Archivos de investigación médica (Arch Invest Med)

Publisher: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

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Other titles Archivos de investigación médica
ISSN 0066-6769
OCLC 2769382
Material type Government publication, National government publication, Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historical data concerning the use of cocaine, its epidemiology, chemistry and pharmacology, as well as its medical complications and treatment, in both acute intoxication and chronic addiction is reported. Its repercussion and damage upon the nervous system with neurologic and psychiatric alterations is also reported. The frequency of cerebral hemorrhages and myocardial, and other visceral infarctions due to vascular lesions are discussed. Various pulmonary lesions produced by the different routes used and the multiple obstetric problems during pregnancy, such as abnormal labour with products showing cerebral damage and teratogenic lesions due to the use of cocaine are presented. Finally, the present prophylactic campaigns against the use of cocaine and other drugs are mentioned.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium sp was searched prospectively by means of the Ziehl-Nielsen acid fast staining of stools in 403 samples obtained from patients with diarrhea (n =/152) or other non-gastrointestinal diseases (n =/152) in a six month period. Cryptosporidium was present in 11/304 samples (3.6%), 9 (81%) were taken from patients with diarrhea. Oocysts were detected in 5% of stools form malnourished (II or III) children with diarrhea; 10/11 (91%) with positive-cryptosporidium stools occurred in children less than one year of age. Cryptosporidium was present with increased frequency in malnourished children with diarrhea (p < 0.05).
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: An eleven year old boy was referred because of sudden loss of consciousness, muscular weakness, poor general health, severe hypoglycemia with seizures and hepatomegaly. Response to oral glucose and galactose increased blood lactic acid and glucose at different times. Fasting values of blood lactic was normal, but glucose was found at 33 mg/dl. Similar test made up two hours after feeding revealed hyperlactatemia (35-50 mg/dL) and hyperglycemia (129 mg/dL). Glucagon did not result in a rise of glucose at fasting or feeding. Hepatic glycogen content was found 15 gm/100 mg of tissue. The enzyme activities revealed a deficiency of the liver debranching enzyme while leukocytes had normal enzyme activity. Hepatic biopsy showed liver fibrosis. The present case had the clinical characteristics of severe form of glycogen storage disease. A low carbohydrate and high protein diet was indicated in order to increase the gluconeogenic precursors. Although debranching enzyme deficiency is almost always benign a high carbohydrate diet induced a more severe expression of the disease.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were distributed at random in a factorial design 2 x 2, with two age groups (20 and 90 days old), and two treatments (chronically exposed to toluene vapors 30,000-40,000 ppm in air/15 minutes per day for 30 days, and controls with only air). Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, the rats were tested for conditioned behavior in a "T" maze of avoidance electric shock. Latency of initial response to escape (LIRE) and latency of escape (LE) were measured in seconds. Adult rats both exposed to chronic toluene inhalation and non-exposed showed higher values of LIRE and LE with respect young rats. Animals exposed to chronic toluene inhalation also presented higher values of latency in both LIRE and LE when compared to non-exposed to toluene (controls) of the same age. The differences were evaluated by Friedman's test. The findings are suggestive of brain dysfunction associated with chronic toluene inhalation, and may represent a delay to respond to a displeasure stimulus probably due to defect of internal mechanisms of facilitation-inhibition of neural impulses, mediated by neurotransmitters.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The technique used by our group for the extraction of the canine autoperfused heart-lung block is described. This was used in 30 dogs, having a success rate of 24 total extractions and function times from 30 minutes to 13 hours." The complications observed were: arterial rupture upon cannulation, aortic rupture upon binding, ventricular fibrillation before completing extraction, and bleeding of the block with subsequent emptying of the reservoir. It is concluded that the technique described is adequate for the extraction of the canine block, although it is still necessary to know better its hemodynamic, biochemical and respiratory behavior.