Vitamins & Hormones (VITAM HORM)

Publisher: Elsevier

Current impact factor: 2.04

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 2.039
2013 Impact Factor 1.784
2012 Impact Factor 2.296
2011 Impact Factor 2.19
2010 Impact Factor 2.89
2009 Impact Factor 2.439
2008 Impact Factor 3.196
2007 Impact Factor 3.889
2006 Impact Factor 2.24
2005 Impact Factor 4.394
2004 Impact Factor 3.889
2003 Impact Factor 3.439
2002 Impact Factor 3.733
2001 Impact Factor 5.178
2000 Impact Factor 5.407
1999 Impact Factor 3.857
1998 Impact Factor 2.077
1997 Impact Factor 6.118
1996 Impact Factor 5.875
1995 Impact Factor 7
1994 Impact Factor 10
1993 Impact Factor 3.8
1992 Impact Factor 1.6

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.40
Cited half-life 6.70
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.71
Website Vitamins & Hormones website
Other titles Vitamins and hormones
ISSN 0083-6729
OCLC 1587931
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

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    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biologically active metabolites of vitamin D that have been successfully developed for the clinical market are described. Their properties that resulted in their success in the clinic are also provided. Precursors of the metabolically active 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D have been prepared and successfully marketed not only for renal failure patients but also for a variety of patients having metabolic bone disorders. Finally, successful analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in use in the clinic worldwide are presented including properties that have contributed to their success.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most pronounced effects of the hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is increased synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates its own metabolism, protecting against hypercalcemia and limiting the levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in cells. This chapter summarizes the catalytic properties of CYP24A1, the recent data related to the crystal structure of CYP24A1, the findings obtained from the generation of mice deficient for the Cyp24a1 gene as well as recent data identifying a causal role of a genetic defect in CYP24A1 in certain patients with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. This chapter also reviews the regulation of renal and placental CYP24A1 as well as the genomic mechanisms, including coactivators, repressors, and epigenetic modification, involved in modulating 1,25(OH)2D3 regulation of CYP24A1. We conclude with future research directions related to this key regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 catabolism and calcium homeostasis.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylated Rec8, a key component of cohesin, mediates the association and disassociation, "dynamics," of chromosomes occurring in synaptonemal complex formation, crossover recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in germ cells. Yet, the extrinsic factors triggering meiotic chromosome dynamics remained unclear. In postnatal testes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts directly on somatic Sertoli cells to activate gene expression via an intracellular signaling pathway composed of cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and promotes germ cell development and spermatogenesis indirectly. Yet, the paracrine factors mediating the FSH effects to germ cells remained elusive. We have shown that nociceptin, known as a neuropeptide, is upregulated by FSH signaling through cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Sertoli cells of postnatal murine testes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation from Sertoli cells demonstrated that CREB phosphorylated at Ser133 associates with prepronociceptin gene encoding nociceptin. Analyses with Sertoli cells and testes revealed that both prepronociceptin mRNA and the nociceptin peptide are induced after FSH signaling is activated. In addition, the nociceptin peptide is induced in testes after 9 days post partum following FSH surge. Thus, our findings may identify nociceptin as a novel paracrine mediator of the FSH effects in the regulation of spermatogenesis; however, very little has known about the functional role of nociceptin in spermatogenesis. We have shown that nociceptin induces Rec8 phosphorylation, triggering chromosome dynamics, during meiosis in spermatocytes of postnatal murine testes. The nociceptin receptor Oprl-1 is exclusively expressed in the plasma membrane of testicular germ cells, mostly spermatocytes. Treatment of testes with nociceptin resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of Rec8. Injection of nociceptin into mice stimulated Rec8 phosphorylation and meiotic chromosome dynamics in testes, whereas injection of nocistatin, a specific inhibitor for nociceptin, abolished them. Therefore, our findings suggest that nociceptin is a novel extrinsic factor that plays a crucial role in the progress of meiosis during spermatogenesis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underpinning stress-related behavior and dysfunctional events leading to