Vitamins & Hormones (VITAM HORM)

Publisher: Elsevier

RG Journal Impact: 2.36*

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2017 RG Journal impact Available summer 2018
2015 / 2016 RG Journal impact 2.36
2014 RG Journal impact 2.51
2013 RG Journal impact 2.63
2012 RG Journal impact 2.95
2011 RG Journal impact 3.26
2010 RG Journal impact 3.23
2009 RG Journal impact 3.27
2008 RG Journal impact 3.91
2007 RG Journal impact 4.52
2006 RG Journal impact 2.70
2005 RG Journal impact 2.71
2004 RG Journal impact 4.08
2003 RG Journal impact 3.28
2002 RG Journal impact 3.49
2001 RG Journal impact 3.66
2000 RG Journal impact 4.52

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
Year

Additional details

Cited half-life 6.70
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.71
Website Vitamins & Hormones website
Other titles Vitamins and hormones
ISSN 0083-6729
OCLC 1587931
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS) are intimately linked. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the regulation of development and differentiation of neurons and neuroglia and hence for development and function of the CNS. T3 (3,3′,5-triiodothyronine), an active form of TH, is important not only for neuronal development but also for differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and for microglial development. In adult brain, T3 affects glial morphology with sex- and age-dependent manner and therefore may affect their function, leading to influence on neuron–glia interaction. T3 is an important signaling factor that affects microglial functions such as migration and phagocytosis via complex mechanisms. Therefore, dysfunction of THs may impair glial function as well as neuronal function and thus disturb the brain, which may cause mental disorders. Investigations on molecular and cellular basis of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism will help us to understand changes in neuron–glia interaction and therefore consequent psychiatric symptoms.
    Chapter · Jul 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones (THs) have important contributions to the development of the mammalian brain, targeting its actions on both neurons and glial cells. Astrocytes, which constitute about half of the glial cells, characteristically undergo dramatic changes in their morphology during development and such changes become necessary for the proper development of the brain. Interestingly, a large number of studies have suggested that THs play a profound role in such morphological maturation of the astrocytes. This review discusses the present knowledge on the mechanisms by which THs elicit progressive differentiation and maturation of the astrocytes. As a prelude, information on astrocyte morphology during development and its regulations, the role of THs in the various functions of astrocyte shall be dealt with for a thorough understanding of the subject of this review.
    Chapter · Jul 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone are initiated by the hormone at receptors in the plasma membrane, in cytoplasm, or in mitochondria and do not require the interaction of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) with their primary ligand, 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3). Receptors involved in nongenomic actions may or may not have structural homologies with TRs. Certain nongenomic actions that originate at the plasma membrane may modify the state and function of intranuclear TRs. Reviewed here are nongenomic effects of the hormone—T3 or, in some cases, l-thyroxine (T4)—that are initiated at (a) truncated TRα isoforms, e.g., p30 TRα1, (b) cytoplasmic proteins, or (c) plasma membrane integrin αvβ3. p30 TRα1 is not transcriptionally competent, binds T3 at the cell surface, and consequently expresses a number of important functions in bone cells. Nongenomic hormonal control of mitochondrial respiration involves a TRα isoform, and another truncated TRα isoform nongenomically regulates the state of cellular actin. Cytoplasmic hormone-binding proteins involved in nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone include ketimine reductase, pyruvate kinase, and TRβ that shuttle among intracellular compartments. Functions of the receptor for T4 on integrin αvβ3 include stimulation of proliferation of cancer and endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and regulation of transcription of cancer cell survival pathway genes. T4 serves as a prohormone for T3 in genomic actions of thyroid hormone, but T4 is a hormone at αvβ3 and more important to cancer cell function than is T3. Thus, characterization of nongenomic actions of the hormone has served to broaden our understanding of the cellular roles of T3 and T4.
    Chapter · Jul 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone is a critical modulator of brain metabolism, and it is highly controlled in the central nervous system. Recent research has uncovered an important role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), an energetic process essential for neurodevelopment that continues to support brain metabolism during adulthood. Thyroid hormone stimulation of FAO has been shown to be protective in astrocytes and mouse models of brain injury, yet a clear mechanism of this relationship has not been elucidated. Thyroid hormone interacts with multiple receptors located in the nucleus and the mitochondria, initiating rapid and long-term effects via both genomic and nongenomic pathways. This has complicated efforts to isolate and study-specific interactions. This chapter presents the primary signaling pathways that have been identified to play a role in the thyroid hormone-mediated increase in FAO. Investigation of the impact of thyroid hormone on FAO in the adult brain has challenged classical models of brain metabolism and widened the window of potential neuroprotective strategies. A detailed understanding of these pathways is essential for any researchers aiming to expand the field of neuroenergetics.
    Chapter · Jul 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morbidity of thyroid cancer is increasing gradually year by year, showing an increasing tendency in nationality, sex, age, tumor size, and tumor staging. The changes of thyroid cell genes, signaling pathways, and related molecular dysfunction promote the occurrence, development, invasion, and metastasis of thyroid cancer. Surgical operation, radioiodine, and endocrinotherapy models can achieve a better prognosis for most patients with thyroid cancer. Although targeted therapeutic drugs bring possible therapeutic opportunities for refractory thyroid cancer, there is a great gap between their predictive value and their actual efficacy. Currently, there is still no completely effective drug for the treatment. Based on the signaling pathways, the “reclaim therapy” for residual tumor and systemic intervention aims to increase anticancer ability and to encourage new directions and thoughts in the treatment of refractory thyroid cancer.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential in numerous physiological functions and developmental processes. It acts through TH receptors (TRs) to regulate gene expression. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye and functions as the first step of the visual process. Rod and cone photoreceptors are specialized sensory neurons in the retina that initiate phototransduction. Rods are responsible for dim light vision, whereas cones are responsible for daytime vision, color vision, and visual acuity. TH signaling regulates retinal development and maintenance. The requirement of TH signaling is typically manifested as its regulation in the cone maturation and expression of the light-sensing pigment protein (cone opsin). There are two components of this regulation. First, TRβ2, a TH-activated transcription factor, is expressed in immature cones and regulates cone differentiation and cone opsin expression; activation of TRβ2 suppresses the expression of short-wave-sensitive opsin 1, induces the expression of medium-wave-sensitive opsin 1, and promotes dorsal–ventral opsin patterning. Second, hypothyroid mouse models display abnormalities in cone opsin expression, supporting the necessity of TH itself in retinal development. TH has been linked to photoreceptor survival. Excessive TH signaling leads to death of developing photoreceptors in healthy and diseased retina, whereas suppressing TH signaling preserves cones in mouse models of retinal degeneration. Some eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, have been associated with elevated circulation TH levels. Future work should aim to better understand how TH regulates retinal development, functionality, and survival, to examine the role of TH signaling in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, and to explore the potential of TH signaling manipulation for photoreceptor protection. Hopefully, these knowledge bases will lead to the identification of novel strategies for retinal disease prevention and management.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of thyroid hormone (TH) on brain development, and particularly in myelination, is well known since many decades, as testified by the severe structural and functional consequences of congenital hypothyroidism. This role during development, the consideration that the early TH supplementation restores myelination capability, and the fact the cell responsible for developmental myelination and remyelination is the same, i.e., the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC), claimed the attempt to improve myelin repair in the adulthood via TH supplementation.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones orchestrate developmental processes and are among the most important regulators of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone actions are mostly, but not exclusively, mediated by nuclear hormone receptors. As amino acid derivatives, thyroid hormones need plasma membrane transporters in order to reach their nuclear receptors. Several transporters from different gene families mediate thyroid hormone uptake into cells. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 is a specific thyroid hormone transporter found mutated in patients with severe psychomotor retardation and strangely abnormal thyroid hormone constellations. These patients display a syndrome in which some organs are exposed to increased thyroid hormone signaling, while other organs are lacking thyroid hormone signaling due to complete lack of thyroid hormone uptake. Investigations in many organ systems using mouse models of thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter deficiency have helped complete our picture of thyroid hormone metabolism and action in the body during development and under different physiological conditions. Incorporating the concept of thyroid hormone transmembrane transport has helped understand previously enigmatic drug interactions and may explain how the hormonal set points in the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis are established.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone is classically known to play a crucial role in neurodevelopment. The potent effects that thyroid hormone exerts on the adult mammalian brain have been uncovered relatively recently, including an important role in the modulation of progenitor development in adult neurogenic niches. This chapter extensively reviews the current understanding of the influence of thyroid hormone on distinct stages of adult progenitor development in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) that lines the lateral ventricles. We discuss the role of specific thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, in particular TRα1, which modulates cell cycle exit in neural stem cells, progenitor survival, and cell fate choice, with both a discrete and overlapping nature of regulation noted in SGZ and SVZ progenitors. The balance between liganded and unliganded TRα1 can evoke differing consequences for adult progenitor development, and the relevance of this to conditions such as adult-onset hypothyroidism, wherein unliganded thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) dominate, is also a focus of discussion. Although a detailed molecular understanding of the specific thyroid hormone target genes that contribute to the neurogenic actions of thyroid hormone is currently lacking, we highlight the current state of knowledge and discuss avenues for future investigation. The goal of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the effects of thyroid hormone on adult neurogenesis, to discuss putative molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, and the behavioral, functional, and clinical implications of the neurogenic actions of thyroid hormone.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are nuclear receptors which control transcription, and thereby have effects in all cells within the body. TRs are an important regulator in many basic physiological processes including development, growth, metabolism, and cardiac function. The hyperthyroid condition results from an over production of thyroid hormones resulting in a continual stimulation of thyroid receptors which is detrimental for the patient. Therapies for hyperthyroidism are available, but there is a need for new small molecules that act as TR antagonists to treat hyperthyroidism.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone receptors, TRα1 and TRβ1, are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that forms one of the most abundant classes of transcription factors in multicellular organisms. Although primarily localized to the nucleus, TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The fine balance between nuclear import and export of TRs has emerged as a critical control point for modulating thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression. Mutagenesis studies have defined two nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs that direct nuclear import of TRα1: NLS-1 in the hinge domain and NLS-2 in the N-terminal A/B domain. Three nuclear export signal (NES) motifs reside in the ligand-binding domain. A combined approach of shRNA-mediated knockdown and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that nuclear entry of TRα1 is facilitated by importin 7, likely through interactions with NLS-2, and importin β1 and the adapter importin α1 interacting with both NLS-1 and NLS-2. Interestingly, TRβ1 lacks NLS-2 and nuclear import depends solely on the importin α1/β1 heterodimer. Heterokaryon and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shuttling assays identified multiple exportins that play a role in nuclear export of TRα1, including CRM1 (exportin 1), and exportins 4, 5, and 7. Even single amino acid changes in TRs dramatically alter their intracellular distribution patterns. We conclude that mutations within NLS and NES motifs affect nuclear shuttling activity, and propose that TR mislocalization contributes to the development of some types of cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone syndrome.
    Chapter · Jun 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amgen solved the high-resolution cocrystal structure of erythropoietin (EPO) bound to the extracellular part of the receptor (EPOR) in 1998, which reveals that the EPO–EPOR interaction surface is formed by 11 salt bridges, 17 H-bonds, and 2 hydrophobic clusters centered at a pair of crucial phenylalanines (F93). The EPOR has two domains, one that penetrates the membrane and a second extracellular domain that forms one arm of the binding site for the EPO ligand. The complete competent receptor-binding site is a homodimer of EPOR with the two arms forming a funnel-shaped cup where EPO binds. The two binding arms of the EPOR dimer meet at the membrane at a 120 degree angle, which Amgen characterizes as, “erythropoietin imposes a unique angular relationship and orientation that is responsible for optimal signaling.” They come to this conclusion, because the EPOR cocrystallized with 2 equivalents of a 20 residue EPO mimetic peptide created at Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) activates the receptor with a 3 order of magnitude reduction in potency, and the binding arms are forced to meet at the membrane with an angle of 180 degrees. The vast interaction surface between EPO and EPOR forms a singularly important three-dimensional structure responsible for hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation—this is Amgen's conclusion. This goal of this work is to present experimental and computational evidence that the Amgen structure is a postsignaling off-state and that the RWJ structure with the partially active peptide mimetics is an on-state. A detailed side-by-side comparison of the two structures will be presented along with literature evidence that calls into question the Amgen claim that their structure is a unique on-state. A computational fragment-based drug discovery method applied to the RWJ structure was used to locate and characterize a new predicted small molecule binding site and a fragment analysis was performed based on theories of asymmetry to create a proposed agonist with MW < 300. When this molecule was experimentally tested, it displaced radiolabeled EPO with nanomolar potency and transformed human hematopoietic stem cells into red blood cells with subnanomolar potency. Obviously, this small molecule makes none of the EPO–EPOR interactions that Amgen stated were essential for fully turning on the receptor and provides strong evidence that stabilizing receptor asymmetry, not specific interactions, is the critical factor needed for activating signal transduction. Finally, when the agonist was altered to remove the asymmetric component, it still was able to displace radiolabeled EPO in competition binding experiments, but it no longer activated the receptor.
    Chapter · May 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth hormone, widely known for its role in erythropoiesis. The broad expression of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in adult organs suggested that EPO may also affect other cells besides late erythroid progenitors. In the embryonic heart, EPOR is expressed in all cells including the immature proliferating cardiomyocytes. In contrast to the embryonic heart in adulthood, EPOR expression is decreased and mainly detected in immature proliferating cells (i.e., resident cardiac progenitor cells) rather than in terminally differentiated cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes). Since cardiac progenitor cells are considered a regenerative cell source upon cardiac injury, the protective action of the EPO system was tested by creating an erythroid-rescued EPOR knockout mouse model. Although these mice appear to have less immature proliferating myocytes during embryogenesis, they reach adulthood without apparent morphological defects. However, upon ischemia reperfusion, these animals show a greater infarct size, suggesting that the EPO/EPOR protects the heart upon injury. Indeed preclinical studies showed that EPO administration postinfarction improves cardiac function via neoangiogenesis, antiapoptotic mechanisms, and/or CPC activation. Despite the promising preclinical data, large cohort clinical studies in humans failed to show a significant amelioration in cardiac function upon systemic injection of EPO in patients with myocardial infarctions. The discrepancy between preclinical and clinical trials may be due to differences between the doses, the way of delivery, the homogeneity of the cohorts, and last but not least the species differences. These data pinpoint the importance of carrying out preclinical studies in human models of disease as engineered human cardiac tissue that will provide a better understanding of the expression pattern of EPOR and the role of its ligand in human cardiac cells. Such studies may be able to bridge the gap between preclinical rodent data and human clinical trials and thus lead to the design of more successful clinical studies.
    Chapter · May 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to briefly describe current models of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) pleiotropic properties to make four points clear. First, endogenous EPO regulates erythroid cell apoptosis so that red blood cell production is balanced against the number of cells destroyed in order to maintain optimal tissue oxygen levels (i.e., consistent with provision of homeostatic functional signaling information). Second, preclinical and clinical studies alike provide additional evidence of other (i.e., extraerythropoietic) immune-related and growth/trophic properties. Third, EPO might also be increased as an antiinflammatory response to other proinflammatory cytokines, and not because it is an inflammatory protein, in which case, it would make the association between EPO and these other proteins an epiphenomenon. Fourth, on the other hand, EPO might also act as a tissue protector or it could reflect immaturity/vulnerability of the brain or of the systems responsible for protecting it. Each of these scenarios is plausible, and all are probably true in certain circumstances.
    Chapter · May 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO) is an erythropoiesis stimulating growth factor and hormone. EPO has been widely used in the treatment of chronic renal failure, cancer, and chemotherapy-related anemia for three decades. However, many clinical trials showed that EPO treatment may be associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EPO is able to cross blood–brain barriers, and this may lead to an increased possibility of central nervous system tumors such as glioblastoma. Indeed, EPO promotes glioblastoma growth and invasion in animal studies. Additionally, EPO increases glioblastoma cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistancy in vitro. However, the exact mechanisms of cancer progression induced by EPO treatment are not fully understood. Posttranscriptional gene regulation through microRNAs may contribute to EPO's cellular and biological effects in tumor progression. Here, we aimed to study whether tumor suppressive microRNA, miR-451, counteracts the positive effects of EPO on U87 human glioblastoma cell line. Migration and invasion were evaluated by scratch assay and transwell invasion assay, respectively. We found that EPO decreased basal miR-451 expression and increased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cisplatin chemoresistancy in vitro. miR-451 overexpression by transfection of its mimic significantly reversed these effects. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-451 inhibited expression of its own target genes, such as metalloproteinases-2 and -9, which are stimulated by EPO treatment and involved in carcinogenesis processes, especially invasion. These findings suggest that miR-451 mimic delivery may be useful as adjuvant therapy in addition to chemotherapy and anemia treatment by EPO and should be tested in experimental glioblastoma models.
    Chapter · Apr 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have clarified that cancer cells express their own erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) mRNA levels, and the respective proteins, which are under the control of Epo–EpoR signaling. Then we explored to inhibit the Epo–EpoR signaling with an EpoR antagonist Epo mimetic peptide 9 (EMP9) that is a derivative of an Epo-mimicking peptide EMP1. In the study of the cancer cell lines in vitro, rhEpo accelerated the cancer cell growth, whereas the EMP9 inhibited the cell growth along with the inhibition of STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, in vitro study of surgically resected histoculture of lung cancers revealed that EMP9 diminishes the expression of myoglobin in the cancer cells and destroys the feeding vessels. Additionally, in the xenografts of lung cancer histoculture, the EMP9 destroyed the xenografts by inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation of cancer cells in concomitant with macrophage accumulation. Furthermore, two types of perforations were detected in their cytoplasm: the one is mediated by nNOS in the cancer cells and the other one is by iNOS in the innate immune cells. These findings suggest that the inhibition of the Epo–EpoR signaling by EMP9 induces the cancer cell death that is mediated by the apoptosis and calcification of the cancer cells as well as the oxygen deficiency through the feeding vessels. Taken together, EMP9-based therapy may be a promising strategy to treat cancer patients.
    Chapter · Apr 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell migration of normal cells is tightly regulated. However, tumor cells are exposed to a modified microenvironment that promotes cell migration. Invasive migration of tumor cells is stimulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is regulated by growth factors. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and is also known to be a potent chemotactic agent that induces cell migration by binding to its receptor (EpoR). Expression of EpoR has been documented in tumor cells, and the potential of Epo to induce cell migration has been explored. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine that synergizes the effects of Epo during erythropoiesis. SCF is the ligand of c-Kit, a member of the RTKs family. Molecular activity of RTKs is a primary stimulus of cell motility. Thus, expression of the SCF/c-Kit axis is associated with cell migration. In this chapter, we summarize data describing the potential effect of Epo/EpoR and SCF/c-Kit as promoters of cancer cell migration. We also integrate recent findings on molecular mechanisms of Epo/EpoR- and SCF/c-Kit-mediated migration described in various cancer models.
    Chapter · Apr 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (Epo) is a cytokine expressed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system where it can act as a breathing modulator in the central respiratory network. In vitro, Epo allows maintaining the activity of respiratory neurons during acute hypoxia, resulting in inhibition of the hypoxia-induced rhythm depression. In vivo, Epo action on the central respiratory command results in enhancement of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response, allowing a better oxygenation of the body by improvement of gases exchanges in the lungs. Importantly, this effect of Epo is age-dependent, being observed at adulthood and at both early and late postnatal ages, but not at middle postnatal ages, when an important setup of the central respiratory command occurs. Epo regulation of the central respiratory command involves at least two intracellular signaling pathways, PI3K–Akt and MEK–ERK pathways. However, the exact mechanism underlying the action of Epo on the central respiratory control remains to be deciphered, as well as the exact cell types and nuclei involved in this control. Epo-mediated effect on the central respiratory command is regulated by several factors, including hypoxia, sex hormones, and an endogen antagonist. Although more knowledge is needed before reaching the clinical trial step, Epo seems to be a promising therapeutic treatment, notably against newborn breathing disorders.
    Chapter · Apr 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the “classical” homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage.
    Chapter · Mar 2017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis ( Zhang et al., 2014 ). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus–pituitary axis ( Dey et al ., 2016 ; Dey et al ., 2015 ; Teng et al ., 2011 ; Wang et al ., 2013 ) and is not dependent on its hematopoietic activity. EpoR expression in the hypothalamus is localized to the neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus region, the most important site in the brain for the regulation of physiological energy expenditure. EPO treatment increases POMC production in anorexigenic POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. In the pituitary, EPO modulates the secretion of the POMC-derived peptide, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that regulates physiological and metabolic stress response. With EPO produced by cells in the brain, such as astrocytes, and with EPO-stimulated POMC expression in the hypothalamus and EPO-inhibited ACTH secretion in the pituitary, EPO signaling contributes to the hypothalamic–pituitary axis as a major regulator of glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis.
    Chapter · Mar 2017