Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)

Publisher: Türk Tarih Kurumu

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Published every four months.

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Website Türk Tarih Kurumu Belleten / Bulletin Turkish Historical Society website
Other titles Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
ISSN 0041-4255
OCLC 1767827
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Penal servitude on the galleys (kürek), easily can be found in Official Registers (Mühimme Defterleri), is a kind of discretionary, corrective (ta'zîr) punishment.Under this study it is asserted that this punishment is also a featured imprisonment (hapis). Venal servitude on the galleys was imposed in principle as a substantive penal (asli ceza) and rarely as a complementary (tekmilî) and substitute (bedelî) one. This punishment was both a corporal penalty and restrictive of freedom. Aforementioned punishment was more severe than most of others. Even it was the most severe one, with the exception of death penalty. In principle, this punishment was legal and applied to everyone regardless of the religion and administrative function with the exception of women and slaves. In old Ottoman, persons were sentenced to penal servitude on the galleys in accordance with the principle of individual responsibility. On the other hand some decrees show that personal surety (kefil) could be sent to a galley instead of the convict when the guilty could not have been arrested. Kürek punishment was carried out in accordance with the utilitarian theory. The second aim of this punishment was to warn the others. Due to the severity level of this penalty, it was sentenced by only the order of Sultan (Padishah) (emr-i şerîf) or Imperial Divan (Divân-i Hümayûn). Padishah was the only one with the authority to release the convict. The attained experience from the kürek punishment in Old Ottoman was that the governments could force the convicts to work in a public service.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: Since its establishment, the Ottoman Empire has met with many states and has entered military, political, commercial and diplomatic relations with these. One of the major competitors of this state which had defined its conquest policy in the Western direction was Russia. The Ottoman, which was experiencing the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the XV Century when first relations between the two states started, The Ottoman were took precedence of Russia in every respect. The Ottoman, protecting this domination in the XVI. and XVII. centuries and reflecting this success with wars and treaties it entered to, started to lose its old power and authority in the XVIII. century. With this study, we analyzed the relation of these two states in the Sultan I. Mahmud (1730-1754) period within the framework of the 1736-1739 Ottoman- Russian wars. Compared to the previous periods, the Ottoman Empire had started to undergo a significant recovery process during this period. At the beginning of the sovereignty of Sultan I Mahmud, the war which at the beginning was continuing with the Iran, turned into a triple war with the Ottoman- Russian wars in which Russia was attacking the Azov and Crimea and the Alliance of Austria with the Russians. In these wars starting in 1736, the Ottoman Empire could prevail against these two states thanks to the successful policies of Sultan I Mahmud and has succeed to make both countries separately sign the Treaty of Belgrade which has been the last lucrative convention of the Ottoman history. Significant benefits and dominance had been obtained with this treaty against the Russians and this was also the foundation of a long period of peace between both sides which lasted 29 years.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: Before modern times, the Ottoman Empire accepted Orthodox Christianity and Judaism as well as Islam as the official religions which should be preserved and protected. Within this framework, all necessary regulations so as to make these religions and their places of worship to continue their existence. One of these regulations is the foundations. However, despite the advanced organization of the Muslim foundations in which every detail was shaped, the Orthodox foundations never experienced such an organization. Abbey estates had a quite complicated legal base. Although the property of the abbeys is an acceptable and practical reality, the existence and management diagrams of the foundations had an unclear structure. As in the Balkans, it is possible to divide the abbey foundations in Rethymno into two in terms of establishment. First one is the former foundations which were comprised of the properties locked up in abbeys during the period of Venice and inherited from the successor. The second was the new foundations established in accordance with the Islamic law, for which the Orthodox reaya devote their goods to the monasteries and have Kadi courts approve this procedure. Some part of the foundation lands of the abbey was run by the monks, some part was run by a partnership with other person and some part was run by leasing to the free peasants.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: As the Velayatname, Haci Bektash Veli had never been married and his generation didn't grow up, but there are some claims about this which his descent continued, these claims is either he is married or he had a child by bleeding of his noise while he was performing ablution (abdest), Kadincik Ana got pregnant from his blood so Haci Bektash Veli's descent had been growing up. And there are also other tales which means that Haci Bektash Veil wasn't married infact He wasn't interested in anything except Allah. The researchments pointed out that the Celebi were the legal inheritance of Haci Bektash Veli in the second half of 15th century. Ottomans had also accepted these social belief and approved it. at the end of 16th century the population of the Celebi was 15 persons and at the end of 18th century while it was 13 persons these population raised up to 14 houses between 1896 and 1899 (average 70 persons). In temettuat census in 1840, which was made in Haci Bektash town. It is attentive situation that there were nobody who has title as "celebi" or Haci Bektash's child and these titles were neglected.It is fixed that total value of the goods, properties and areas of which the family members got from their anchestors was 334.500 kuru s between 1896 and 1899. While these areas weren't taxed till Tanzimat, the tax dispendation was over in Tanzimat and these are taxed as 1522 kuru s between 1863 and 1900. But the family members object to taxes and they wrote demandeur to the government offices not to be got the taxes from them as it is like before Tanzimat. At the end their struggle was achieved and in 1317 Rumi (Miladi 1901-1902). The government added some Money-to the budget for afford to taxes which would be taken from the Celebi but these taxes were taken them the other years again.