the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders remain incompletely understood. Novel candidates involved in the neuromodulation of stress, mediated both peripherally and centrally, provide opportunities for improved understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress disorders and may represent targets for novel therapeutic development. This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which the opioid-related peptide, nociceptin, regulates the neuroendocrine stress response and stress-related behavior. In our research, we have employed nociceptin receptor antagonists to investigate endogenous nociceptin function in tonic control over stress-induced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Nociceptin demonstrates a wide range of functions, including modulation of psychological and inflammatory stress responses, modulation of neurotransmitter release, immune homeostasis, in addition to anxiety and cognitive behaviors. Greater appreciation of the complexity of limbic-hypothalamic neuronal networks, together with attention toward gender differences and the roles of steroid hormones, provides an opportunity for deeper understanding of the importance of the nociceptin system in the context of the neurobiology of stress and behavior. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: For humans and rodents, duodenum is a very important site of calcium absorption since it is exposed to ionized calcium released from dietary complexes by gastric acid. Calcium traverses the duodenal epithelium via both transcellular and paracellular pathways in a vitamin D-dependent manner. After binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] upregulates the expression of several calcium transporter genes, e.g., TRPV5/6, calbindin-D9k, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase1b, and NCX1, thereby enhancing the transcellular calcium transport. This action has been reported to be under the regulation of parathyroid-kidney-intestinal and bone-kidney-intestinal axes, in which the plasma calcium and fibroblast growth factor-23 act as negative feedback regulators, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates the expression of tight junction-related genes and convective water flow, presumably to increase the paracellular calcium permeability and solvent drag-induced calcium transport. However, vitamin D-independent calcium absorption does exist and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis under certain conditions, particularly in neonatal period, pregnancy, and lactation as well as in naturally vitamin D-impoverished subterranean mammals. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: The pancreatic hormone insulin plays a well-described role in the periphery, based principally on its ability to lower circulating glucose levels via activation of glucose transporters. However, insulin also acts within the central nervous system (CNS) to alter a number of physiological outcomes ranging from energy balance and glucose homeostasis to cognitive performance. Insulin is transported into the CNS by a saturable receptor-mediated process that is proposed to be dependent on the insulin receptor. Transport of insulin into the brain is dependent on numerous factors including diet, glycemia, a diabetic state and notably, obesity. Obesity leads to a marked decrease in insulin transport from the periphery into the CNS and the biological basis of this reduction of transport remains unresolved. Despite decades of research into the effects of central insulin on a wide range of physiological functions and its transport from the periphery to the CNS, numerous questions remain unanswered including which receptor is responsible for transport and the precise mechanisms of action of insulin within the brain. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), acting on its receptors (NOP), modulates a variety of biological functions and neurobehavior including nociception, stress responses, water and food-intake, locomotor activity, and spatial attention. N/OFQ is conventionally regarded as an "antiopiate" peptide in the brain because central administration of N/OFQ attenuates stress-induced analgesia (SIA) and produces anxiolytic effects. However, naloxone-irreversible SIA and anxiolytic action are unlikely to be mediated by the opiate system. Both N/OFQ and NOP receptors are expressed most abundantly in the hypothalamus, where two other neuropeptides, the hypocretins/orexins (Hcrts), are exclusively synthesized in the lateral hypothalamic area. N/OFQ and Hcrt regulate most cellular physiological responses in opposite directions (e.g., ion channel modulation and second messenger coupling), and produce differential modulations for almost all neurobehavior assessed, including sleep/wake, locomotion, and rewarding behaviors. This chapter focuses on recent studies that provide evidence at a neuroanatomical level showing that a local neuronal circuit linking N/OFQ to Hcrt neurons exists. Functionally, N/OFQ depresses Hcrt neuronal activity at the cellular level, and modulates stress responses, especially SIA and anxiety-related behavior in the whole organism. N/OFQ exerts its attenuation of SIA and anxiolytic action on fear-induced anxiety