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic control of the type I diabetic patients seen from 1984 to 1988. We analyzed the results of HbA1, height velocity and weight gain. Results showed that from 1984 1985 a 90% of diabetics were in poor metabolic control with HbA1 > 11% (good control < 11%). For 1988 the percentage of poor controlled patients descended to 78%. On the other hand, these patients observed a significant decrease in height velocity and weight gain compared with diabetics with HbA1 < 11% (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001). In addition, diabetics in poor metabolic control were under 10 and 3 number percentiles of the weight and growth diagrams. Finally, we found a significant correlation between HbA1 and height velocity as well as HbA1 and weight gain (r = -0.77 and r = -0.79; p < 0.001 for both). Our results showed that a great percent of our patients were in poor metabolic control with a decreased height velocity and weight gain.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica

  • No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The acidified fetal bovine serum (FBS) produces a factor which inhibits the adipose differentiation of murine fibroblasts 3T3-F442A. In this work, we studied if the inhibitory factor (IF) has any effect on the proliferation of 3T3-F442A cells. Our data showed an increment in the number of cells cultured in the presence of IF. We do not know how the IF maintains the cell proliferation. Furthermore, we investigated if IF acts on the resting state (Go) of the 3T3-F442A. We found that the IF prevented the adipose differentiation in the state (Go), this data suggests that the 3T3-F442A in this state (Go) were not yet compromised to difference to adipocytes. We also showed that bovine serum (BS) had an inhibitory activity too, but this was lower than FBS. This report suggests that the IF may play a role during the development of the adipose tissue.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: An inverse relationship has been found between high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the incidence of coronary disease. A controversy exists in the international literature as to which sub-fraction, HDL2-C or DHL-C, rises after ethanol ingestion. This paper studies a comparison of the levels of circulating cholesterol, HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL3-C in two groups: a control group of 44 healthy subjects who had no ethanol in over a year, and a second one made up off 40 chronic alcoholics, who consumed between 80 and 160 gr. of ethanol per day. The alcoholic population showed lower levels of cholesterol and higher levels of HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL3-C. When compared with the control group, the increase was in alcoholics 58% for HDL2-C and 29% for HDL3-C. An analysis of the different age groups shows an increase of 110% in HDL2-C, in alcoholics between ages 31 and 40, as compared with their control group. An increase of 81% occurred between ages 51 and 60, but rarely rose 20% between ages 21 and 30, as well as between 51 and 60. The maximum rise of HDL3-C in drinkers, related to their control group, was 38% during the fourth decade of life. The conclusion is that the HDL2-C subfraction rises in chronic alcoholics, and the changes in other HDL-C subfractions are more useful when they are placed at the different individual's decades of age, than when taken from complete population samples.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: A nosocomial infection outbreak occurred in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP) in México City, during the months of March, April and May in 1988 Serratia marcescens was isolated as the etiological agent for this epidemic. Up to date, the source of contamination, the spreading and the pathogenic mechanisms which were involved in this outbreak remain unknown. In order to study the dynamics of the bacterial population involved in this outbreak, all strains of nosocomial S. marcescens isolated during 1988 were collected and studied. Eighty nosocomial strains were analysed. For this purpose we used four different markers: antibiotic susceptibility, presence of plasmids, exoenzyme production and pigment synthesis from a precursor. Using these markers, we were able to establish that five subpopulations of bacteria were present during the ICU outbreak, and that one of these subpopulations, VIII-A, was the most frequently isolated. A short time after this outbreak, we obtained S. marcescens isolates with similar properties which proceeded from other hospital units, suggesting intrahospital dissemination of the strain in question. We believe that, eventually, this study will allow us to establish bacterial spreading models within our institution.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The erythrocyte (Ca2+,Mg2+)-ATPase activity from 12 hypertensive and 14 normotensive subjects have been compared. No differences were found in the calcium-ATPase activity from both studied groups. When the calcium-ATPase assay was carried out in the presence of EGTA, we observed a partial stimulatory effect of the activity, but a blunted stimulation by calmodulin in both membrane preparations. When the EGTA was removed and a total concentration of calcium (100 uM) was kept constant in the incubation media, calmodulin stimulated the ATPase four fold over the non stimulated conditions in both studied groups. It is concluded that the use of EGTA buffers in the assay of the calcium-ATPase in the erythrocyte membrane of normotensive and hypertensive patients, must be used with caution, since a different enzyme sensitive to EGTA in the normotensive and the hypertensive membranes could give an erroneous interpretation of the results. This condition could partially explain the controversies in recent reports investigating the (Ca2+,Mg2+)-ATPase activity and calcium transport in different cell systems isolated from hypertensive patients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: Probes pRepHind, Rep20, p242B1-1, pPF-14, clone 26 and 34 were compared for their applicability to detect P. falciparum in field conditions. Ninety four clinical samples from patients living in the malaria endemic area of Tumaco (Pacific Coast) plus 88 from Villavicencio (Eastern Plains) were tested in "dotblot" hybridization experiments. Probes Rep20, p242B1-1, pRepHind and pPF-14 detected up to 17 pg of purified P. falciparum DNA, while clone 26 and clone 34 detected up to 425 pg DNA. Probes pPF-14, P242B1-1, pRepHind and Rep 20 exhibited comparable detection levels of parasites in infected blood samples. Sensitivity declined from 69-94% in subjects with parasitemias higher than 10.000 par./ul to 15-42% in subjects with parasitemias lower than 100 par./ul. pPF-14 and p24B1-1 showed the highest sensitivity, while clone 26 and 34 presented significantly lower sensitivities. All probes were shown to be highly specific. Detection levels are dependent on specimen treatment. Treatment consisting of serum removal, Triton X-100 lysis, Proteinase K digestion, Phenol and Chloroform extractions followed by Ethanol precipitation yielded 100% sensitivity for specimens with parasite density higher than 1,000 par./l.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that strains of Escherichia coli producing Vero-Toxin (VTEC) may cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis; however, there are not enough studies to support this hypothesis. We studied the frequency of isolation of VTEC strains in patients with acute diarrhea from rural and urban communities. A total of 1430 strains were analyzed, 361 coming from 118 patients from the rural community (Cadereyta, Qro.) and 1069 from the urban district (D.F.); 95 of these patients were asymptomatic, 213 suffered from watery diarrhea and 43 had bloody diarrhea. For production of toxins, strains were grown in tryptic soy broth for 24h and the culture supernatant was inoculated on HeLa cells; strains were considered cytotoxic when they caused lysis in at least 50% of the cells. In the rural community, VTEC strains were isolated in 20% of the asymptomatics, in 45% of the watery diarrhea patients and in 76% of patients with bloody diarrhea. Frequency of isolation was significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatics (P less than 0.05). The relative risk to present watery diarrhea was 3 and to present bloody diarrhea was 12. In the urban district, VTEC strains were isolated in 13, 7.9 and 4.5% from asymptomatics, watery diarrhea and bloody diarrhea patients, respectively; the relative risk for diarrhea was 1. Colonization by VTEC strains is significantly higher in patients from the rural community and these infected patients have an important risk to develop diarrhea.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which Clostridium difficile causes diarrhoea are unknown. The expression of putative virulence factors by 44 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with and without diarrhoea was studied. Toxins A and B were tested in CHO and MRC-5 cells, respectively; adherence was measured in two substrates: HEp-2 cells and polystyrene plates. The in vitro expression of toxins A and B by strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea was not significantly different from that by strains isolated from patients without diarrhoea. The ability of adherence to both HEp-2 cells and polystyrene by strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea was not significantly different when compared with strains isolated from patients without diarrhoea; however, strains isolated from adults with diarrhoea seem to adhere to a greater extent to both substrates than strains isolated from adults without diarrhoea. Twenty three strains which did not produce toxins A and B were tested for enterotoxicity in rat small intestine. Eight such strains induced fluid accumulation and seven of them were isolated from children. Adherence to cells and to polystyrene might be an important virulence factor in strains causing diarrhoea in adults; whereas the production of toxins other than A and B might be an important pathogenic mechanism in strains causing diarrhoea in children.