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: The vaccine researches and production is not convenient level in Turkey in the context of science and technology. However, with its trained manpower, Turkey is expected to be in a better position in the World from the point of view of the vaccine researches and production considering developments in this field in the Late Ottoman Period. In this regard, 18th and 19th Centuries vaccine activities of the Ottoman Empire should be revealed. This essay is prepared in order to show this purpose. In this essay, smallpox vaccine and rabies vaccine activities in the Late Ottoman Period are explained briefly in the center of science and technology in comparison with the developments of Western science and technology. The topic is enriched with the prominent Turkish scientists in this area.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: Kitab-iMuntehabJi al-tibb ve Ala'im-i Cerrahin, which were considered as unique samples of the very first medical books in Turkish language, are two important manuscripts written and translated in Anatolia. While studies revealed that Kitab-i Muntehab Ji al-tibb of Abdiilvehhab bin Yusuf ibn-i Ahmed el-Mardani was written in 1420, one of the oldest copy of Surgeon Ibrahim'sAla'im-i Cerrahin bears the date of 1505. Although there was a significant time difference, it was realized that some parts were common in these works. Comparing and evaluation of these interesting findings determined in the mentioned manuscripts are the subject of this article.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: Akinci guild, which has an important place in the Ottoman vanguard, as well as guarding the border, had had valuable contributions in making ineffective the border forces of the enemy, in Turkification and Islamization of Rumelia, and therefore in the settlement process in those places. Alum registers are one of the most important sources about the guild. Up to the present, there is information about only three of these sources. Two of them (dated 1472 and 1560) are in National Library of Sofia, the other one (dated 1586) is in the Office of the Prime Minister Ottoman Archives in Istanbul. In this article, the third register, H.994/M. dated 1586 and kept in the catalogue of the Office of the Prime Minister Ottoman Archives Tapu Tahrir Defterleri numbered as 625 is analysed. The information given in the said register was questioned during the analysis and important information have been revealed concerning the Akinci guild. Thanks to the result of this analysis, as dwelling units of the Akinci soldiers in the Rumelian Sanjaks of Nigbolu, Silistre, Kirkkilise, Cirmen, Pasa (Sofya), Kostendil, Vidin and Uskub has been identified, important information related to the socio-economic lives (their names, occupations, where they came from, etc.) of the Akincis and important officials in the guild organization have been revealed, as well. In this respect, the article aims to contribute to the existing research conducted on the Akinci guild.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: A church-form gravestone has been found on the west side of the narthex of the Greek Church in Taşucu. This gravestone made of lime was registered to the Silifke Museum on December 27, 2005. Its facade bears a niche and an inscription and on the back there are three apses. The central apse is wider and higher than the other two. Via the inscription we learn that this gravestone was made for Eleutherios, son of Demetrios, who has passed away on December 16, 1891. Since the upper section of the gravestone was flattened it is hard to determine its roofing system. Stone objects with architectural forms like our example from Taşucu were frequently used in Caucasia between the seventh and seventeenth centuries. In the descriptions the model of the church was either held by the protector of the church or they were sometimes used as an acroterion at the front of the roof ridge; as a model of the church or as a reliquary. During the Early Christian-Byzantine period and later on in the Eastern and Western Christianity church-formed objects in cross-in-square plan; a basilical-plan or a dome were made of metal and have functioned as artophorions, censers, reliquary or as illuminating objects. Stone objects in church form with different functions seem to be made by the Armenians during the Early Christian-Byzantine Periods and later. Whereas after the Byzantine Period they must have been prepared by the Greeks in Anatolia. Similar gravestones which are at the north part of Anatolia; in the Trabzon Hagia Sophia and the garden of the Giresun Museum are worth mentioning. These examples bear a niche on the facade and one or three apses on their back sides. Their roofs are flat, saddle or hipped with arms in the form of Greek crosses. With dates and inscriptions written in Greek these gravestones must have been made at the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century and belonged to Greeks who lived in Anatolia. Besides the gravestone from Taşucu, there is yet another similar example in almost the same form cross-in-square plan at the Silifke Museum which was brought from Ulugoz Village and considered as a reliquary. The gravestone from Taşucu must have been at the grave of Eleutherios, mentioned in the inscription, probably within or in the vicinity of the church precinct. The gravestone must have been removed from its orijinal place and reused on the wall of the Greek Church dated to the second half of the 19th century. There are traces of plaster on it due to this final usage. It is hard to comment about the roofing of the gravestone yet taking into consideration the similar examples in Trabzon and Giresun we may conclude that it was either a flat or a saddle roof. This gravestone, situated at the Silifke Museum and belonging to Eleutherios, son of Demetrios, who died on December 16, 1891, differs from the various examples by domes or cross-in-square plan examples in Caucasia, by its frequently used basilical form and function in Anatolia during the 19th century Christian Architecture in the Ottoman Empire. Together with the Greek gravestones found in Trabzon and Giresun, the Taşucu tombstone can be counted as a variation introduced mainly by the Greeks.