all these aspects, giving special attention to indications and operative technique.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our opinion, endoscopic treatment for high-grade dysplasia or early cancer in Barrett's oesophagus should only be performed in selected patients after extensive work-up using high resolution endoscopy, a standardized biopsy protocol, expert histopathological evaluation and endoscopic ultrasound. The currently used endoscopic treatment strategies have a low complication rate and preserve the functional oesophagus. A tissue diagnosis by EMR is essential to allow the identification of patients with submucosal infiltration who might better be treated surgically. Endoscopic ablation techniques should only be used as an adjunct to EMR. After endoscopic treatment, rigorous endoscopic follow-up is imperative, since the current techniques are still associated with a high recurrence rate. We expect that in the future they will be replaced by techniques that allow radical mucosal resection of the whole Barrett's segment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small bowel (SB) has been largely bypassed by flexible endoscopy because of inaccessibility. Push enteroscopy is now in the past, with recent innovations now making visualization of the SB possible. Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) have been introduced. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of DBE, which may be a suitable replacement for push enteroscopy, preoperative endoscopy and to some extent of SB fall-through and CT scan. DBE is a new method of endoscopy developed and described by Yamamoto et al. in Jichi, Japan, in cooperation with Fujinon. Introduced to the market in 2003, it is possible with this endoscope to observe the entire SB in steps of 20-40 cm. Measuring the depth of insertion is also possible. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding can be explained and treated in the majority of cases. Biopsy sampling, hemostasis, polypectomy, dilatation and tattoo are possible in the SB. Guidelines for FAB and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome will probably be reviewed in the next few years. The safety and efficacy of DBE have been demonstrated. DBE improves SB disease management and can substitute for more complex investigations. Additional data will come to light in years to come. Combining DBE with CE, CT/MRI enteroclysis in a new era for SB work-up and treatment is the likely future.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with an unresectable bile duct cancer is poor. In 60-70% of patients, cholangiocarcinoma is located in the hepatic duct bifurcation and known as Klatskin tumour. Surgical resection offers the only chance for 5-year survival, but less than 20% are surgical candidates. Patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma are treated with biliary drains, but commonly die of liver failure or cholangitis due to biliary obstruction within 6 to 12 months. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have not been evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new and promising locoregional treatment, the aim of which is to destroy tumour cells selectively. PDT involves the injection of a photosensitizer followed by percutaneous or endoscopic direct illumination of the tumour with light of a specific wavelength. In recent non-randomized studies of small numbers of patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, PDT induced a decrease in serum bilirubin levels, improved quality of life and a slightly better survival. Other non-randomized trials failed to show clinical benefits. Recently, the first prospective, randomized controlled study with PDT in a selected group of non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma patients was stopped prematurely. The improvement in survival in the PDT-randomized patients was so impressive that it was considered to be unethical to continue randomization. However, further studies are awaited in unselected patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma before PDT can be considered as the standard adjuvant therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct and indirect evidence supports the concept of screening for adenomas and early stage colorectal cancer in reducing the incidence and disease-specific mortality. Controversy remains as to the appropriateness of and preferred methods for screening an asymptomatic population. Review of computed tomography (CT) colonography based on the literature and personal experience. Current discrepancies in the data on accuracy and patient acceptance of CT colonography reflect differences in the performance and evaluation of this examination. Before CT colonography can be implemented in colorectal cancer screening, factors that cause this variability must be elucidated. Studies in which high-resolution scanning, three-dimensional review methods and an enhanced colonoscopic reference are used achieve an accuracy that is similar to colonoscopy. At the same time the evidence that ultra-low radiation dose CT colonography is feasible is mounting, a development that dramatically reduces one of the largest obstacles for large-scale application of this technique.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal transplantation for intestinal failure is no longer an experimental procedure, but an accepted treatment for patients who fail total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy. Early referral for evaluation for small bowel transplantation has to be considered in patients with permanent intestinal failure who have occlusion of more than two major veins, frequent line-related septic episodes, impairment of liver function or an unacceptable quality of life. With the increased experience in post-transplant patient care and newer forms of induction (thymoglobulin, IL-2 receptor antagonists) and maintenance (tacrolimus) therapies the 1-year graft survival has increased to 65% for isolated and to 59% for liver/small bowel transplantation, and is further improving. Rejection, bacterial, fungal and viral (CMV, EBV) infection, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and graft versus host disease (GvHD) are the most common complications after intestinal transplantation. Although most of the long-term survivors are TPN-independent and have a good quality of life, the risk of the procedure and long-term adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication limits small bowel, or liver/small bowel transplantation only to patients with severe complications of TPN therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominant inherited disease and accounts for up to 5% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Despite the optimization of selection criteria and enhancements in molecular techniques for identifying more families with HNPCC, most cases are not recognized. Poor patient recollection of family history and inadequate family history-taking are main causative factors. We propose a new strategy for detecting HNPCC, one in which the pathologist selects patients for microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Criteria for MSI analysis are: (1) CRC before the age of 50 years, (2) second CRC before 70 years, (3) CRC and HNPCC-associated cancer before 70 years, or (4) adenoma before 40 years. Additionally, patients with a positive MSI test and patients with a positive family history are offered referral for genetic counselling. With this strategy, at least twice the number of HNPCC patients will be identified among a population of CRC patients, and in a cost-effective, efficient and feasible way. The identification of patients with HNPCC is important because intensive surveillance can prevent death from CRC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), is thought to be a consequence of chronic duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux. Of the refluxates, bile acids, either alone or in combination with acid, are probably the most important. Analysis of the literature on the role played by bile acids in inducing BO and/or progression to OAC. Combined pH and Bilitec 2000 (as a measure of bile reflux) monitoring and oesophageal aspiration studies in humans suggest a combined role for bile acids, particularly taurine conjugated bile acids, in causing oesophageal mucosal injury. Evidence from animal models has demonstrated that duodenal juice alone is also able to induce BO and/or OAC. Likewise, ex vivo studies with biopsies from BO patients show that increased proliferation and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression are present after a pulsed exposure to acid or conjugated bile acids, but not if acid and bile acids are combined. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to decrease the biliary component of the refluxate. There is some evidence that PPIs are able to reduce neoplastic progression in BO. On the other hand, chronic PPIs can also stimulate bacterial overgrowth, which can result in increased production of secondary bile acids, particularly deoxycholic acid, in the stomach. Deoxycholic acid has been demonstrated to have a tumour-promoting capacity. It is unknown what factors of the refluxate (acid and/or bile) induce BO and/or promote carcinogenesis, but there is evidence that secondary bile acids play a role. A better understanding of the molecular steps involved in the induction of BO, and the role of bile acids herein, may identify targets at which preventive therapies can be directed.
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