through direct modulation of Hcrt neuronal activity. The information obtained from these studies has provided insights into how interaction between the Hcrt and N/OFQ systems positively and negatively modulates the complex and integrated stress responses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ancestrally related membrane proteins on cells that mediate the pharmacological effect of most drugs and neurotransmitters. GPCRs are the largest group of membrane receptor proteins encoded in the human genome. One of the most famous types of GPCRs is the opioid receptors. Opioid family receptors consist of four closely related proteins expressed in all vertebrate brains and spinal cords examined to date. The three classical types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models and in humans are the mu- (MOR), delta- (DOR), and kappa-(KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The fourth and most recent member of the opioid receptor family discovered is the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL). The role of ORL and its ligands in producing analgesia is not as clear, with both analgesic and hyperalgesic effects reported. All four opioid family receptor genes were cloned from expressed mRNA in a number of vertebrate species, and there are enough sequences presently available to carry out bioinformatic analysis. This chapter presents the results of a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using pharmacological studies, bioinformatics, and the latest data from human whole-genome studies. Results confirm our initial hypotheses that the four opioid receptor genes most likely arose by whole-genome duplication, that there is an evolutionary vector of opioid receptor type divergence in sequence and function, and that the hMOR gene shows evidence of positive selection or adaptive evolution in Homo sapiens. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: Orphanin FQ (OFQ/N) and its receptor, opioid receptor-like receptor-1 (ORL-1), are expressed throughout steroid-responsive limbic and hypothalamic circuits that regulate female ovarian hormone feedback and reproductive behavior circuits. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) is a brain region that expresses OFQ/N and ORL-1 important for both sexual behavior and modulating estradiol feedback loops. Within the ARH, the activation of the OFQ/N-ORL-1 system facilitates sexual receptivity (lordosis) through the inhibition of β-endorphin neuronal activity. Estradiol initially activates ARH β-endorphin neurons to inhibit lordosis. Simultaneously, estradiol upregulates coexpression of OFQ/N and progesterone receptors and ORL-1 in ARH β-endorphin neurons. Ovarian hormones regulate pre- and postsynaptic coupling of ORL-1 to its G protein-coupled signaling pathways. When the steroid-primed rat is nonreceptive, estradiol acts pre- and postsynaptically to decrease the ability of the OFQ/N-ORL-1 system to inhibit ARH β-endorphin neurotransmission. Conversely, when sexually receptive, ORL-1 signaling is restored to inhibit β-endorphin neurotransmission. Although steroid signaling that facilitates lordosis converges to deactivate ARH β-endorphin neurons, estradiol-only facilitation of lordosis requires the activation of ORL-1, but estradiol+progesterone does not, indicating that multiple circuits mediate ovarian hormone signaling to deactivate ARH β-endorphin neurons. Research on the role of OFQ/N-ORL-1 in ovarian hormone feedback loops is just beginning. In the rat, OFQ/N may act to terminate gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone release under positive and negative feedbacks. In the ewe, it appears to directly inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone release to mediate progesterone-negative feedback. As a whole, the localization and actions of OFQ/N-ORL-1 system indicate that it may mediate the actions of estradiol and progesterone to synchronize reproductive behavior and ovarian hormone feedback loops. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: The presence and effects of nociceptin (N/OFQ) and nocistatin (NST) in the central nervous system have been reasonably well described, but less data are available on their peripheral functions. Besides their presence in several peripheral organs (white blood cells, airway, liver, skin, vascular and intestinal smooth muscles, ovary, and testis), they have been found in the pregnant myometrium in both rat and human. The level of their precursor prepronociceptin is elevated in the preterm human myometrium as compared with full-term samples, whereas it gradually increases toward term in the pregnant rat uterus. Both N/OFQ and NST inhibit myometrial contractions, an effect which can be enhanced by naloxone and blocked by Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel (BKCa) inhibitors. Both compounds increase the myometrial cAMP level which may be responsible for the activation of this channel and subsequent intracellular hyperpolarization. NST releases calcitonin gene-related peptide from the sensory nerve ends, which explains its cAMP-elevating effect. In contrast with the nervous system, where they behave as antagonists, N/OFQ and NST are able to potentiate the uterine-relaxing effect of each other in both rat and human tissues. Further studies are required to clarify the roles of N/OFQ and NST in the regulation of the myometrial contractions and the perception of pain during delivery. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor NOP. Cells from the immune system express the precursor preproN/OFQ and the NOP receptor, as well as secrete N/OFQ. The activation of the N/OFQ-NOP pathway can regulate inflammatory and immune responses. Several immune activities, including leukocyte migration, cytokine and chemokine production, and lymphocytes proliferation are influenced by NOP activation. It was demonstrated that cytokines and other stimuli such as Toll-like receptor agonist (e.g., lipopolysaccharide) induce N/OFQ production by cells from innate and adaptive immune response. In this context, N/OFQ could modulate the outcome of inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis and immune-mediated pathologies by mechanisms not clearly elucidated. In fact, clinical studies revealed increased levels of N/OFQ under sepsis, arthritis, and Parkinson's disease. Preclinical and clinical studies pointed to the blockade of NOP receptor signaling as successful strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This review is focused on experimental and clinical data that suggest the participation of N/OFQ-NOP receptor activation in the modulation of the immune response, highlighting the immunomodulatory potential of NOP antagonists in the inflammatory and immunological disturbances.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones are critical for the normal development, growth, and functional maturation of several tissues, including the central nervous system. Iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones, the only iodine-containing molecules in vertebrates. Dietary iodide (I(-)) absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is the first step in I(-) metabolism, as the diet is the only source of I(-) for land-dwelling vertebrates. The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein located in the brush border of enterocytes, constitutes a central component of the I(-) absorption system in the small intestine. In this chapter, we review the most recent research on structure/function relations in NIS and the protein's I(-) transport mechanism and stoichiometry, with a special focus on the tissue distribution and hormonal regulation of NIS, as well as the role of NIS in mediating I(-) homeostasis. We further discuss recent findings concerning the autoregulatory effect of I(-) on I(-) metabolism in enterocytes: high intracellular I(-) concentrations in enterocytes decrease NIS-mediated uptake of I(-) through a complex array of posttranscriptional mechanisms, e.g., downregulation of NIS expression at the plasma membrane, increased NIS protein degradation, and reduction of NIS mRNA stability leading to decreased NIS mRNA levels. Since the molecular identification of NIS, great progress has been made not only in understanding the role of NIS in I(-) homeostasis but also in developing protocols for NIS-mediated imaging and treatment of various diseases. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decades, a large number of neuropeptides with unknown functions have been identified in the brain. Among the newly discovered peptides, nociceptin or orphanin-FQ (N/OFQ) peptide has attracted considerable attention because of its sequence homology with the opioid peptide family. N/OFQ and its cognate receptor (NOP receptor) are distributed widely in the mammalian central nervous system, though particularly intense expression is found in corticolimbic structures. Such distinctive pattern of expression suggests a key role of N/OFQ system in higher brain functions, such as cognition and emotion. In this chapter, we will outline the findings supporting the role played by N/OFQ and NOP receptors in learning and memory and discuss the underlying mechanisms. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D has long been synonymous with bone health. More recently, new health benefits are continually being associated with vitamin D, including a burgeoning field on neuroprotective properties. This has generated a huge explosion of interest in recent years in the potential for vitamin D to be used not only as a therapeutic in neurodegenerative disease, including Parkinson's disease, but also as biomarkers and for risk association.With an emphasis on Parkinson's disease, this chapter will discuss recent evidence supporting the assertion that vitamin D can be a useful therapeutic agent used as an intervention therapy to be combined with existing treatments; and the case for further development of novel treatments utilizing the potential of vitamin D.In addition, we present novel, previously unpublished evidence showing that in a unilateral model of Parkinson's disease, vitamin D can not only reduce the extent of denervation, but that this is also reflected in functional benefit to the animals.The potential of vitamin D is slowly being realized; in the future, it will be widely associated with far more than just bone health and may even contribute to an elusive treatment of neurodegenerative illness.