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: Today Polonezkoy (Adampol) is one of the most distinguished places of Beykoz. This article includes some interesting points on history of Polonezkoy and Poles who gave its name to Polonezkoy, and it aims to draw attention to and uncover some unknown matters of Polonezkoy's history. Lives and troubles of the Polish emigrants in the Ottoman Empire, problems with Ottoman administration, to what extent they were affected by international events are presented as fragments of Polonezkoy's history. Besides, some notes about guests of the memory house of ZofiaRyzy are included to the article to enrich the history of the village.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: The Second Constitutionalist Period is very different and vivid in terms of social, economic, political and military affairs. Reform attempts were made during the period in education field alongside with other fields. Following the foundation of the first civil modern education institutions by Sultan Mahmud II, Darulmuallimin (School of Teacher Training) was opened to train teachers for these institutions. With the establishment of the first "darulmuallimin" in 1848, pedagogical experiences were increased. The first years of the 1900s witnessed to important developments in terms of teacher training and pedagogy. Remarkable developments in terms of structural reforms and curriculums of the Darulmuallimin took place during The Second Constitutionalist Period. The course Usul-i Tedris (Teaching Methods) in the curriculum of Darulmuallimin was replaced with Fenn-i Terbiye (Educational Sciences) after The Second Constitutionalist Period. This change gave way to various problems. Besides, discipline issues taking place at education institutions of The Second Constitutionalist Period were different from the prior ones. The aim of this study is to analyze the place of Usul-i Tedris and Fenn-i Terbiye courses in the curriculum of Darulmuallimin; the application of Fenn-i Terbiye course during The Second Constitutionalist Period; professional and educational understanding of prospective teachers; the relationship between school administrators, teachers and students; the approach of the school administrators to the discipline issues and the change in discipline issues. The facts that the teachers and students of Darulmuallimin understood the importance of teaching and learning art; that students lacked some Usul-i Tedris; that the school administrators supported the teacher in a discipline issue; that the students protested the school all out and had the guts for this action; that the students were all expelled from the school and later excused to return to school were very interesting.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: The medieval Islamic written sources have detailed information on the Danubian Bulgar Khanate. On the other hand, both the chronological uncertainties and the multiplicity of the ethnonyms having assigned by the Muslim authors regarding that state, have prevented modern researchers from taking advantage of these sources. All of these ethnonyms were used for a specific period of the Danubian Bulgar Khanate. If these ethnonyms necessarily should be given in a chronological order, the first ethnonym is (Burdjan: from the beginnings of the 8th century until the middle of the 9th century). The second ethnonym is (Burghar, from the second quarter of the 9th century until the beginnings of the 10th century). The third ethnonyms are and variant of this (Bulghar ve Bulghari, the beginnings of the 10th century and the ends of the third quarter of the same century). The fourth ethnonyms are and variant of this (Bulgharu'd-dahil ve Bulghar-i Enderuni, the second and third quarters of the 10th century). And the last ethnonym is (Bulkar, from the beginnings 10th centruy until the third quarter of the same century).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: A continuous struggle took place between Ottoman sand Karamanids starting fromthe 14th mid-century up to theend of 15th century fort he throne of Anatolia which was in herited from the Seljuks. Ottomans who have great aims in thee a stused the method of surgun, which the yuse when it is necessary for political, strategical purposes and the issues related to publi corderand settlement, in that region as they faced with a great resistance in 1467 in the annexation process of that principality. Between the years 1467-1474, in four different times, from Konya Eregli, Larende and Aksaray an important part of thousands of families among which there were Christian Karamanid sand Armenians, were sent to Istanbul which was reconstructe dand resettled. The other families who have been exiled were settled to Havsa and Edirne in Rumeli and Thrace, to Thessaloniki and Thessaly in Greece and to Albania, Serbia and Bosnia. Ottomans destroyed there gion during the seexiles but during his Karaman governorship Cem Sultan reconstructe despecially Larende thus end eared him self in there gion.