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of testicular descent in the Sprague-Dawley rat from day 14 of gestation to newborn was studied; the purpose was to analyse the anatomy and related observations made with light and scanning microscopy. Adult female rats were mated during estrus. The presence of spermatozoa in vaginal smears was taken to indicate day 0 of gestation. Animals were kept in a controlled 12-hour light-darkness cycle; food and water were provided ad libitum. At day 14 genital ducts are similar in both sexes. At day 15 and 16 the gubernaculum testis is seen as a mesenchymal cord that extends from mesonephros to the pelvic floor. At day 17 near the enlarged caudal end of gubernaculum, evagination of the abdominal cavity begins forming the peritoneo-vaginal process. The testis ligament as well as the gubernaculum testis attaching to the epididymis at different locations have no direct relation between themselves as such. During day 18, testis rotates on its own longitudinal axis in a ventral-lateral direction. This movement twists the testis ligament, the epididymis and deferent duct lengthen and these structures are lined up in the direction of the peritoneo-vaginal process. The testis is generally situated in the newborn, on or near the internal ring. The gubernaculum testis is attached to the epididymis but does not exercise traction on the testis. The epididymis is a factor in this descending process.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: 3T3 are murine cells of an established heteroploid cellular line. Some clones of this cellular line, when cultured under adequate conditions differentiate into adipocytes. During the process of differentiation, the cells undergo a change from the elongated fibroblastic shape to a round or oval form and accumulate small drops of lipids within their cytoplasma. These lipid drops fuse into one large drop which displaces the nucleus towards the periphery, giving the cell the aspect of a mature adipocyte of white adipose tissue. The cells not only change their morphology, but they also present important biochemical changes. They show a simultaneous increase in triglyceride synthesis and activity of lipogenic enzymes. There is also an increase in the response of the activity of various hormones and the de novo synthesis of the receptors to such hormones, as insulin and ACTH. During the process of differentiation important changes occur in the synthesis of various proteins, such as actin, tubulin, and other proteins which also make up the cellular cytoskeleton, forming part of the lipid transportation within the adipose cell. The adipocytic differentiation of 3T3 cells depends on adipogenic serum factors used in the supplementary culture medium. These adipogenic factors seem to play an important role in the development of adipose tissue. There are hormones, chemical agents and serum factors which modulate adipocytic differentiation. The clone must be susceptible to adipocytic differentiation, it must reach a quiescent state and find itself in adipogenic conditions for the 3T3 cells to differentiate into adipocytes. It must also carry out an DNA synthesis which is an expression of the new phenotype. The differentiation of 3T3 cells in terminal. The fact that these cells present an adipocytic conversion under physiologic conditions and with adipogenic hormones which exist in the whole animal has been demonstrated. All of these characteristics show that the 3T3 cells may be used as an adequate experimental system to analyze the events which occur during the differentiation and development of adipose tissue.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: Specific or non-specific noxious agents induce several disorders in body systems. In the following series some of those agents are associated with disturbances in the pituitary-testis-axis. Testicular responses which represent an adaptive mechanism to the stress may be associated with various syndromes of unexplained infertility.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica
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    ABSTRACT: Serum glucose, serum immunoreactive insulin and sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in eighteen male patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and seven male healthy controls. The findings were correlated with the presence or absence of inflammatory activity of the disease. Fourteen patients had active AS with ESR of 47.0 +/- 27.7 mm; they had increased insulin levels measured as area under curve (AUC) of a glucose tolerance test 107.4 +/- 44.1 cm2 vs controls 40.8 +/- 12.6 cm2 (p less than 0.03). In 4 patients with clinically inactive AS and with ESR of 17.0 +/- 4.0 mm the insulin levels as the AUC were 83.2 +/- 38.0 cm2 vs controls (p = ns). In the whole group there was a direct correlation between ESR and serum immunoreactive insulin levels (r = 0.47 p less than 0.05). Our study suggests that AS may be associated with hyperinsulinism, whose role in the physiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Archivos de investigación médica