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the early 1970s, it has been widely accepted that this metabolite is responsible for the biological actions of vitamin D. Likewise, we have assumed that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3-dependent growth inhibition of human prostate PZ-HPV-7 cells was the result of its subsequent conversion to 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3, catalyzed by CYP27B1 within the prostate cells. However, further in vitro studies in a reconstituted system using recombinant CYP27B1 revealed that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 was hardly converted to 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3 by the enzyme. The kinetic analysis of 1α-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 demonstrated that the k cat/K m for 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 is less than 0.1% of that for 25(OH)D3. When 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 was added to cultured PZ-HPV-7 cells, eight metabolites were detected, while no 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3 was found. In addition, the time course of VDR translocation into the nucleus induced by 100nM 25(OH)-19-nor-D3, and the subsequent transactivation of CYP24A1 gene were almost identical to those induced by 1nM 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3. These results strongly suggest that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 binds directly to VDR as a ligand to transport VDR into the nucleus to induce CYP24A1 gene transactivation. Furthermore, knockdown of CYP27B1 gene did not affect the antiproliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D3, whereas VDR knockdown attenuated the effect, suggesting that the antiproliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 is VDR dependent but CYP27B1 independent. Finally, our recent studies using the same cell line demonstrate that 25(OH)D3 can act as a VDR agonist to induce gene transactivation. These findings suggest that vitamin D analogs without 1α-hydroxyl group could be developed as drugs for osteoporosis or cancer treatment.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its derivatives act as selective modulators of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), although their structures fundamentally differ from that of the natural hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). The complexes of the ligand-binding domain of rat VDR (VDR-LBD) with LCA and its derivatives revealed that the ligands bound to the same ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of VDR-LBD that 1,25(OH)2D3 binds to, but in the opposite orientation; their A-ring was positioned at the top of the LBP, whereas their acyclic tail was located at the bottom of the LBP. However, most of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions observed in the complex with 1,25(OH)2D3 were reproduced in the complexes with LCA and its derivatives. Additional interactions between VDR-LBD and the C-3 substituents of the A-ring were also observed in the complexes, probably related to the observed difference in the potency among the LCA-type ligands. Recently, zebrafish VDR has been reported to have the second LBP on the outside of the canonical LBP, although its physiological function is unclear.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Myelin, the lipid membrane that surrounds axons, is critical for the propagation of nervous impulses and axonal maintenance. The destruction of myelin or lack of myelin formation due to disease or injury causes severe motor and cognitive disability. Regeneration of myelin is theoretically possible but rarely happens. Myelin is synthesized as the plasma membrane of the oligodendrocyte in the central nervous system. During development, myelin and oligodendrocytes are generated from oligodendrocyte progenitors through a process modulated by extrinsic growth factors signaling to cell-intrinsic proteins. Among the key extrinsic factors are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), potent inhibitors of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin protein expression, likely serving to regulate myelination temporally and spatially. BMPs also promote astrocyte generation. Given the inhibitory role of BMP in oligodendrogliogenesis during development, the expression of BMP during demyelinating disease or injury was investigated, as was whether BMP upregulation could serve to prevent regeneration by both direct inhibition of myelination and increases in astrogliosis. BMPs, predominantly BMP4, were increased in animal models of spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and perinatal white matter injury. A number of studies inhibited BMP signaling by infusing the injury site with the BMP-specific inhibitor noggin or transplanting stem cells engineered to secrete noggin. In most cases, noggin increased the numbers of mature oligodendrocytes and decreased numbers of astrocytes. Some studies also showed functional improvement. BMP is one of several inhibitory growth factors that now appear to inhibit myelin regeneration. Common downstream mechanisms among these factors are likely to be identified. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Vitamins & Hormones