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study, to investigate the actions of Ahmed Pasha el-Cezzar during his governorship in Sidon according to a report in the Topkapi Palace Museum Archives registered with the number E 4029. However, the report was written is not exactly known when and by whom, it is clear that the author assigned by Dersaadet. In this case the takrir corresponds to Jurnal. Although jurnalls has generally negative character, it is seems that this time the author of the takrir/jurnal wrote kindly about Ahmad Pasa el-Cezzar. This favourable declaration brings to mind two possibility: Either the author really believed activities of Cezzar during his governorship of Sidon was for the benefit of Devlet-i Aliyye or obtained (bought him off) by Pasha. In any case the document, on the other hand, is valuable in that it provides detailed information about how it works administrative and military organization and the social structure of the state of Sidon during Pasha's rule. But in order to analyze of a particular and conjunctural document would be able to in a more extensive and comprehensive historical frame, it is necessary for expression of power relations based on Egyp and Syria, Cezzar Ahmad Pasa, resulting in the emergence of a dominant political figure. In addition, Egypt and Syria regions were an area concentrated in the questions and doubts for the center of Empire too and that was the motive behind such a report about Ahmad Pasha el-Cezzar. Thus, the events in Egypt and Syria line in the 18th Century will be examined within the center-periphery relations, patronage networks affecting these relations and Arab sociology.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: London Conference in 1921 was inaugurated in order to make some amendments on the Treaty of Sevres so that it could be put into effect and mutually applied. Although a committee as a single body consisted of both Ankara and Istanbul governments was expected to be present, Ankara Government managed to independently attend to the conference in addition to the Istanbul Government's. One of the main problematic on the topic was whether Tevfik Pasha, head of the committee of the Istanbul Government, left the ground to the committee of Ankara and cooperated with it or not. This study focuses on the details of the conference and speech undertaken by both of the committees at the meeting. It can be observed at the archival and published sources that both of the committees had cooperated with each other and were consistent with the arguments asserted at the conference. By this way, coherent attitude of both committees caused Allied Powers to be in conflict with each other and gave positive results in the cause of National Struggle.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: The article starts with some essential information related to the circumstances of the decision to send the Ottoman 15th Corps to the Eastern Galician front as well as to the preparations before the redeployment and the journey up to the frontline. Then a relatively detailed account of fights is given. The author draws attention to the heavy losses suffered by the Ottoman troops within the first few weeks of their fights in Galicia and stresses that the first commander of the 15th Corps Colonel Yakup Sevki beard the full responsibility for this situation. While summing up the one-year long period of the Ottoman presence on this European front the author points out that it was, and still can be perceived by the Polish nation as a symbolic fulfillment of the words said by the 18th century Ukrainian prophet Wernyhora (Poland would be reborn when Turkish horse drink in the Vistula River). The author gives some information on the establishment of the Turkish Studies Department at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland in 1919 too, which was a direct result of contacts of the Polish orientalist prof. Tadeusz Kowalski with the wounded Ottoman soldiers. The article ends with some facts on the burials of the 15th Corps soldiers in Krakow.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: There are several sources that provide information about family life in Cyprus during the Ottoman period. In bi-communal (Muslim & non-Muslim) countries like Cyprus, family life displays variations. Despite taking place rarely, there had been bi-communal marriages allowed under Muslim law at the time. Although there are not many marriages being recorded in the Ottoman registers, there are records of divorces. During the 18th century, there were three types of divorces (talak, muhalaa and tefrik), muhalaa (negotiated divorce)being the most popular one during the first half of the century. In certain negotiated divorces, it was common knowledge recorded in the registers that women had compensated men under bedel-i hul'(khul)to persuade them to get a divorce. Irretrievable breakdown of marriage was the main reason for divorce in court. One of the reasons why some of the divorces became court cases was because of mehr-i mueccel disagreement. When the divorce was finalised, mothers would generally take the children and fathers had to pay nafaka and kisve baha to help support the children. When Nicosia registers are analysed, it is possible to say that there is more information on the cases of divorce recorded during the 18th century when compared to other periods; some of which took place between non-Muslim couples. Such registers provide a great deal of important information to do with Cypriot family life at the time.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of a study of fortified settlements of the first half of the 1st millennium AD in Altai. It established that all the settlements of this period are located in the northern part of the region. In total there are seven fortified settlements. The article describes their topographical location and aspects of their location. At two of the sites limited excavations were made of part of the fortifications. At both of these the work established the existence of two rows of ramparts and ditches associated with deeper shafts constructed using clay, earth and wood, and a clay matrix. The fortifications share characteristics indicating that local building traditions were followed in their construction. At one site the excavation of a shaft revealed the ritual burial of a sheep. The other settlements were examined by means of test pits. Sherds of pottery were found at all the settlements, along with fragments of animal bones and bone artifacts. The cumulative evidence suggests that most if not all of these fortifications were built in a short period of time in a tense military and political situation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu)